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  • 1.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mariana S
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vem är vem på nätet?: en studie av elektronisk identifiering2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att identifiera sig är något vi gör i många olika vardagssituationer; exempelvis när vi ska styrka vår ålder i krogkön, uträtta bankärenden eller bli insläppta av vakten på en bevakad arbetsplats. För att identifiera oss i dessa situationer använder vi oftast någon form av fysisk identitetshandling; ett körkort, pass eller ID-kort. Samtidigt har vi idag ett samhälle där allt fler ärenden går att utföra via nätet, där såväl offentliga som kommersiella aktörer erbjuder elektroniska tjänster (e-tjänster) i ökande omfattning. Vi blir därmed alltmer beroende av informationsteknik (IT) i samhället för att samverka och kommunicera effektivt och enkelt. Vår riskexponering och sårbarhet ökar i takt med att vi utför allt fler ärenden via e-tjänster. Känslig information kan utnyttjas av obehöriga eller missbrukas på olika sätt.

    Elektronisk identifiering blir i dessa sammanhang en viktig komponent och förutsättning för att kunna erbjuda och använda effektiva och säkra e-tjänster. När man identifierar sig på nätet och i IT-system kan man göra det på många olika sätt; man kan logga in med användarnamn och lösenord, använda elektroniska ID-lösningar (eID) med dosor och koder, scanna fingeravtryck, använda e-tjänstekort och kortläsare eller RFID-teknik. Man skulle kunna betrakta dessa identifieringslösningar som rent tekniska landvinningar, som bara syftar till att man ska kunna nå den e-tjänst man vill använda. Likt en nyckel som används för att låsa upp dörren så att man kommer in i sitt hus. Vi menar dock att det är en alldeles för snäv syn på elektronisk identifiering – den behöver vara vidare än så för att vara fruktbar och kunna sättas i meningsfulla sammanhang av exempelvis design, utvärdering och vidareutveckling.

    Även om det är en teknisk lösning (en artefakt) med en begränsad uppgift vi avser, så kan dess utformning och sättet den införs och används på få stora konsekvenser för hela användningssituationen. Med artefakt menas här konstruerade föremål i form av olika tekniska lösningar och människors meningar kopplade till dessa. Identifieringslösningen påverkar både säkerheten i sig och den bild vi får av den e-tjänst eller det IT-system där vi identifierar oss. Dessutom påverkar den också bilden vi har av det sammanhang där vi använder identifieringslösningen. Om vi använder en e-tjänst som erbjuds av exempelvis den kommun där vi bor, påverkas också vår tilltro till kommunen och samhället av hur vi uppfattar identifieringslösningen och e-tjänsten. Samma resonemang gäller om vi köper en vara av ett privat företag på nätet. Med andra ord påverkas samhällets såväl som företagens legitimitet av hur vi som medborgare eller kunder uppfattar olika IT-lösningar.

    Den här boken handlar därför om de möjligheter och utmaningar som elektronisk identifiering kan innebära för individer, organisationer och samhället. Vi talar inte om isolerade tekniska problem i första hand, utan anlägger ett vidare perspektiv på de möjligheter och problem som kommer med e-tjänster och elektronisk identifiering.

    Vi har skrivit den här boken för att dela med oss av en del av de tankar och insikter som vi fått under projektet. Syftet med boken är att sätta ljuset på ett antal teman som framstår som centrala för utveckling och användning av elektronisk identifiering. Vi beskriver tre exempel som hämtar inspiration från våra studier inom projektet. Utifrån dessa exempel lyfter vi fram ett antal teman och diskuterar dessa samt sammanfattar utmaningar som vi sett i våra studier. Vår förhoppning är att Du som läser vår bok kan använda våra resonemang för att diskutera frågorna vidare i det praktiska sammanhang som Du befinner Dig i. Oavsett om Du finns på ett kommunkontor, i ett landsting, i en myndighet eller i en privat livssituation. Vi har inte haft ambitionen att skriva en vetenskaplig, teorirelaterad text, men Du som vill läsa forskningsbaserade publikationer från projektet hittar lästips i slutet av boken.

  • 2.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    COSMIC - syndabock eller frälsare?: En fallstudie av införandet av och arbetet med ett IT-system för vård- och patientadministration inom Landstinget i Östergötland2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie belyser införandet av och arbetet med ett elektroniskt vård- och patientadministrat-ionssystem –COSMIC– i Landstinget i Östergötland. Syftet med studien är att analysera och karak-tärisera införandet av och arbetet med COSMIC. Vi belyser särskilt fyra teman i vår analys: (1) Verksamhetsutveckling och IT, (2) Kompetens och arbete, (3) Tillit och säkerhet samt (4) Privat och offentligt. Denna fallstudie är kvalitativ och tolkande och bygger på flera typer av empiriska data. De metoder som använts är intervjuer med vårdpersonal i öppen- och slutenvård, projekt-ledning, projektmedarbetare och patienter, studier av såväl interna som externa dokument samt systemanvändning. Resultatet av vår studie visar att aktörer och aktörsgrupper bär på många olika bilder av införandeprocessen och av det system –COSMIC– som införs. Studien visar också att det finns förväntningar relaterade till COSMIC som berör förändrade och mera effektiva arbetssätt, tillgänglighet till information –exempelvis om patienters vårdhistorik och medicinering– samt en ökad patientsäkerhet. Dessa förväntningar har utmanats av farhågor i vårdverksamheten rö-rande både systeminförandet och systemets funktionalitet. Föreställningarna har sin grund bland annat i den negativa kritik som framfördes mot COSMIC i samband med pilotimplementering och uppgradering av systemet; negativ kritik som även har rapporterats i lokal och regional media. Betydelsen av att systemet utvecklas av en extern leverantör och landstingets relation till denna analyseras också. Den longitudinella studien visar också att COSMIC institutionaliseras i verksam-heten över tid; detta kommer exempelvis till uttryck genom att systemet blir en del av vårdens vardag och stegvis vinner en större acceptans. Beroendet av systemet ökar också över tid. Studien visar även att tillit och säkerhet påverkas av införandet av det nya systemet – samtidigt som nya risker tillkommer reduceras dock tidigare sådana. Vi karaktäriserar den förändring som systemet hittills bidragit till som snarare informationsteknisk, än samlat och samordnat administrativ och organisatorisk. Centralt blir därför att medvetet, utifrån lokala framgångsrika arbetssätt kombi-nerat med samlad erfarenhet på landstingsnivå, arbeta vidare med samordnad verksamhets- och IT-utveckling.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An inter-organisational perspective on challenges in one-stop government2008In: International Journal of Electronic Governance, ISSN 1742-7509, E-ISSN 1742-7517, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 296-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation and isolated development are main problems that hinder successful e-government. This paper has an inter-organisational perspective on challenges in one-stop government. We present a conceptual framework that characterises an inter-organisational relationship and its dimensions. The conceptual framework is used for analysing data from an inter-organisational one-stop government project. When applying the framework we focus on some interesting issues and explain some of the challenges that our interviewees identified. By addressing these inter-organisational aspects we reached further understanding of the problems associated with this case, which can provide added value to discussions of e-government challenges, barriers and problems in general.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Citizen Participation and Involvement in eGovernment Projects: An Emergent Framework2008In: Electronic Government / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Hans J. Scholl, Enrico Ferro, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, , p. 207-218p. 207-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from an action research project where focus groups have been used as an approach for taking citizens’ requirements into account during public e-service development projects. In the paper we use theories from the area of user participation in the information systems (IS) discipline in order to discuss and enhance the specific aspects of citizen participation and involvement in the eGovernment context. The main purpose of this paper is to enrich the eGovernment field in general, and to facilitate the citizen perspective in eGovernment development projects in particular, by using notions from the user participation tradition in the IS discipline. Our empirical findings from performing focus groups are discussed and compared to well-known user participation theories from the IS discipline. This results in an emergent framework for better understanding of citizen participation and involvement in the eGovernment context. The emergent framework consists of a set of questions that can be used in order to put an increased focus on the citizen perspective in future eGovernment development projects.

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Citizens’ Attitudes towards Electronic Identification in a Public E-service Context: An Essential Perspective in the eID Development Process2012In: Electronic Government: 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, Kristiansand, Norway, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Hans J. Scholl, Marijn Janssen, Maria A. Wimmer, Carl Erik Moe, Leif Skiftenes Flak, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 260-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, held in Delft, The Netherlands, in September 2012. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from more then 80 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on foundations; adoption and diffusion; open government and transformation; infrastructure and technology; evaluation; and citizen perspective, social inclusion, and social media. 

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Contextual Factors Influencing Health Information Systems Implementation in Public Sector: Investigating the Explanatory Power of Critical Success Factors2014In: Electronic Government: 13th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2014, Dublin, Ireland, September 1-3, 2014, Proceedings / [ed] Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Maria A. Wimmer, Frank Bannister, Springer, 2014, p. 59-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we approach the field of critical success factors (CSF) by analyzing a successful case of IT implementation within the public health sector. The purpose of the paper is to gain further understanding of if and how well CSFs can explain a successful case. The main conclusion drawn is that even though the studied organization shows signs of common CSFs, this alone cannot explain the success. An important contribution from this study is thus the focus on contextual factors when trying to understand what makes an implementation project successful.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Facilitating Citizen Participation and Involvement in eGovernment Development Projects2008In: 5th Scandinavian Workshop on e-Government,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How to Use the Potential of Learning Outcomes in IS Courses: Listening to the Voices of Students2010In: 2010 ISECON Proceedings: v27 n1327, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how students view the role and meaning of learning outcomes. We have conducted a focus group with students who attended the course “Enterprise (ERP) systems and organizing” within an IS bachelor program in Sweden. Our study shows that students, as a course’s main stakeholder group, regard the multi-functionality of learning outcomes. What they still miss is knowledge about the role and meaning of learning outcomes as control instruments for the entire educational process. When teachers formulate learning outcomes in a transparent and clear way, students will be able to use them actively prior to courses, during courses and after courses. In order to better use the potential of learning outcomes in practice, we need to find ways of not just formulating learning outcomes in a standardized manner, but also practicing them in our courses. When this learning outcome model has been accepted and applied in teachers’ course activities, not just their syllabus writing, we have possibilities to use the full potential of learning outcomes.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Seven key lessons learned from e-government development: A reflective analysis of an e-government project2009In: Scandinavian Workshop on eGovernment, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a longitudinal case study of an e-government development project is reported. The authors have followed a development project during three years, from its initiation to its end. The purpose of the paper is to identify and analyze important decisions made and external factors that occurred during the project and discuss their consequences. The findings are presented as seven key lessons that other e-government projects can learn from. The contributions are, thus, both a reflective analysis of an empirical e-government development example and normative statements about how to conduct successful e-government projects.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Six key lessons for e-government projects2009In: Ongoing Research: General Development Issues and Projects of EGOV 09, 8th International Conference / [ed] Scholl HJ, Janssen M, Traunmüller R and Wimmer M, Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2009, p. 93-103Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze a public e-service development project from its initiation to its end and reflect upon the process as well as its results. The purpose of the paper is to develop knowledge about how e-government projects should be managed and performed in order to be successful. We do this by identifying and analyzing important decisions made and external factors that occurred during the project and discussing their consequences. The findings are presented as six key lessons for e-government projects. The novel knowledge contribution is that the lessons combine aspects from established CSFs of IT projects with e-government-focused issues. Together these six lessons can be more useful in e-government projects than previous sets of general CSFs for IT projects.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Talking to, Not About, Citizens: Experiences of Focus Groups in Public E-Service Development2007In: Electronic Government, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, , p. 179-190p. 179-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses deficient understanding of citizens’ needs regarding public e-services. In Sweden e-government efforts are motivated by dual goals of citizen benefit and agencies’ internal efficiency. Rhetorical, this is a persuasive ambition, but in practice it seems to be easier to focus agency efficiency and redesign of business processes and information systems than to find out what citizens really want. Citizens, i.e. the future users of the e-service, are in best case represented in the project by citizen organizations. More seldom do individual citizens take part in the project. User needs are, thus, sometimes “guessed” instead of analyzed. We report from an e-government project which started with little understanding of the future users. To overcome this we introduced focus groups as a method to meet and talk to citizens and find out their needs regarding the e-service. The paper discusses how focus groups can be used in e-government projects.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Young citizens' attitudes towards electronic identification: A neglected perspective in an on-going development and implementation process2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports from an empirical study of young Swedish university students’ attitudes towards electronic identification (eID). Three focus groups were conducted with students, as a main target group, who were asked to use a public e-service at the Swedish Board for Study Support which demanded secure electronic identification. After having conducted the assigned tasks the students’ attitudes were discussed in the focus group. Our findings show that usability and security are two main themes that the respondents found to be important in order to trust eID and e-services. This example of how citizens’ attitudes towards electronic identification can be explored in focus groups is related to the on-going national development process of a new eID solution on a strategic and artifact level. In this process no citizens are participating or involved so far. We conclude the article by discussing what might be the consequences of neglecting citizens’ attitudes in this kind of development and implementation processes.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Understanding B2B interaction: A model to accentuate inter-organisational systems design issues2002In: The 10th European Conference on Information Systems ECIS2002,2002, 2002, p. 541-550Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing public e-services for several stakeholders: a multifaceted view of the needs for an e-service2009In: Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2009) / [ed] Susan Newell, Edgar A. Whitley, Nancy Pouloudi, Jonathan Wareham, Lars Mathiassen, 2009, p. 2804-2815Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how several stakeholders in a public e-service development project consider a future e-service and expected changes in administrative processes and working routines. Our findings indicate a much more multifaceted view than the common win-win situation, with increased quality for citizens and increased efficiency for agencies, which is rhetorically put forth as an effect of public e-service implementation. We have studied a development project resulting in an e-service for handling student anonymity when marking written exams in higher education. In this case we have identified five distinct stakeholder groups related to this e-service; students, teachers, course administrators, exam guards, and the university at an agency level. All of them having certain expectations and fears about the new situation. By presenting this diversity in opinions we add further understanding to the notion of e-services as being more or less beneficial for certain stakeholders.

  • 15.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring the importance of citizen participation and involvement in e-government projects: Practice, incentives, and organization2010In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 299-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to investigate if, and in that case, how and what the e-government field can learn from user participation concepts and theories in general IS research. We aim to contribute with further understanding of the importance of citizen participation and involvement within the e-government research body of knowledge and when developing public e-services in practice.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The analysis in the article is made from a comparative, qualitative case study of two e-government projects. Three analysis themes are induced from the literature review; practice of participation, incentives for participation, and organization of participation. These themes are guiding the comparative analysis of our data with a concurrent openness to interpretations from the field.

    Findings – The main results in this article are that the e-government field can get inspiration and learn from methods and approaches in traditional IS projects concerning user participation, but in e-government we also need methods to handle the challenges that arise when designing public e-services for large, heterogeneous user groups. Citizen engagement cannot be seen as a separate challenge in e-government, but rather as an integrated part of the process of organizing, managing, and performing e-government projects. Our analysis themes of participation generated from literature; practice, incentives and organization can be used in order to highlight, analyze, and discuss main issues regarding the challenges of citizen participation within e-government. This is an important implication based on our study that contributes both to theory on and practice of e-government.

    Practical implications – Lessons to learn from this study concern that many e-government projects have a public e-service as one outcome and an internal e-administration system as another outcome. A dominating internal, agency perspective in such projects might imply that citizens as the user group of the e-service are only seen as passive receivers of the outcome – not as active participants in the development. By applying the analysis themes, proposed in this article, citizens as active participants can be thoroughly discussed when initiating (or evaluating) an e-government project.

    Originality/value – This article addresses challenges regarding citizen participation in e-government development projects. User participation is well-researched within the IS discipline, but the e-government setting implies new challenges, that are not explored enough.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public e-services for agency efficiency and citizen benefit: findings from a stakeholder centered analysis2013In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goals of e-government are to increase agency efficiency and offer benefits to citizens. These goals have often been addressed as two interplaying outcomes of public e-service development, which are possible to achieve in parallel. This article shows that the two frequently applied stakeholders of e-government (agencies and citizens) are much too extensive and heterogeneous in order to be meaningfully addressed in public e-service conceptualization and development. We conduct a stakeholder centered analysis of a public e-service development and implementation process in order to identify stakeholder groups and discuss how they differ in their perceptions and, consequently, also in their feelings of relevance and need related to the e-service. By adopting a multi-faceted perspective on stakeholders, public e-service development can be analyzed and understood in a way that takes several stakeholder groups into account. Our study contributes with deeper insights about a situation where stakeholder salience changes over time, while some stakeholder groups have low salience during the entire process. The result of conducting a stakeholder centered analysis is that we, by visualizing the stakeholder groups' differences, are better prepared to meet and combine different needs related to a planned e-service. Thus, we argue that a stakeholder centered analysis of expectations and opinions concerning the e-service help to develop e-services possible to succeed in offering both external service and internal efficiency.

  • 17.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project2013In: Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project: 12th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2013, Koblenz, Germany, September 16-19, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Marijn Janssen, Hans J. Scholl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 237-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss in what ways an e-government project can give both expected and unexpected effects for agency employees and their working tasks. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the fact that, besides the aim to increase agency efficiency and citizen benefit, e-government implementation might also change the salience of involved stakeholders. We do this by focusing on one stakeholder group which was reluctant and hesitating in the beginning of the studied project; marginalized, passive, easily convinced, and old-fashioned. After the e-government implementation, this group had turned to satisfied, proud, influential, active, powerful, and modern IT users. The case shows how stakeholder salience might change over time in an e-government project. Stakeholder influence aspects and IT driven change aspects are intertwined. This makes it necessary for any e-government project to address the notion of stakeholder involvement in decision-making during the development and implementation phases, but also to acknowledge e-services force to change how things and people are perceived during these phases.

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Communication Analysis of Public Forms: Discovering Multi-functional Purposes in Citizen and Government Communication2007In: International journal of public information systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 3, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Information systems mediation in communication between citizens and government agencies: Experiences from communication analysis of forms2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 20.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Inter-organisatoriska e-körkortstjänster - för enkel och effektiv hantering av körkortsärenden2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analyzing best practice and critical success factors in a health information system case: Are there any shortcuts to successful IT implementation?2011In: Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems - ECIS 2011 / [ed] Tuunainen V, Nandhakumar J, Rossi M, Soliman W, European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) and Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) , 2011, p. 2157-2168Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses critical success factors (CSF) and best practice in relation to IT implementation in the health sector. We have studied a University Hospital’s implementation of a health information system (HIS) and particularly one clinic which implementation process was described as very successful compared to other units at this hospital. The purpose of the paper is to gain further understanding of if and how well CSFs and best practice solutions can explain this successful case. We do this in order to explore if CSFs and best practice offer any shortcuts to successful IT implementation. By understanding the reasons behind this case’s success we can identify if CSFs and best practice potentially can explain the success, or if there are other explanations in this case. Based on our findings we discuss and question the sometimes overestimated belief in CSFs and best practice as shortcuts to success performance. An important contribution from this study is that situational and contextual factors are very critical to understand and acknowledge during HIS implementations.

  • 22.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Are there any shortcuts to successful IT implementation?: A study of critical success factors and best practice in healthcare2011In: The 8th Scandinavian Workshop on E-government (SWEG’11), Tampere, Finland, 7-8 February 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Wedlund, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Student Activity in Seminars: Designing Multi-functional Assessment Events2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 24.
    Björn, Johansson
    et al.
    Centre for Applied ICT Copenhagen Business School.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Centralising Hosting of Software Applications - Influence from E-government Services on Sourcing Decisions2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     There are a lot of reasons reported for why organisations start a sourcing decision. This paper discusses this theme based on two questions: Does the need and/or wish to increase e-Government services influence the start of a sourcing decision process aiming at reorganising hosting of software applications and if it does, how does it influence the start of such a decision-making process? The point of departure, besides a literature review, is a sourcing decision-making process in a Swedish municipality. When analysing the sourcing decision, five suggested propositions developed from the factors: control, core competence, capability, cost, and strategy, are used. It is concluded that municipalities in Sweden has to prepare for being more of an e-Government organisation, which means that more of the services the mu-nicipalities- employees has done before citizens will do by themselves. This demands that to be able to offer future e-Government services municipalities need to have control over soft-ware applications. From this study it is suggested that centralisation of hosting can be seen as decentralisation of work tasks from an e-Government perspective.   

  • 25.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inter-organizational Public e-Service Development: Emerging Lessons from an Inside-Out Perspective2015In: ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT (EGOV 2015), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9248, p. 183-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-service development has grown to become a daily practice in most public organizations as a means for realizing digital agendas and e-government initiatives on different levels (local, regional, national and transnational governmental levels). Public e-service development is often an inter-organizational (IO) effort with multiple actors and organizations involved in the multi-faceted dimensions of design, development and delivery decisions. Still, there is a lack of research focusing on IO public e-service development practices in particular. In order to address this lack we elaborate on reported challenges and their implications for IO public e-service development in practice. By returning to two empirical cases of IO public e-service development, the IO dimension is evolved. Our purpose is to highlight challenges in IO public e-service development with implications for research and practice. Findings are presented as eight emerging lessons learned from an inside-out perspective related to phases in IO public e-service development processes.

  • 26.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Project Oriented Student Work: Group Formation and Learning2006In: The Proceedings of the Information Systems Education Conference 2006, 2006, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates how semi-randomly formed project groups, compared to forming groups at free will, affect students’ learning in a project-oriented setting. The findings are based on empirical data. We have analyzed students’ experiences by taking a course in the subject of Information Systems. The identified experiences are considered to be either a strength or a problem. We can conclude that how we form project groups has an effect on learning. We can also conclude that several of the experiences from semi-randomly formed project groups are of both a positive and negative nature. In the concluding chapter, we give some explanations in order to understand the differences in students’ experiences.

  • 27.
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Investigating open government data barriers: A literature review and conceptualization2018In: Electronic Government: EGOV 2018 / [ed] Parycek P., Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 169-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When focusing on open government data (OGD) publishing and related barriers, there are several complexities present. Largely, current research is focused on publishing and usage of OGD; and we argue that there are a need to investigate and to systematise OGD barrier research in order to understand and outline an expanded scope of the phenomenon. We expand by clarifying barriers linked to the release decision and the data’s organisational context. To investigate the OGD barriers, we conduct a systematic literature review, identifying 34 articles as a point of departure for our analysis. From these articles we create, present and discuss illustrations on historical development, barrier types, and different research focuses on OGD. When analysing the articles, we identify a focus on technical, organisational, and legal barrier types, while studies on open data usage and systems are less frequent. Our analysis also identifies some possible open data research barriers. In the article we also relate barriers to an expanded OGD process (Suitability, Release, Publish, Use, and Evaluation), identifying 46 barriers with possible linkages. The results is an expanded scope and a conceptual illustration of OGD barriers. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018.

  • 28.
    Garatli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Multi‑Channel Service Management in Public Sector … Three Interpretative Frames Illustrating E‑government and Work Practice in a Swedish State Agency2014In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 112-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deliver services to citizens, public sector agencies of today offer various types of channels for interaction. In this article we aim to develop an understanding of the reciprocal relation between multi‑channel services and work prac tice. By showing how actors at different organizational levels in an agency differ in their interpretation of multi‑channel services we have generated knowledge that is essential in multi‑channel strategy formulation. The study illustrates an example of a n agency that works actively and in a mature way with e‑government and e‑services. This qualitative case study illustrates that the top level management, middle management and the case officers need to confront and discuss their understanding of e‑governm ent and their work practice in order to reach a situation where strategies actually are influencing daily work more explicitly. An important aspect is the decision to adopt an internal or external perspective on multi‑channel service management. The resul t of this decision might be to view multi‑channel service management as a way of reaching either internal agency efficiency or external citizen benefits.

  • 29.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public e-services from inside: a case study on technology's influence on work conditions in a government agency2013In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 455-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the consequences of citizens' increased use of public e-services for agency employees' work situation.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to accomplish the purpose of the paper the authors focus on the way in which the increased use of public e-services also implies internal process and routine changes in public administration. The authors analyze work conditions for case officers at a government agency in Sweden by applying occupational ideal types to identify the specific work conditions in the studied case. The case study is based on qualitative data collected with a back office perspective.

    Findings – The findings indicate a new hybrid organization where the increased use of e-services challenges earlier demands for competence. The transformation of e-government has implications for job codification, rule observation, job specification, and interaction with the general public.

    Originality/value – The paper extends the knowledge on how the increased use of public e-services affects back-office work conditions, with an increased high level of complexity in work content, but with low level of work autonomy. It argues that studying back-office work conditions is an important management issue in public administration research as well as practice.

  • 30.
    Gäre, Klas
    et al.
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Informatik.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Formative Infrastructure for IT-Adoption: Understanding the Dynamics of IT-Use in SME’s2010In: Sprouts Working Papers on Information Systems, ISSN 1535-6078, Vol. 10, no 67, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT has considerable importance for productivity increase and growth. IT use requires a lot of resources to create value. Few, if any, studies, take the perspective of SMEs' needs for infrastructure concerning use of IT. As resources are more limited in smaller enterprises, and the contexts and conditions for IT use in SMEs are not well known. Formative infrastructure is a way of understanding cognitive and technical arrangements needed for IT adoption and use, depending on IT resources crossing organizational boundaries. The purpose is to study conditions for IT-use in SMEs for a better understanding of how a formative infrastructure contributes to enterprises. The methodological point of departure and approach in this study is qualitative and explorative. More than 60 interviews are performed within a geographical region. Questions concern needs for infrastructure among SMEs, actors roles, and concepts constituting a formative infrastructure for IT adoption and use. Data was analyzed for similarities and patterns into themes and topics. A theoretical framework for formative infrastructure is presented as a multi theory lens for developing the concept of formative infrastructure. A formative IT infrastructure is constituted by the identified needs among SMEs, and it contains three parts; (1) sensemaking, (2) senegiving, and (3) service infrastructures. Formative IT infrastructure in SMEs is not a well known concept, concerning IT use in SME's. The need of for formative infrastructure in sensemaking IT adoption and use in SME's rely on external partners and other actors for sensemaking and sensegiving processes. Further research is needed for better understanding of actors and roles as well as arenas for sensemaking IT in SMEs. The emphasis on infrastructure for IT adoption processes will help SME's to more relevant investments.

  • 31.
    Gäre, Klas
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    SMEs need formative infrastructure for business transformation2011In: Journal of Enterprise Information Management, ISSN 1741-0398, E-ISSN 1758-7409, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 520-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose is to study conditions for ICT-use in SMEs, actors and roles involved and concepts constituting a formative infrastructure.

    Method - The methodological point of departure and approach in this study is qualitative and more than 60 interviews are performed within a geographical region.

    Findings – Important findings from the present research is a formative ICT infrastructure can be viewed as constituted by identified needs among SMEs, in (1) sensemaking, (2) sensegiving, and (3) service infrastructures. In SMEs there is less of infrastructure and less of overhead and support services than in larger enterprises. The adoption processes in SMEs differ from the ones in larger enterprises. SMEs rely more on external relations in a public infrastructure.

    Research implications – Formative ICT infrastructure in SMEs is not a well known concept, concerning ICT use in SME’s. The need for infrastructure is different in SME’s compared to larger enterprises, and a formative infrastructure has a different meaning for SME’s. Still many questions remain unanswered.

    Practical implications - There is a need for better understanding of conditions for design of infrastructure for ICT use and development particularly in SME’s, but also in other enterprises and organizations. The emphasis on infrastructure for ICT adoption processes will help SME’s and municipalities to more relevant investments.

    Originality - The study integrates micro- and macro-perspectives and combines theories from different fields to extend the knowledge of formative infrastructure for SME’s adoption and use of ICT. 

  • 32.
    Gäre, Klas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Informatik.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sociomaterial actors in the assimilation gap: a case study of web service, management and IT-assimilation2013In: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 481-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the conditions for the assimilation of information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) in organizations and the influence of various actors in the organization and eBusiness context. To do so it draws on the literature on assimilation gap, sociomateriality and infrastructure together with a study of implementation and use of information and communication technology in and among organizations in a Swedish region. There were substantial investments in web infrastructure made on a regional level and the focus of this study is how the investments were transformed and assimilated in practices, relations and communication. Based on the empirical data from the case study, the paper extends the assimilation process into interplay among actors in organizations contexts. It describes organizations' strategies for coping with their needs for information and the actors in these processes. Two categories of actors are identified, sensemaking and sensegiving actors, as most important in assimilation of IS/IT in organizations. A sociomaterial perspective gives guidance and a better understanding of the assimilation process in terms of knowledge and interpretative frames, and how assimilation involves identity construction and negotiations among sensemaking and sensegiving actors. The contribution of this paper is a better understanding of the context of assimilation and adaptation of IT in organizations' business processes, and steps to be taken to improve readiness.

  • 33.
    Gäre, Klas
    et al.
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Informatik.
    Åbom, Carita
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Informatik.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Formative Infrastructure for ICT-adoption in SME’s: A Study of Conditions for Progress2008In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems / [ed] Golden, W., Acton, T., Conboy, K., van der Heijden, H., Tuunainen, V.K., Galway, Ireland: National University of Ireland , 2008, p. 1082-1093Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus in this paper is on conditions for ICT use in SMEs expressed as formative infrastructure. Questions concern needs for infrastructure among SMEs, actors roles, and concepts constituting a formative infrastructure for ICT-adoption and use. Few – if any – studies, take the perspective of SMEs’ needs for infrastructure concerning use of ICT. A formative ICT infrastructure is constituted by the identified needs among SMEs, and it contains three parts; (1) sensemaking, (2) sensegiving, and (3) service infrastructures. In SMEs there is less of infrastructure and less of overhead services and these are to be found outside the SME. The adoption processes in SMEs differ from the ones in larger enterprises. ICT adoption is the process where the formative infrastructure is maintained as well as changed by actors enacting this context. SMEs rely more on external relations in a public infrastructure. In dividing ICT infrastructure into two major areas – hard and formative infrastructure, the results indicate that, both are important, but formative ICT infrastructure in SMEs is a less known and a less elaborated concept. When analyzing the need for formative ICT infrastructure, three types, emerge – sensemaking infrastructure, sensegiving infrastructure, and service infrastructure, as three cornerstones of a formative ICT-infrastructure.

  • 34.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Handelshögskolan.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöstrand, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Entrepreneurship in the Shade of a Multinational Corporation: A Story of Fancy Footwork2011In: 21th Nordic Conference on Business Studies / [ed] Stockholm University, School of Business, Sweden, Stockholm University, School of Business, Sweden, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a case study of an engineering company named FlexLink as a point of departure. The company, that produces conceivable applications of conveyors in industrial settings, has no production, no stock and no distribution within the legal boundary of the firm. It has developed as a network organization with organic growth both in the shade of, and ahead of, the global multinational corporation, from which it springs. In order to understand the emergence of this network organization, and the visionary and strong entrepreneur who manoeuvred it to where it stands today, and its rationale, we elaborate on a dialectic model of thesis, anti-thesis and synthesis. We also discuss the rational and rhetoric explanation of the organization's emergence through the examination of critical incidents as well as reactions towards more structural limitations and restrictions, as well as windows of opportunity in the shade of the multinational corporation. This article brings up a case of an extreme outsourcing strategy that has been depicted as an internalized business concept, but in our case study the rationale and the current picture is continuously undergoing change. In the analysis we also show how the emergence of the organization can be understood in the light of theories on Schumpeters concept “creative destruction” as well as in terms of the structuration and the process of change as a duality between actor and structure. In this paper we argue that the emergence of FlexLink can be described as dialectic interplay. The network structure emerged by opposition to the mother company's rigid structure and ideology. In the story of emergence it seems to be the unforeseen consequence of tactics played by one single and dominant actor, navigating in the early days to circumvent obstacles of internal policy. Thus the new organization emerges as an antithesis to the corporate policies and modes of operation. The new business was not produced according to a pre-established strategic plan, but rather evolved from a spirit of contradiction and a more or less explicit revolt and ambition to act differently. One important contribution from this study is that entrepreneurship has many faces and applications and also describes the practice of the entrepreneur as a problem solver and a master of fancy footwork. This is elaborated in the paper together with a discussion based on the risks for stagnation or how new – second order - entrepreneurship can emerge.

  • 35. Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöstrand, Fredrik
    The Emergence of a Network Organization2003In: 17th Nordic Conference on Business Studies (NFF 2003), Liber , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36. Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöstrand, Fredrik
    The Rationale of a Network Organization - A Study of Emergence2002In: 18 th Egos Colloquium - Organizational Politics and the Politics of Organizations, Barcelona, Spain, July 4-6, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identitet arbete privatliv: användning av smarta ID-kort2018In: Ett smartare samhälle?: Sju perspektiv på digitaliseringen av vår vardag / [ed] Lotta Gröning och Elin Whilborg, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, 1, p. 112-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjuksköterskan Mikael kliver upp tidigt på morgonen för att åka till jobbet. Han jobbar på en mindre vårdcentral ungefär tre mil hemifrån och måste åka strax före halv sju på morgonen. På väg ut till bilen kommer han plötslig ihåg att han måste ha med sig sitt nya ID-kort. Utan kortet kan han inte jobba…

  • 38.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. School of InformaticsUniversity of SkövdeSkövdeSweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    External User Inclusion in Public e-Service Development: Exploring the Current Practice in Sweden2017In: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M et al, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10428, p. 60-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last decade e-government research has underlined the importance of an external user perspective in public e-service development and there have been numerous attempts to provide guidance and directions for government agencies in this matter. Individual research studies show little progress in this matter, but a more generalisable picture of the current state of external user inclusion is missing. The aim of this paper is to provide a better and more generalisable understanding of Swedish government agencies’ current practice of external user inclusion in public e-service development. In order to do so, we have interviewed Swedish government agencies regarding their perceptions on external user inclusion. Our findings show mixed results regarding attitudes towards and current practice of external user inclusion. It is clear that organisational size and previous experience of public e-service development matter. At the same time challenges such as a general lack of resurces and a lack of time are seen as general barriers, regardless of agency level and size.

  • 39.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    NOT ANOTHER NEW WINE IN THE SAME OLD BOTTLES: MOTIVATORS AND INNOVATION IN LOCALGOVERNMENT E-SERVICE DEVELOPMENT2017In: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Association for Information Systems, 2017, p. 691-702Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-services hold the potential to innovate how the public sector operates, and to increase the transparencyof public services. Numerous research initiatives have illustrated the innovation power of eservices;with new technology and new solutions to existing problems. Research on this topic also emphasizesthat in order for public e-services to reach their full potential, they need to be designed in away that users find useful and beneficiary. Interestingly, in practice, only fragments of this claimedinnovation seem to take place. Today, most public e-services launched are merely electronic versionsof existing services with no, or very low, degree of innovation. In this paper, we analyse empirical datafrom local government e-service providers. The aim is to explore the current practices in local governmente-service development with respect to how aspects related to innovative and high quality serviceprovisioning are handled. In doing so, we analyse what basic motivators there are for local governmentsto offer e-services in the first place, and how such motivators influence innovation in localgovernment e-service development. The analysis concludes that local governments are facing a challengingsituation in terms of a general lack of resources regarding time, competence, and skills, aswell as a dispersed user segment where needs and wills often are hard to grasp. Furthermore, localgovernments are facing conflicting interests and agendas. At the end of the day, the heights of innovationare then hard to achieve. We call for further research on the applicability of previous researchfindings in other research areas in order to promote more innovative e-service provisioning.

  • 40.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring User Participation Practice in Public E-Service Development: Why, How and in Whose Interest?2018In: The Electronic Journal on e-government (EJEG), ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 72-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation is seen as an important enabler for successful public e-service development. However, at the same time development of public e-services is still often characterised by an internal government perspective with little consideration for external users’ perspectives. This paper challenges the overly positive attitude that is surrounding user participation in e-government research. The paper aims to illustrate and problematize various aspects that influence why, how, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development. First, via a literature review, we identify a set of dimensions for critically exploring how, why, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development projects. Second, we use these dimensions in order to characterise and analyse three empirical public e-service development cases in order to test the utility, usefulness, and feasibility of the identified dimensions. Our findings highlight the importance of questioning and elaborating on the motives behind user participation (the why) in public e-service development. We also identify two basic forms of how user participation is addressed in public e-service development projects: 1) veneered participation, and 2) ad-hoc participation. Furthermore, we argue that any decisions made regarding user participation in public e-service development should be based on conscious and informed choices concerning why user participation is needed and what it may bring for different stakeholders and their interests.

  • 41.
    Holgersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pragmatic Dilemmas in Action Research: Doing Action Research With or Without the Approval of Top Management?2015In: Systemic Practice and Action Research, ISSN 1094-429X, E-ISSN 1573-9295, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article problematizes a basic assumption that action research should be conducted in terms of acceptance by management. The importance of approval from the responsible stakeholders at the work practice, which is the subject of action research, has traditionally been emphasized in academic literature. External pressure can constrain an organisation to initiate and fulfil different types of needs for change. In this article we address the question of whether it is appropriate to accomplish action research in a way that creates pressure on an organisation to act. If the public risks suffering as a result of an organisation´s inability or unwillingness to identify and rectify serious problems, there are strong arguments to answer “yes” to this question. This answer is particularly relevant when it comes to governmental organisations. The public has a legitimate requirement that tax-financed organisations should be well-functioning. This article illustrates how action research can put pressure on a work practice, and discusses the problems and challenges of this type of research design. An important contribution to action research literature based on this paper is that it shows that the dilemma in action research of balancing practice interests and those of science is not just about dealing with a dual agenda. The interest of the practice interests is multi-faceted. This paper points at the relationship between action research and principles for conducting critical research in information systems. Practical implications that can be drawn based on this paper are for example that it clarifies the challenge of different considerations that may be eligible in action research.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Center for Applied ICT.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sourcing Decisions of Software Applications Hosting: What Influence has e-Government Services2009In: Information Systems Development: Challenges in Practice, Theory, and Education Volume 1, Springer US , 2009, 1, p. 393-404Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a lot of reasons reported for why organisations start a sourcing decision. This chapter discusses this theme based on two questions: Does the need and/or wish to increase e-Government services influence the start of a sourcing decision process aiming at reorganising hosting of software applications and if it does, how does it influence the start of such a decision-making process? The point of departure, besides a literature review, is a sourcing decision-making process in a Swedish municipality. When analysing the sourcing decision, five suggested propositions developed from the factors, control, core competence, capability, cost, and strategy, are used. It is concluded that municipalities in Sweden has to prepare for being more of an e-Government organisation, which means that more of the services the municipalities' employees has done before citizens will do by themselves. This demands that to be able to offer future e-Government services municipalities need to have control over software applications. From this study it is suggested that centralisation of hosting can be seen as decentralisation of work tasks from an e-Government perspective.

  • 43.
    Lind, Mikael
    et al.
    IDA Högskolan i Borås.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Information Systems Research and Dialectics - Potentials and Challenges2003In: European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies,2003, Reading: MCIL , 2003, p. 209-218Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Time to Refuel the Conceptual Discussion on Public e-Services: Revisiting How e-Services Are Manifested in Practice2017In: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M et al, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10428, p. 92-101Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are various models and frameworks describing the nature of e-services in the public sector. Many of these models are based on previous conceptualizations and have evolved over time, but are first and foremost conceptual creations with weak empirical grounding. In the meantime, practitioners in the field have continued to further develop e-services, and new advancements in technology have enabled new solutions for e-services. In the light of advancements in practice, and the limitations seen in current conceptual work concerning public e-services, we identify a need to refuel the conceptual discussion on e-services in the public sector by empirically investigating how e-services can be manifested in practice. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the possible variations of e-services in practice, and to discuss this variation in relation to the conceptual representation of the phenomenon. Based on qualitative interviews with employees involved with e-service development and provision at a large governmental agency, we illustrate that an ‘e-service’ can take on many different forms within an organization; ranging from downloadable forms, to complicated self-service systems that require expertise knowledge and IT-systems with specific processing capacity. The notion that all services mediated through a website can be understood under one general umbrella term, without further categorization, needs to be challenged.

  • 45.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ostergaard Madsen, Christian
    IT Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hofmann, Sara
    Univ Agder, Norway.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Close encounters of the digital kind: A research agenda for the digitalization of public services2019In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 427-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to e-government research by presenting a review and discussion on how digitalization of public services has affected the interaction between citizens and government. We argue for a conceptualization and critical reflection on the nature of the underlying interaction between citizens and public officials - the public encounter - that digital public services are developed to support. We apply a qualitative and hermeneutic approach and illustrate that digital public services change public encounters concerning when, where, and how interactions occur, what each actor does, and the skills required of them. By relating these changes to emerging digital technologies (e.g. data mining, machine learning, sensor technology, and service automation), we illustrate that while these new technologies carry the potential to further digitalize service provision and fulfill the democratic goals of digital government, authorities can apply the same technology to restrict, control, and surveil citizens. Based on a critical discussion on what digitalization might entail for society, we identify problem areas arising from this development and propose a research agenda for understanding this phenomenon further. We raise questions and ethical concerns regarding accountability and reskilling of citizens and public officials as public service provision becomes citizen self-service.

  • 46.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Affärssystem: – en organisatorisk och teknisk paradox?2009In: Temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1, p. 47-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärssystem har stor betydelse för hur verksamheter leds och organiseras. De utgör ryggraden i många organisationers informationsbehandling och styrning. Boken riktar sig till praktiker, studenter och forskare genom att visa på affärssystemområdets bredd och lyfta fram relevanta - och vetenskapligt intressanta - situationer och frågeställningar. Den syftar till att ta temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige! I boken diskuteras vad affärssystem är, hur utvecklingen av dem förhåller sig till utveckling av skräddarsydda system, varför vi behöver dem och hur de bidrar till att skapa värde. På vilket sätt kan ett affärssystem underlätta införandet av en mer strategisk ekonomistyrning och vilken roll har controllern i arbetet med att ta tillvara systemets möjligheter? Vad kan vi lära oss av de företag som lyckats och varför är det troligt att affärssystem blir politiska verktyg i dragkampen om hur organisationen ska styras? Inte minst i den offentliga sektorn ställs många av dessa frågor på sin spets

  • 47.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenges and Benefits in an Open Data Initiative: A Local Government Case Study of Myths and Realities2016In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation: Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research, PhD Papers, Posters and Workshops of IFIP EGOV and ePart 2016 / [ed] Hans Jochen Scholl, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Bram Klievink, Ida Lindgren, Peter Parycek, Efthimios Tambouris, Maria Wimmer, Tomasz Janowski, Delfina Sá Soares, IOS Press, 2016, Vol. 23, p. 111-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the myths and realities of open data at local government (a focused municipality) level. There are many expectations related to open government data (OGD) covering e.g. public transportation, car parks, public committee minutes and air quality measurements and the effects of more open public agencies and commercial possibilities, together with citizen benefits. Expectations are often uncritical and expressed in terms of rationalized myths. The purpose of this paper is to investigate myths and realities in a case study and to present lessons learned from focusing such dimensions in an ongoing and emerging local government OGD initiative. This study confirms previous research on open data myths, challenges and benefits from a local government perspective. The conclusions also illustrate three important findings directed to the existing body of research regarding the importance of alliances of stakeholders in OGD initiatives, aspects of heterogeneous organizations launching open data and reflections on the division of labour between public and private actors when handling different communication channels. Implications for research and practice are also outlined together with limitations and further research. 

  • 48.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Informationssystem vid ökad affärs- och processorientering: egenskaper, strategier och utveckling1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Att organisationer ställs inför ökat förändringstryck i form av konkurrens, förfinade kundkrav samt ökad kvalitet i produkter och tjänster är välkänt. Organisationer försöker möta detta genom förändring av egen verksamhet - en förändring som numera ofta innehåller ökad processorientering och kund/affärsorientering. I organisationer ingår ofta datorbaserade informationssystem (IS) eller informationteknik (IT) som stöd. IS/IT framställs som viktigt vid förbättring och radikal förändring. Vilka är karaktäristika hos IS/IT som stödjer ökad affärs- och processorientering? Hur hanteras IS/IT för att stödja denna förändring?

    Två fallstudier har genomförts för att söka besvara frågorna, utifrån kvalitativ forskningsansats. Fallstudierna utgörs av "pappersbruket" och "teknikföretaget" där ökad affärs- och processorientering samt förändring av IS/IT genomförs. Resultatet visar behov av IS/IT-karaktäristika såsom stöd för kommunikation längs processer och för affärsgeneriska handlingar, förändringspotential samt god verksamhetstillpassning. Stöd ges också genom klargörande av ideal och mål vid utveckling, perspektivväxling mellan tekniska möjligheter och verksamhetsbehov samt koordination av olika utvecklingsinitiativ.

  • 49.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koordination och informationssystem i företag och nätverk2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisatorisk koordination, informationssystem och IT-system är nyckelord i denna avhandling. Att koordinera är en grundläggande del av verksamhet eftersom denna handling syftar till att öka sannolikheten för att nå mål. Att förstå koordination har engagerat forskare från olika ämnesområden under en längre tid. Trots detta finns, med utgångspunkt i både teori och praktik, behov att studera koordination i både företag och nätverk tillsammans med användning av IT-system. Frågor som behandlas i avhandlingen är följande: hur ser samspelet ut mellan koordination inom företag och mellan företag (relationer i nätverk)? Vilken roll har informations-/kommunikationshantering och informationssystem/IT-system vid koordination? Huvudsyftet är att utifrån ett kombinerat företags- och nätverksperspektiv, beskriva och analysera koordination av handlingar inom, och av, affärsrelationer samt användning av informations- och IT-system. Exempel på teorier och perspektiv som används för att förstå koordination är organisationsteori, inter-organisatorisk teori, nätverksansatsen samt teori om informationssystem och IT-system. Aktörer, handling och kommunikation som handling betonas också. Den empiriska delen av arbetet utgörs av två nätverk; ett inom träindustrin och ett inom verkstadsindustrin. Nätverken innehåller både likheter och skillnader och dessa nyttjas för att förstå koordination och informationssystem. De IT-system som studeras och analyseras är företagsinterna och inter-organisatoriska. Systemen används exempelvis för konstruktion (CAD-system), hantering av order, lager och fakturering. Dessutom har ett affärssystem studerats. Det empiriska arbetet är longitudinellt, kvalitativt inriktat och utgörs av 70 intervjuer, viss deltagande observation samt studier av dokument, IT-system och dess användning. Medverkande företag och privata konsumenter är 23 och antalet analyserade affärsrelationer är 20. Kunskapsutvecklingsprocessen kännetecknas av en aktiv användning av både teori och empiri. Teori är en initial guide till datainsamling, en del av en iterativ process av datainsamling och analys samt en del av slutmålet. Växlingen mellan fallstudier, etablerad kunskap, förförståelse och framväxande teori är tydlig både i tillämpning och i beskrivning. Resultatet av studien visar bland annat att befintliga koordinationsmekanismer från teori har en otillräcklig förståelse- och förklaringskraft vid studier av koordination i företag och nätverk, med och utan bruk av IT-system, och behöver därför kompletteras. Otillräcklig hänsyn tas också till mänskliga aktörer och deras handlingar, företagsextern påverkan, emergenta och dynamiska processer, samtidighet och variation samt kommunikation, IT-system och information. Koordination är ett komplext fenomen som kan betraktas utifrån olika vyer. En uppsättning vyer, ett centralt resultat av arbetet, visar att handling, anpassning, organisering, medel, roller, subjekt/objekt och kommunikation samt information är viktigt att inkludera för att förstå koordination. IT-systemens alltmer framträdande roll vid organisering, både som reellt stöd och hinder vid koordination, diskuteras och problematiseras. En viktig tes i avhandlingen är att genom en utvecklad förståelse för koordinationsprinciper och -mönster i företag och nätverk stöds utveckling av verksamhetsnyttiga informationssystem. Rika empiriska beskrivningar tillsammans med en kombinerad ansats vid analys av affärsrelationer samt analys och jämförelse av teorier är också viktiga resultat av arbetet. Vidare finns en avslutande reflektion över den eklektiska forskningsansatsen i arbetet tillsammans med reflektion över utgångspunkter, datagenerering och kunskapsbidrag.

  • 50.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Emperor's New Clothes?: Analysing the Swedish Action Plan for e-Government2009In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, Special Issue on E-Government in Sweden: New Directions, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2009, no 2, p. 97-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the “National Action Plan for the Swedish eGovernment”, launched in 2008, based on three dimensions generated from theory: (1) the relationship between information systems and organizational change, (2) process orientation and (3) coordination. The analysis presents a critical examination of the action plan. The analysis shows that the action plan contains an overall rational perspective on the relationship between information systems and organizational change; several rather specific impacts are forecasted using e.g. e-services in public administration. Rational choices when designing information systems for public administration are assumed to be made based on business needs, citizen needs and business processes. An almost unlimited choice over technological options and an explicit ambition to control the consequences are also outlined in the action plan. The process perspective is also very present in the action plan promoting a horizontal view of public administration and e-services as an antithesis to the vertical, rigid “silos” often reported in government organizations. The action plan is also found to have an innovative view of IT, but a more moderate and reformist view of internal government organizations. The plan as such represents an overall top-down approach to e-government, providing a framework within which to develop egovernment. The customer/client needs are expressed explicitly in the action plan, in several contexts and combined with internal efficiency efforts in a balanced way. Several aspects of coordination are also identified in the analysis, for example regarding standardization.

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