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  • 1.
    Anderson, Tony
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Suska, Anke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Therese
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Frog melanophores cultured on fluorescent microbeads: Biomimic-based biosensing2005In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melanophores are pigmented cells in lower vertebrates capable of quick color changes and thereby suitable as whole cell biosensors. In the frog dermis skin layer, the large and dark pigmented melanophore surrounds a core of other pigmented cells. Upon hormonal stimulation the black-brown pigment organelles will redistribute within the melanophore, and thereby cover or uncover the core, making complex color changes possible in the dermis. Previously, melanophores have only been cultured on flat surfaces. Here we mimic the three dimensional biological geometry in the frog dermis by culturing melanophores on fluorescent plastic microbeads. To demonstrate biosensing we use the hormones melatonin and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) as lightening or darkening stimuli, respectively. Cellular responses were successfully demonstrated on single cell level by fluorescence microscopy, and in cell suspension by a fluorescence microplate reader and a previously demonstrated computer screen photo-assisted technique. The demonstrated principle is the first step towards "single well/multiple read-out" biosensor arrays based on suspensions of different selective-responding melanophores, each cultured on microbeads with distinctive spectral characteristics. By applying small amount of a clinical sample, or a candidate substance in early drug screening, to a single well containing combinations of melanophores on beads, multiple parameter read-outs will be possible. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Organelle movement in melanophores: Effects of Panax ginseng, ginsenosides and quercetin2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Panax ginseng is a traditional herb that has been used for over 2000 years to promote health and longevity. Active components of ginseng include ginsenosides, polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, peptides, vitamins, phenols and enzymes, of which the ginsenosides are considered to be the major bioactive constituents. Although widely used, the exact mechanisms of ginseng and its compounds remain unclear. In this thesis we use melanophores from Xenopus laevis to investigate the effects of Panax ginseng extract G115 and its constituents on organelle transport and signalling. Due to coordinated bidirectional movement of their pigmented granules (melanosomes), in response to defined chemical signals, melanophores are capable of fast colour changes and provide a great model for the study of intracellular transport. The movement is regulated by alterations in cyclic adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration, where a high or low level induce anterograde (dispersion) or retrograde (aggregation) transport respectively, resulting in a dark or light cell. Here we demonstrate that Panax ginseng and its constituents ginsenoside Rc and Rd and flavonoid quercetin induce a concentration-dependent anterograde transport of melanosomes. The effect of ginseng is shown to be independent of cAMP changes and protein kinase A activation. Upon incubation of melanophores with a combination of Rc or Rd and quercetin, a synergistic increase in anterograde movement was seen, indicating cooperation between the ginsenoside and flavonoid parts of ginseng. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Myristoylated EGF-R Fragment 651-658 decreased the anterograde movement stimulated by ginseng and ginsenoside Rc and Rd. Moreover, ginseng, but not ginsenosides or quercetin, stimulated an activation of 44/42-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), previously shown to be involved in both aggregation and dispersion of melanosomes. PKC-inhibition did not affect the MAPK-activation, suggesting a role for PKC in the ginseng- and ginsenoside-induced dispersion but not as an upstream activator of MAPK.

    List of papers
    1. Panax ginseng induces anterograde transport of pigment organelles in Xenopus melanophores
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Panax ginseng induces anterograde transport of pigment organelles in Xenopus melanophores
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Melanophores from Xenopus laevis are pigmented cells, capable of quick colour changes through cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) coordinated transport of their intracellular pigment granules, melanosomes. In this study we use the melanophore cell line to evaluate the effects of Panax ginseng extract G115 on organelle transport. Absorbance readings of melanophore-coated microplates, Correlate-EIA direct cAMP enzyme immunoassay kit, and western blot were used to measure the melanosome movement and changes in intracellular signalling. We show that Panax ginseng induces a fast concentration-dependent anterograde transport of the melanosomes. No significant increase in the cAMP level was seen and pre-incubation of melanophores with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor EGF-R Fragment 651-658 (M-EGF) only partly decreased the ginseng-induced dispersion. We also demonstrate that Panax ginseng, endothelin-3 (ET-3) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) stimulate an activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Pre-incubation with M-EGF decreased the MAPK activity induced by ET-3 and MSH, but again only marginally affected the response of Panax ginseng. Thus, in melanophores we suggest that Panax ginseng stimulates an anterograde transport of pigment organelles via a non-cAMP and mainly PKC-independent pathway.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2008
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19968 (URN)10.1016/j.jep.2008.05.024 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-08-21 Created: 2009-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Role of ginsenosides and quercetin in anterograde transport of melanosomes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of ginsenosides and quercetin in anterograde transport of melanosomes
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Panax ginseng is a traditional herb that has been used in the Orient for several thousands of years as a tonic and restorative. Active components of ginseng include ginsenosides, polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, peptides, vitamins, phenols and enzymes, of which the ginsenosides are considered to be the major bioactive constituents. In spite of extensive use, the exact mechanisms of ginseng and its components are still unknown. In the present study we use melanophores from Xenopus laevis to investigate the effects of Panax ginseng extract G115, ginsenosides and the flavonoid quercetin on pigment organelle transport and signalling. Through coordinated transport of their black pigmented granules (melanosomes), melanophores are capable of fast colour changes. The movement is regulated by changes in cyclic adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration, where a high or low level induce anterograde (dispersion) or retrograde (aggregation) transport respectively, leaving a dark or light cell. Previously we have shown that Panax ginseng induces dispersion of melanosomes. Here, ginsenoside Rc and Rd and the flavonoid quercetin are shown to stimulate an anterograde transport of pigment organelles. When Rc or Rd and quercetin were combined, a significant synergistic increase in dispersion could be seen. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Myristoylated EGF-R Fragment (651-658) (M-EGF) decreased the anterograde movement stimulated by ginseng and ginsenoside Rc and Rd. We also demonstrate that ginseng, but not ginsenosides or quercetin, induce a concentration-dependent activation of 44/42-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). PKC-inhibition did not affect the MAPK-activation, suggesting a role for PKC in the ginseng- and ginsenoside-induced anterograde transport but not in the activation of MAPK.

    Keywords
    melanophore, pigment organelle transport, Panax ginseng, ginsenosides, quercetin, PKC, MAPK
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19970 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-08-21 Created: 2009-08-21 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Role of ginsenosides and quercetin in anterograde transport of melanosomesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Panax ginseng is a traditional herb that has been used in the Orient for several thousands of years as a tonic and restorative. Active components of ginseng include ginsenosides, polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, peptides, vitamins, phenols and enzymes, of which the ginsenosides are considered to be the major bioactive constituents. In spite of extensive use, the exact mechanisms of ginseng and its components are still unknown. In the present study we use melanophores from Xenopus laevis to investigate the effects of Panax ginseng extract G115, ginsenosides and the flavonoid quercetin on pigment organelle transport and signalling. Through coordinated transport of their black pigmented granules (melanosomes), melanophores are capable of fast colour changes. The movement is regulated by changes in cyclic adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration, where a high or low level induce anterograde (dispersion) or retrograde (aggregation) transport respectively, leaving a dark or light cell. Previously we have shown that Panax ginseng induces dispersion of melanosomes. Here, ginsenoside Rc and Rd and the flavonoid quercetin are shown to stimulate an anterograde transport of pigment organelles. When Rc or Rd and quercetin were combined, a significant synergistic increase in dispersion could be seen. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Myristoylated EGF-R Fragment (651-658) (M-EGF) decreased the anterograde movement stimulated by ginseng and ginsenoside Rc and Rd. We also demonstrate that ginseng, but not ginsenosides or quercetin, induce a concentration-dependent activation of 44/42-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). PKC-inhibition did not affect the MAPK-activation, suggesting a role for PKC in the ginseng- and ginsenoside-induced anterograde transport but not in the activation of MAPK.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Tony
    Landstinget i Kronoberg.
    Andersson, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Panax ginseng induces anterograde transport of pigment organelles in Xenopus melanophores2008In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melanophores from Xenopus laevis are pigmented cells, capable of quick colour changes through cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) coordinated transport of their intracellular pigment granules, melanosomes. In this study we use the melanophore cell line to evaluate the effects of Panax ginseng extract G115 on organelle transport. Absorbance readings of melanophore-coated microplates, Correlate-EIA direct cAMP enzyme immunoassay kit, and western blot were used to measure the melanosome movement and changes in intracellular signalling. We show that Panax ginseng induces a fast concentration-dependent anterograde transport of the melanosomes. No significant increase in the cAMP level was seen and pre-incubation of melanophores with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor EGF-R Fragment 651-658 (M-EGF) only partly decreased the ginseng-induced dispersion. We also demonstrate that Panax ginseng, endothelin-3 (ET-3) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) stimulate an activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Pre-incubation with M-EGF decreased the MAPK activity induced by ET-3 and MSH, but again only marginally affected the response of Panax ginseng. Thus, in melanophores we suggest that Panax ginseng stimulates an anterograde transport of pigment organelles via a non-cAMP and mainly PKC-independent pathway.

1 - 4 of 4
CiteExportLink to result list
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Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf