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  • 1.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille University, France.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte for Improved Selectivity and Processability of lontronic Systems2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 30247-30252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-demand local release of biomolecules enables fine-tuned stimulation for the next generation of neuromodulation therapies. Such chemical stimulation is achievable using iontronic devices based on microfabricated, highly selective ion exchange membranes (IEMs). Current limitations in processability and performance of thin film LEMs hamper future developments of this technology. Here we address this limitation by developing a cationic IEM with excellent processability and ionic selectivity: poly(4-styrenesulfonic acidco-maleic acid) (PSS-co-MA) cross-linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG). This enables new design opportunities and provides enhanced compatibility with in vitro cell studies. PSSA-co-MA/PEG is shown to out-perform the cation selectivity of the previously used iontronic material.

  • 2.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion Electron-Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1805813Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between charge accumulation in a conjugated polymer and the ionic charge compensation, provided from an electrolyte, defines the mode of operation in a vast array of different organic electrochemical devices. The most explored mixed organic ion-electron conductor, serving as the active electrode in these devices, is poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrelensulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). In this progress report, scientists of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linkoping University review some of the achievements derived over the last two decades in the field of organic electrochemical devices, in particular including PEDOT:PSS as the active material. The recently established understanding of the volumetric capacitance and the mixed ion-electron charge transport properties of PEDOT are described along with examples of various devices and phenomena utilizing this ion-electron coupling, such as the organic electrochemical transistor, ionic-electronic thermodiffusion, electrochromic devices, surface switches, and more. One of the pioneers in this exciting research field is Prof. Olle Inganas and the authors of this progress report wish to celebrate and acknowledge all the fantastic achievements and inspiration accomplished by Prof. Inganas all since 1981.

  • 3.
    Cherian, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Large-area printed organic electronic ion pumps2019In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 022001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological systems use a large variety of ions and molecules of different sizes for signaling. Precise electronic regulation of biological systems therefore requires an interface which translates the electronic signals into chemically specific biological signals. One technology for this purpose that has been developed during the last decade is the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). To date, OEIPs have been fabricated by micropatterning and labor-intensive manual techniques, hindering the potential application areas of this promising technology. Here we show, for the first time, fully screen-printed OEIPs. We demonstrate a large-area printed design with manufacturing yield amp;gt;90%. Screen-printed cation- and anion-exchange membranes are both demonstrated with promising ion selectivity and performance, with transport verified for both small ions (Na+,K+,Cl-) and biologically-relevant molecules (the cationic neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the anionic anti-inflammatory salicylic acid). These advances open the iontronics toolbox to the world of printed electronics, paving the way for a broader arena for applications.

  • 4.
    Forro, Csaba
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Demko, Laszlo
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Weydert, Serge
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Voros, Janos
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Predictive Model for the Electrical Transport within Nanowire Networks2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 11080-11087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin networks of high aspect ratio conductive nanowires can combine high electrical conductivity with excellent optical transparency, which has led to a widespread use of nanowires in transparent electrodes, transistors, sensors, and flexible and stretchable conductors. Although the material and application aspects of conductive nanowire films have been thoroughly explored, there is still no model which can relate fundamental physical quantities, like wire resistance, contact resistance, and nanowire density, to the sheet resistance of the film. Here, we derive an analytical model for the electrical conduction within nanowire networks based on an analysis of the parallel resistor network. The model captures the transport characteristics and fits a wide range of experimental data, allowing for the determination of physical parameters and performance-limiting factors, in sharp contrast to the commonly employed percolation theory. The model thus constitutes a useful tool with predictive power for the evaluation and optimization of nanowire networks in various applications.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-06 15:02
  • 5.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 30, p. 5143-5147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species or gas typically arising from electrode side-reactions.

  • 6.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion diode logics for pH control2012In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 12, no 14, p. 2507-2513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic control over the generation, transport, and delivery of ions is useful in order to regulate reactions, functions, and processes in various chemical and biological systems. Different kinds of ion diodes and transistors that exhibit non-linear current versus voltage characteristics have been explored to generate chemical gradients and signals. Bipolar membranes (BMs) exhibit both ion current rectification and water splitting and are thus suitable as ion diodes for the regulation of pH. To date, fast switching ion diodes have been difficult to realize due to accumulation of ions inside the device structure at forward bias – charges that take a long time to deplete at reverse bias. Water splitting occurs at elevated reverse voltage bias and is a feature that renders high ion current rectification impossible. This makes integration of ion diodes in circuits difficult. Here, we report three different designs of micro-fabricated ion bipolar membrane diodes (IBMDs). The first two designs consist of single BM configurations, and are capable of either splitting water or providing high current rectification. In the third design, water-splitting BMs and a highly-rectifying BM are connected in series, thus suppressing accumulation of ions. The resulting IBMD shows less hysteresis, faster off-switching, and also a high ion current rectification ratio as compared to the single BM devices. Further, the IBMD was integrated in a diode-based AND gate, which is capable of controlling delivery of hydroxide ions into a receiving reservoir.

  • 7.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyphosphonium-Based Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors2014In: Biomicrofluidics, ISSN 1932-1058, E-ISSN 1932-1058, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 064116-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons, but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e. ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example addressable drug-delivery devices.

  • 8.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatially Controlled Amyloid Reactions Using Organic Electronics2010In: SMALL, ISSN 1613-6810, Vol. 6, no 19, p. 2153-2161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abnormal protein aggregates, so called amyloid fibrils, are mainly known as pathological hallmarks of a wide range of diseases, but in addition these robust well-ordered self-assembled natural nanostructures can also be utilized for creating distinct nanomaterials for bioelectronic devices. However, current methods for producing amyloid fibrils in vitro offer no spatial control. Herein, we demonstrate a new way to produce and spatially control the assembly of amyloid-like structures using an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) to pump distinct cations to a reservoir containing a negatively charged polypeptide. The morphology and kinetics of the created proteinaceous nanomaterials depends on the ion and current used, which we leveraged to create layers incorporating different conjugated thiophene derivatives, one fluorescent (p-FTAA) and one conducting (PEDOT-S). We anticipate that this new application for the OEIP will be useful for both biological studies of amyloid assembly and fibrillogenesis as well as for creating new bioelectronic nanomaterials and devices.

  • 9.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical delivery array with millisecond neurotransmitter release2016In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 2, no 11, article id e1601340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies that restore or augment dysfunctional neural signaling represent a promising route to deeper understanding and new therapies for neurological disorders. Because of the chemical specificity and subsecond signaling of the nervous system, these technologies should be able to release specific neurotransmitters at specific locations with millisecond resolution. We have previously demonstrated an organic electronic lateral electrophoresis technology capable of precise delivery of charged compounds, such as neurotransmitters. However, this technology, the organic electronic ion pump, has been limited to a single delivery point, or several simultaneously addressed outlets, with switch-on speeds of seconds. We report on a vertical neurotransmitter delivery device, configured as an array with individually controlled delivery points and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. This is achieved by supplementing lateral electrophoresis with a control electrode and an ion diode at each delivery point to allow addressing and limit leakage. By delivering local pulses of neurotransmitters with spatiotemporal dynamics approaching synaptic function, the high-speed delivery array promises unprecedented access to neural signaling and a path toward biochemically regulated neural prostheses.

  • 10.
    Persson, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. ETH, Switzerland.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matrix Addressing of an Electronic Surface Switch Based on a Conjugated Polyelectrolyte for Cell Sorting2015In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 25, no 45, p. 7056-7063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial control of cell detachment is potentially of great interest when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes. Here, selective detachment and cell sorting of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts is achieved using thin films of a conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the polymer film swells, cracks, and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography to fabricate a cross-point matrix with polymer pixels that can be individually addressed and thus detached. Detachment occurs above a well-defined threshold of +0.7 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing the use of a relatively simple and easily manufactured passive matrix-addressing configuration, based on a resistor network, to control the cell-sorting device.

  • 11.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna Lönnqvist
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selective Detachment of Human Primary Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Using an Addressable Conjugated Polymer Matrix2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been used in several applications for electronic control of cell cultures over the last years. We have shown detachment of human endothelial cells using a thin film of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the film swells, cracks and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography. The detachment only occurs above a threshold potential of +0.7 V and this fact has been used to create a simple actively addressed matrix, based on a resistor network placed in an encapsulated back plane. The matrix has individually detachable pixels. In this paper we have evaluated detachment of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts using PEDOT-S:H. In addition, we have studied effects of serum proteins, added as nutrients to the cell culture medium, on the detachment properties. It was found that at prolonged incubation times protein adhesion effectively stopped the detachment. Using shorter incubation times before detachment, both keratinocytes and fibroblasts can be detached using a regular planar device as well as the matrix device for selective detachment. Spatial control of detachment could be of use when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes.

  • 12.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ohkubo, Isao
    Natl Inst Mat Sci, Japan.
    Satoh, Norifusa
    Natl Inst Mat Sci, Japan.
    Mori, Takao
    Natl Inst Mat Sci, Japan; Univ Tsukuba, Japan.
    Thermoelectric materials and applications for energy harvesting power generation2018In: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1468-6996, E-ISSN 1878-5514, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 836-862Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectrics, in particular solid-state conversion of heat to electricity, is expected to be a key energy harvesting technology to power ubiquitous sensors and wearable devices in the future. A comprehensive review is given on the principles and advances in the development of thermoelectric materials suitable for energy harvesting power generation, ranging from organic and hybrid organic-inorganic to inorganic materials. Examples of design and applications are also presented. [GRAPHICS] .

  • 13.
    Poxson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bonisoli, Alberto
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; St Anna Sch Adv Studies, Italy.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matthiesen, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Capillary-Fiber Based Electrophoretic Delivery Device2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 14200-14207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) are versatile tools for electrophoretic delivery of substances with high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, OEIPs and similar iontronic components have been fabricated using thin-film techniques and often rely on laborious, multistep photolithographic processes. OEIPs have been demonstrated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings for controlling biological systems, but the thin-film form factor and limited repertoire of polyelectrolyte materials and device fabrication techniques unnecessarily constrain the possibilities for miniaturization and extremely localized substance delivery, e.g., the greater range of pharmaceutical compounds, on the scale of a single cell. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new OEIP form factor based on capillary fibers that include hyperbranched polyglycerols (dPGs) as the selective electrophoretic membrane. The dPGs enable electrophoretic channels with a high concentration of fixed charges and well-controlled cross-linking and can be realized using a simple one-pot fluidic manufacturing protocol. Selective electrophoretic transport of cations and anions of various sizes is demonstrated, including large substances that are difficult to transport with other OEIP technologies. We present a method for tailoring and characterizing the electrophoretic channels fixed charge concentration in the operational state. Subsequently, we compare the experimental performance of these capillary OEIPs to a computational model and explain unexpected features in the ionic current for the transport and delivery of larger, lower-mobility ionic compounds. From this model, we are able to elucidate several operational and design principles relevant to miniaturized electrophoretic drug delivery technologies in general. Overall, the compactness of the capillary OEIP enables electrophoretic delivery devices with probelike geometries, suitable for a variety of ionic compounds, paving the way for less-invasive implantation into biological systems and for healthcare applications.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-27 15:15
  • 14.
    Seitanidou, Maria S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices2019In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1427-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) have been used for delivery of biological signaling compounds, at high spatiotemporal resolution, to a variety of biological targets. The miniaturization of this technology provides several advantages, ranging from better spatiotemporal control of delivery to reduced invasiveness for implanted OEIPs. One route to miniaturization is to develop OEIPs based on glass capillary fibers that are filled with a polyelectrolyte (cation exchange membrane, CEM). These devices can be easily inserted and brought into close proximity to targeted cells and tissues and could be considered as a starting point for other fiber-based OEIP and iontronic technologies enabling favorable implantable device geometries. While characterizing capillary OEIPs we observed deviations from the typical linear current-voltage behavior. Here we report a systematic investigation of these irregularities by performing experimental characterizations in combination with computational modelling. The cause of the observed irregularities is due to concentration polarization established at the OEIP inlet, which in turn causes electric field-enhanced water dissociation at the inlet. Water dissociation generates protons and is typically problematic for many applications. By adding an ion-selective cap that separates the inlet from the source reservoir this effect is then, to a large extent, suppressed. By increasing the surface area of the inlet with the addition of the cap, the concentration polarization is reduced which thereby allows for significantly higher delivery rates. These results demonstrate a useful approach to optimize transport and delivery of therapeutic substances at low concentrations via miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices, thus considerably broadening the opportunities for implantable OEIP applications.

  • 15.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, K
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för Neurovetenskap.
    Kurup, Sinduh
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för Neurovetenskap.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för Neurovetenskap.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Organic Electronic Ion Pump to Regulate Intracellular Signaling at High Spatiotemporal Resolution2009In: Transducers 2009: The 15th international conference on Solid-State Sensor, Actuators and Microsystems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 1790-1793Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current technologies for cell stimulation suffer from a variety of drawbacks. Indeed, precise, localized, and minimally disruptive machine-to-cell interfacing is difficult to achieve. Here we present the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP), a polymer-based delivery system exhibiting high spatial, temporal, and dosage precision. Based on electrophoretic transport of positively charged species, the OEIP can deliver - with high precision - an array of biologically relevant substances without fluid flow, thus eliminating convective disturbance of the target system's environment. We discuss our results to date, including oscillatory delivery profiles and stimulation of neuronal cells in vitro, as well as our ongoing work.

  • 16.
    Simon, Daniel T
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic Bioelectronics: Bridging the Signaling Gap between Biology and Technology2016In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 116, no 21, p. 13009-13041Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronics surrounding us in our daily lives rely almost exclusively on electrons as the dominant charge carrier. In stark contrast, biological systems rarely use electrons but rather use ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conducting and semiconducting organic polymers and small molecules, these materials have emerged in recent decades as excellent tools for translating signals between these two realms and, therefore, providing a means to effectively interface biology with conventional electronics-thus, the field of organic bioelectronics. Today, organic bioelectronics defines a generic platform with unprecedented biological recording and regulation tools and is maturing toward applications ranging from life sciences to the clinic. In this Review, we introduce the field, from its early breakthroughs to its current results and future challenges.

  • 17.
    Simon, Daniel T
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kurup, Sindhulakshmi
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Karin C
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hori, Ryusuke
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Goiny, Michel
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jager, Edwin W H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Canlon, Barbara
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Organic electronics for precise delivery of neurotransmitters to modulate mammalian sensory function.2009In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 742-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology, molecular targets and therapies for the treatment of a variety of nervous-system disorders. Particular therapies involve electrical sensing and stimulation of neural activity, and significant effort has therefore been devoted to the refinement of neural electrodes. However, direct electrical interfacing suffers from some inherent problems, such as the inability to discriminate amongst cell types. Thus, there is a need for novel devices to specifically interface nerve cells. Here, we demonstrate an organic electronic device capable of precisely delivering neurotransmitters in vitro and in vivo. In converting electronic addressing into delivery of neurotransmitters, the device mimics the nerve synapse. Using the peripheral auditory system, we show that out of a diverse population of cells, the device can selectively stimulate nerve cells responding to a specific neurotransmitter. This is achieved by precise electronic control of electrophoretic migration through a polymer film. This mechanism provides several sought-after features for regulation of cell signalling: exact dosage determination through electrochemical relationships, minimally disruptive delivery due to lack of fluid flow, and on-off switching. This technology has great potential as a therapeutic platform and could help accelerate the development of therapeutic strategies for nervous-system disorders.

  • 18.
    Stauffer, Flurin
    et al.
    Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bright Stretchable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Displays Based on High Permittivity Composites2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 33, p. 7200-7203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high permittivity composite is developed to enhance the brightness of stretchable electroluminescent displays. The unique two-step assembly process yields dense layers, in which the voids around the electroluminescent particles are filled with smaller high dielectric particles. A stretchable seven-segment display based on the composite is bright enough to be used under standard indoor lighting conditions.

  • 19.
    Stauffer, Flurin
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Zhang, Qiang
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Zambrano, Byron Llerena
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Hengsteler, Julian
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Stoll, Andre
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Trueeb, Camill
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Hagander, Michael
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Sujata, Jean-Marc
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Hoffmann, Felix
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Stekhoven, Joy Schuurmans
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Quack, Josefine
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Zilly, Hannes
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Goedejohann, Johannes
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Schneider, Marc P.
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland; Univ Zurich, Switzerland; Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Kessler, Thomas M.
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Taylor, William R.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Kueng, Roland
    Zurich Univ Appl Sci, Switzerland.
    Voeroes, Janos
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Soft Electronic Strain Sensor with Chipless Wireless Readout: Toward Real-Time Monitoring of Bladder Volume2018In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 6, article id 1800031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensing mechanical tissue deformation in vivo can provide detailed information on organ functionality and tissue states. To bridge the huge mechanical mismatch between conventional electronics and biological tissues, stretchable electronic systems have recently been developed for interfacing tissues in healthcare applications. A major challenge for wireless electronic implants is that they typically require microchips, which adds complexity and may compromise long-term stability. Here, a chipless wireless strain sensor technology based on a novel soft conductor with high cyclic stability is reported. The composite material consists of gold-coated titanium dioxide nanowires embedded in a soft silicone elastomer. The implantable strain sensor is based on an resonant circuit which consists of a stretchable plate capacitor and a coil for inductive readout of its resonance frequency. Successful continuous wireless readout during 50% strain cycles is demonstrated. The sensor element has a Youngs modulus of 260 kPa, similar to that of the bladder in order to not impair physiological bladder expansion. A proof-of-principle measurement on an ex vivo porcine bladder is presented, which shows the feasibility of the presented materials and devices for continuous, wireless strain monitoring of various tissues and organs in vivo.

  • 20.
    Tiefenauer, Raphael F.
    et al.
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. ETH, Switzerland.
    Aramesh, Morteza
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Voros, Janos
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Fast and Versatile Multiscale Patterning by Combining Template-Stripping with Nanotransfer Printing2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 2514-2520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal nanostructures are widely used in plasmonic and electronic applications due to their inherent properties. Often, the fabrication of such nanostructures is limited to small areas, as the processing is costly, low throughput, and comprises harsh fabrication conditions. Here, we introduce a template-stripping based nanotransfer printing method to overcome these limitations. This versatile technique enables the transfer of arbitrary thin film metal structures onto a variety of substrates, including glass, Kapton, silicon, and PDMS. Structures can range from tens of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers over a wafer scale area. The process is organic solvent-free, multilayer compatible, and only takes minutes to perform. The stability of the transferred gold structures on glass exceeds by far those fabricated by e-beam evaporation. Therefore, an adhesion layer is no longer needed, enabling a faster and cheaper fabrication as well as the production of superior nanostructures. Structures can be transferred onto curved substrates, and the technique is compatible with roll-to-roll fabrication; thus, the process is suitable for flexible and stretchable electronics.

  • 21.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring the potential of ionic bipolar diodes for chemical neural interfaces2017In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 13, no 44, p. 8171-8177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology interfaces which can imitate the chemically specific signaling of nervous tissues are attractive for studying and developing therapies for neurological disorders. As the signaling in nervous tissue is highly spatiotemporal in nature, an interfacing technology should provide local neurotransmitter release in the millisecond range. To obtain such a speed, the neurotransmitters must be stored close to the release point, while avoiding substantial passive leakage. Here we theoretically investigate whether ionic bipolar diodes can be used for this purpose. We find that if a sufficiently large reverse potential is applied, the passive leakage can be suppressed to negligible levels due to the high local electric field within the bipolar diode. The influences of various design parameters are studied to determine the optimal design and operation. Finally, the delivery speed of the component is evaluated using time-dependent simulations, which show that the release of neurotransmitters to physiologically relevant concentrations can be achieved in less than 10 ms. Altogether, the results suggest that ionic bipolar diodes constitute a highly attractive technology for achieving high speed low leakage addressable delivery circuits for neural interfaces.

  • 22.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ionic Circuits for Transduction of Electronic Signals into Biological Stimuli2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern electronics has revolutionized the way information is processed and stored in our society. In health care and in biology it is of great interest to utilize technology to regulate physiology and to control the signaling pathways. Therefore, the coupling of electronic signals to biological functions is of great importance to many fields within the life sciences. In addition to the conventional inorganic electronics, a new branch of electronics based on organic materials has emerged during the last three decades. Some of these organic materials are very attractive for interacting with living systems since they are soft, flexible and have benevolent chemical properties.

    This thesis is focused on the development of ionic circuits for transduction of electronic signals into biological stimuli. By developing such an intermediate system technology between traditional electronics and biology, signals with chemical specificity may be controlled and addressed electronically. First, a technology is described that enables direct conversion of electronic signals into ionic ones by the use biocompatible conductive polymer electrodes. The ionic bio-signals are transported in lateral channel configurations on plastic chips and precise spatiotemporal delivery of neurotransmitter, to regulate signaling in cultured neuronal cells, is demonstrated. Then, in order to achieve more advanced ionic circuit functionality, ion bipolar junction transistors were developed. These ion transistors comprise three terminals, in which a small ion current through one terminal modulates a larger ion current between the other two terminals. The devices are functional at physiological salt concentrations and are utilized to modulate neurotransmitter delivery to control Ca2+ signaling in neuronal cells. Finally, by integrating two types of transistors into the same chip, complementary NOT and NAND ion logic gates were realized for the first time. Together, the findings presented in this thesis lay the groundwork for more complex ionic circuits, such as matrix addressable delivery circuits, in which dispensing of chemical and biological signals can be directed at high spatiotemporal resolution.

    List of papers
    1. Translating Electronic Currents to Precise Acetylcholine-Induced Neuronal Signaling Using an Organic Electrophoretic Delivery Device
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translating Electronic Currents to Precise Acetylcholine-Induced Neuronal Signaling Using an Organic Electrophoretic Delivery Device
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 44, p. 4442-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A miniaturized organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) based on conjugated polymers is developed for delivery of positively charged biomolecules. Characterization shows that applied voltage can precisely modulate the delivery rate of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The capability of the device is demonstrated by convection-free, spatiotemporally resolved delivery of acetylcholine via a 10 mu m channel for dynamic stimulation of single neuronal cells.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52901 (URN)10.1002/adma.200900187 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-01-13 Created: 2010-01-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    2. Spatially Controlled Amyloid Reactions Using Organic Electronics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatially Controlled Amyloid Reactions Using Organic Electronics
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: SMALL, ISSN 1613-6810, Vol. 6, no 19, p. 2153-2161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abnormal protein aggregates, so called amyloid fibrils, are mainly known as pathological hallmarks of a wide range of diseases, but in addition these robust well-ordered self-assembled natural nanostructures can also be utilized for creating distinct nanomaterials for bioelectronic devices. However, current methods for producing amyloid fibrils in vitro offer no spatial control. Herein, we demonstrate a new way to produce and spatially control the assembly of amyloid-like structures using an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) to pump distinct cations to a reservoir containing a negatively charged polypeptide. The morphology and kinetics of the created proteinaceous nanomaterials depends on the ion and current used, which we leveraged to create layers incorporating different conjugated thiophene derivatives, one fluorescent (p-FTAA) and one conducting (PEDOT-S). We anticipate that this new application for the OEIP will be useful for both biological studies of amyloid assembly and fibrillogenesis as well as for creating new bioelectronic nanomaterials and devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2010
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61175 (URN)10.1002/smll.201001157 (DOI)000283274100013 ()
    Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2018-04-25
    3. Ion bipolar junction transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion bipolar junction transistors
    2010 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ISSN 0027-8424, Vol. 107, no 22, p. 9929-9932Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    National Academy of Sciences; 1999, 2010
    Keywords
    ionic transistor, ionic transport, conducting polymers, cell signaling
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57384 (URN)10.1073/pnas.0913911107 (DOI)000278246000006 ()
    Available from: 2010-06-18 Created: 2010-06-18 Last updated: 2017-02-03
    4. Toward Complementary Ionic Circuits: The npn Ion Bipolar Junction Transistor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Complementary Ionic Circuits: The npn Ion Bipolar Junction Transistor
    2011 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, no 26, p. 10141-10145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many biomolecules are charged and may therefore be transported with ionic currents. As a step toward addressable ionic delivery circuits, we report on the development of a npn ion bipolar junction transistor (npn-IBJT) as an active control element of anionic currents in general, and specifically, demonstrate actively modulated delivery of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. The functional materials of this transistor are ion exchange layers and conjugated polymers. The npn-IBJT shows stable transistor characteristics over extensive time of operation and ion current switch times below 10 s. Our results promise complementary chemical circuits similar to the electronic equivalence, which has proven invaluable in conventional electronic applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACS American Chemical Society, 2011
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69799 (URN)10.1021/ja200492c (DOI)000292715600041 ()
    Available from: 2011-08-10 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08
    5. Logic gates based on ion transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Logic gates based on ion transistors
    2012 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 3, no 871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2012
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78819 (URN)10.1038/ncomms1869 (DOI)000304611400066 ()
    Note
    Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||VINNOVA (OBOE - Strategic Research Center for Organic Bioelectronics)||Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation||Royal Swedish Academy of Science||Swedish Research Council|621-2008-2642|Onnesjo Foundation||Available from: 2012-06-21 Created: 2012-06-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07
  • 23.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Babu Kollipara, Suresh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic electrochemical transistors for signal amplification in fast scan cyclic voltammetry2014In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 195, p. 651-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method commonly used in neuroscience for spatiotemporal measurement of the concentration of dopamine and other electroactive species. Since FSCV involves wide bandwidth measurements of low currents, the technique is normally very sensitive to electrical noise and is typically performed inside a Faraday cage. In order to reduce the electrical noise and to enable measurements in an unshielded environment, we take use of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) to amplify the FSCV signals. OECTs based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were microfabricated and characterized. A patterned 10 mu m gold microelectrode was used as the sensing electrode and the FSCV signal was amplified by the OECT. With this approach, successful measurements of dopamine concentrations in the 10 mu m range were performed in a completely unshielded measurement setup. Our results demonstrate how OECTs can successfully be used in an on-site amplification application to characterize biochemical signals, thus open up new trails for flexible multifunctional organic bioelectronics systems.

  • 24.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logic gates based on ion transistors2012In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 3, no 871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.

  • 25.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Toward Complementary Ionic Circuits: The npn Ion Bipolar Junction Transistor2011In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, no 26, p. 10141-10145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many biomolecules are charged and may therefore be transported with ionic currents. As a step toward addressable ionic delivery circuits, we report on the development of a npn ion bipolar junction transistor (npn-IBJT) as an active control element of anionic currents in general, and specifically, demonstrate actively modulated delivery of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. The functional materials of this transistor are ion exchange layers and conjugated polymers. The npn-IBJT shows stable transistor characteristics over extensive time of operation and ion current switch times below 10 s. Our results promise complementary chemical circuits similar to the electronic equivalence, which has proven invaluable in conventional electronic applications.

  • 26.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. ETH, Switzerland.
    Khodagholy, Dion
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA; NYU, NY 10016 USA.
    Dielacher, Bernd
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Stauffer, Flurin
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Renz, Aline F.
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Buzsaki, Gyorgy
    NYU, NY 10016 USA.
    Voros, Janos
    ETH, Switzerland.
    High-Density Stretchable Electrode Grids for Chronic Neural Recording2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 15, article id 1706520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical interfacing with neural tissue is key to advancing diagnosis and therapies for neurological disorders, as well as providing detailed information about neural signals. A challenge for creating long-term stable interfaces between electronics and neural tissue is the huge mechanical mismatch between the systems. So far, materials and fabrication processes have restricted the development of soft electrode grids able to combine high performance, long-term stability, and high electrode density, aspects all essential for neural interfacing. Here, this challenge is addressed by developing a soft, high-density, stretchable electrode grid based on an inert, high-performance composite material comprising gold-coated titanium dioxide nanowires embedded in a silicone matrix. The developed grid can resolve high spatiotemporal neural signals from the surface of the cortex in freely moving rats with stable neural recording quality and preserved electrode signal coherence during 3 months of implantation. Due to its flexible and stretchable nature, it is possible to minimize the size of the craniotomy required for placement, further reducing the level of invasiveness. The material and device technology presented herein have potential for a wide range of emerging biomedical applications.

  • 27.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Karin C
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kurup, Sindhulakshmi
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kjall, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Acreo AB, SE-60221 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Translating Electronic Currents to Precise Acetylcholine-Induced Neuronal Signaling Using an Organic Electrophoretic Delivery Device2009In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 44, p. 4442-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A miniaturized organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) based on conjugated polymers is developed for delivery of positively charged biomolecules. Characterization shows that applied voltage can precisely modulate the delivery rate of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The capability of the device is demonstrated by convection-free, spatiotemporally resolved delivery of acetylcholine via a 10 mu m channel for dynamic stimulation of single neuronal cells.

  • 28.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Karin C
    Karolinska Institute.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion bipolar junction transistors2010In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ISSN 0027-8424, Vol. 107, no 22, p. 9929-9932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  • 29.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Institute for Biomedical Engineering ETH Zurich, Zurich Switzerland.
    Stauffer, Flurin
    Institute for Biomedical Engineering ETH Zurich, Zurich Switzerland.
    Vörös, Janos
    Institute for Biomedical Engineering ETH Zurich, Zurich Switzerland.
    Multilayer Patterning of High Resolution Intrinsically Stretchable Electronics2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, p. 1-6, article id 25641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stretchable electronics can bridge the gap between hard planar electronic circuits and the curved, soft and elastic objects of nature. This has led to applications like conformal displays, electronic skin and soft neuroprosthetics. A remaining challenge, however, is to match the dimensions of the interfaced systems, as all require feature sizes well below 100 μm. Intrinsically stretchable nanocomposites are attractive in this context as the mechanical deformations occur on the nanoscale, although methods for patterning high performance materials have been lacking. Here we address these issues by reporting on a multilayer additive patterning approach for high resolution fabrication of stretchable electronic devices. The method yields highly conductive 30 μm tracks with similar performance to their macroscopic counterparts. Further, we demonstrate a three layer micropatterned stretchable electroluminescent display with pixel sizes down to 70 μm. These presented findings pave the way towards future developments of high definition displays, electronic skins and dense multielectrode arrays.

  • 30.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Vörös, Janos
    Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fast and Efficient Fabrication of Intrinsically Stretchable Multilayer Circuit Boards by Wax Pattern Assisted Filtration2016In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 180-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsically stretchable multilayer circuit boards are fabricated with a fast and material efficient method based on filtration. Silver nanowire conductor patterns of outstanding performance are defined by filtration through wax printed membranes and the circuit board is assembled by subsequent transfers of the nanowires onto the elastomer substrate. The method is used to fabricate a bright stretchable light emitting diode matrix display.

  • 31.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical potential-electric double layer coupling in conjugated polymer-polyelectrolyte blends2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 12, article id eaao3659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer-polyelectrolyte blends combine and couple electronic semiconductor functionality with selective ionic transport, making them attractive as the active material in organic biosensors and bioelectronics, electrochromic displays, neuromorphic computing, and energy conversion and storage. Although extensively studied and explored, fundamental knowledge and accurate quantitative models of the coupled ion-electron functionality and transport are still lacking to predict the characteristics of electrodes and devices based on these blends. We report on a two-phase model, which couples the chemical potential of the holes, in the conjugated polymer, with the electric double layer residing at the conjugated polymer-polyelectrolyte interface. The model reproduces a wide range of experimental charging and transport data and provides a coherent theoretical framework for the system as well as local electrostatic potentials, energy levels, and charge carrier concentrations. This knowledge is crucial for future developments and optimizations of bioelectronic and energy devices based on the electronic-ionic interaction within these materials.

  • 32.
    Volkov, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling of Charge Transport in Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 23, p. 6999-7005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatiotemporal control of the complex chemical microenvironment is of great importance to many fields within life science. One way to facilitate such control is to construct delivery circuits, comprising arrays of dispensing outlets, for ions and charged biomolecules based on ionic transistors. This allows for addressability of ionic signals, which opens up for spatiotemporally controlled delivery in a highly complex manner. One class of ionic transistors, the ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs), is especially attractive for these applications because these transistors are functional at physiological conditions and have been employed to modulate the delivery of neurotransmitters to regulate signaling in neuronal cells. Further, the first integrated complementary ionic circuits were recently developed on the basis of these ionic transistors. However, a detailed understanding of the device physics of these transistors is still lacking and hampers further development of components and circuits. Here, we report on the modeling of IBJTs using Poissons and Nernst-Planck equations and the finite element method. A two-dimensional model of the device is employed that successfully reproduces the main characteristics of the measurement data. On the basis of the detailed concentration and potential profiles provided by the model, the different modes of operation of the transistor are analyzed as well as the transitions between the different modes. The model correctly predicts the measured threshold voltage, which is explained in terms of membrane potentials. All in all, the results provide the basis for a detailed understanding of IBJT operation. This new knowledge is employed to discuss potential improvements of ion bipolar junction transistors in terms of miniaturization and device parameters.

  • 33.
    Volkov, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wenzel Andreasen, Jens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding the Capacitance of PEDOT:PSS2017In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 27, no 28, article id 1700329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is the most studied and explored mixed ion-electron conducting polymer system. PEDOT: PSS is commonly included as an electroactive conductor in various organic devices, e.g., supercapacitors, displays, transistors, and energy-converters. In spite of its long-term use as a material for storage and transport of charges, the fundamentals of its bulk capacitance remain poorly understood. Generally, charge storage in supercapacitors is due to formation of electrical double layers or redox reactions, and it is widely accepted that PEDOT: PSS belongs to the latter category. Herein, experimental evidence and theoretical modeling results are reported that significantly depart from this commonly accepted picture. By applying a two-phase, 2D modeling approach it is demonstrated that the major contribution to the capacitance of the two-phase PEDOT: PSS originates from electrical double layers formed along the interfaces between nanoscaled PEDOT-rich and PSS-rich interconnected grains that comprises two phases of the bulk of PEDOT: PSS. This new insight paves a way for designing materials and devices, based on mixed ion-electron conductors, with improved performance.

  • 34.
    Wang, Zhen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tian, Weiqian
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Marais, Andrew
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wagberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Hamedi, Mahiar Max
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Layer-by-Layer Assembly of High-Performance Electroactive Composites Using a Multiple Charged Small Molecule2019In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 35, no 32, p. 10367-10373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a versatile tool for fabricating multilayers with tailorable nanostructures. LbL, however, generally relies on polyelectrolytes, which are mostly insulating and induce large interlayer distances. We demonstrate a method in which we replace polyelectrolytes with the smallest unit capable of LbL self-assembly: a molecule with multiple positive charges, tris(3-aminopropyl)amine (TAPA), to fabricate LbL films with negatively charged single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). TAPA introduces less defects during the LbL build-up and results in more efficient assembly of films with denser micromorphology. Twenty bilayers of TAPA/CNT showed a low sheet resistance of 11 k Omega, a high transparency of 91% at 500 nm, and a high electronic conductivity of 1100 S/m on planar substrates. We also fabricated LbL films on porous foams with a conductivity of 69 mS/m and used them as electrodes for supercapacitors with a high specific capacitance of 43 F/g at a discharging current density of 1 A/g.

1 - 34 of 34
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