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  • 1.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Management and Outcome in Non ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: Similarities and Differences Between Women nad Men2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non ST-elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes are the most frequent manifestations of acute ischemic heart disease. Gender differences in treatment intensity, including differences in level of care, have been reported. Also differences in benefit from certain treatments, especially invasive treatment, have been discussed. Finally, difference in outcome between men and women, have been proposed. Results have been inconsistent, partly depending on if and how adjustment for differences in background characteristics has been made. The aims of the studies in this thesis were to assess differences between the genders in baseline characteristics, level of care, medical treatment and non-invasive and invasive cardiac procedures. The aims were also to determine gender differences in short and long-term mortality, including impact of level of care, and to determine differences between the genders in benefit from an invasive strategy, with special reference to benefit in women.

    Method: We used prospectively collected data from the RIKS-HIA registry in two studies (Paper I and IV). In one study we merged data from patients admitted to general wards in the south-east region of Sweden (The AKUT registry), with data from patients admitted to CCU´s (RIKS-HIA) at participating hospitals during the same time (Paper II). We also randomly assigned women to a routine invasive or a selective invasive treatment strategy, and performed a meta-analysis, to determine gender differences in benefit from a routine invasive strategy (Paper III).

    Results: Women were older than men and more likely to have a history of diabetes and hypertension, while men were more likely to have a history of myocardial infarction and revascularisation. Women were also more likely to have normal coronary arteries on the angiogram. After adjustment for baseline differences there were only minor, and directionally inconsistent, differences between women and men in pharmacological treatment. Men were more often referred for coronary angiography, even after adjustment. While CABG-rate was lower in women, after adjustment PCI-rate was similar or even higher compared to men. After adjustment for differences in age, longterm outcome was better in women. In our small but randomised trial there was no benefit from a routine invasive strategy in women. A meta-analysis indicated interaction between gender and treatment strategy, with lack of benefit in women, in contrast to in men. However, our large observational study indicated no gender difference with an invasive strategy. Moreover, benefit was similar in women and men with invasive treatment.

    Conclusion: There are substantial differences between women and men in baseline characteristics that affect management and outcome more than gender per se. After adjustment women have better long-term outcome than men. There appear to be a difference in benefit from a routine invasive strategy between the genders, with less benefit in women, but in routine clinical management there was no difference between women and men managed with an invasive strategy.

    List of papers
    1. Gender differences in management and outcome in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences in management and outcome in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome
    2007 (English)In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 1357-1362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study gender differences in management and outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Design, setting and patients: Cohort study of 53 781 consecutive patients (37% women) from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA), with a diagnosis of either unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. All patients were admitted to intensive coronary care units in Sweden, between 1998 and 2002, and followed for 1 year. Main outcome measures: Treatment intensity and in-hospital, 30-day and 1 -year mortality. Results: Women were older (73 vs 69 years, p<0.001) and more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but less likely to have a history of myocardial infarction or revascularisation. After adjustment, there were no major differences in acute pharmacological treatment or prophylactic medication at discharge. Revascularisation was, however, even after adjustment, performed more often in men (OR 1.15, 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.21). After adjustment, there was no significant difference in in-hospital (OR 1.03, 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13) or 30-days (OR 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.15) mortality, but at 1 year being male was associated with higher mortality (OR 1.12, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19). Conclusion: Although women are somewhat less intensively treated, especially regarding invasive procedures, after adjustment for differences in background characteristics, they have better long-term outcomes than men.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMJ Publishing group Ltd, 2007
    Keywords
    acute coronary syndrome, gender
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47844 (URN)10.1136/hrt.2006.102012 (DOI)17085528 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Although women are less likely to be admitted to coronary care units, they are treated equally to men and have better outcome: A prospective cohort study in patients with non ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Although women are less likely to be admitted to coronary care units, they are treated equally to men and have better outcome: A prospective cohort study in patients with non ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes
    2009 (English)In: Acute cardiac care, ISSN 1748-295X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 173-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in admission level of care, management and outcome in patients with non ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), initially admitted to either coronary care units (CCU) or general wards. Method: Patients admitted to CCUs were routinely registered in the RIKS-HIA registry. In addition, patients admitted to general wards with suspected ACS were also identified and registered. Multivariable regression analysis was used to adjust for baseline differences between the genders. Results: We included 570 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of NSTE-ACS. Women were less likely to be admitted to coronary care units (56% versus 69%, P=0.002), even after adjustment (odds ratio (OR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.98). After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, women were treated similarly to men. We found no significant differences in crude short-, or long-term mortality between the genders. However, adjustment for background characteristics revealed lower one-year mortality in women (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34-0.99). Conclusion: In this study on patients with NSTE-ACS, women were less likely to be admitted to coronary care units. However, the overall treatment was as intensive for women as for men. Moreover, after adjustment, one-year mortality was lower in women.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa Healthcare, 2009
    Keywords
    Myocardial infarction; NSTE-ACS; gender differences; level of care
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53576 (URN)10.1080/17482940903215190 (DOI)19742351 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-01-25 Created: 2010-01-25 Last updated: 2013-09-11
    3.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
    4. Similar outcome with an invasive strategy in men and women with Non ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similar outcome with an invasive strategy in men and women with Non ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gender differences in benefit from an early invasive strategy in patients with Non ST-elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACS) have been debated and results are conflicting. Some studies have even indicated harm for women associated with a routine invasive strategy.

    Method: We included 46 455 patients ( 14 819 women (32%) and 31 636 men (68%)) from The Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA), with a diagnosis of either unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. All patients were admitted to intensive coronary care units in Sweden, between 2000 and 2006, and followed for 1 year. Adjustment for baseline differences between the genders was made.

    Results: In the non-invasive strategy arm relative risk (RR) of death was (women vs. men) 1.02 (95% CI, 0.94-1.11) and in the invasive strategy arm 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96-1.29). After adjustment for baseline differences between the genders with propensity score and discharge medication there was a trend towards lower mortality among women, RR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99) in the early non-invasive group but still no difference in the early invasive cohort RR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76-1.06). Results were similar with the combined end-point death/MI. The risk reduction with an invasive strategy was similar in women (RR 0.46 (95% CI 0.38-0.55)) and men (RR 0.45 (95% CI 0.40-0.52).

    Conclusion: In this large cohort of patients with NSTE ACS, reflecting real life management, women and men had similar outcome and similar benefit with an early invasive strategy.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53578 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-01-25 Created: 2010-01-25 Last updated: 2013-09-11
  • 2.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Duke University, NC 27710 USA.
    Alexander, Karen P.
    Duke University, NC 27710 USA.
    Multiple Chronic Conditions in Older Adults with Acute Coronary Syndromes2016In: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, ISSN 0749-0690, E-ISSN 1879-8853, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 291-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) often have multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). In addition to traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (ie, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes), common CV comorbidities include heart failure, stroke, and atrial fibrillation, whereas prevalent non-CV comorbidities include chronic kidney disease, anemia, depression, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The presence of MCCs affects the presentation (eg, increased frequency of type 2 myocardial infarctions [MIs]), clinical course, and prognosis of ACS in older adults. In general, higher comorbidity burden increases mortality following MI, reduces utilization of ACS treatments, and increases the importance of developing individualized treatment plans.

  • 3.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Clayton, Tim
    London School Hyg and Trop Med, England.
    Damman, Peter
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Fox, Keith A. A.
    Royal Infirm, Scotland.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Department of Cardiology, Cardiothoracic Centre, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Department of Cardiology, Cardiothoracic Centre, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    de Winter, Robbert J.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Impact of an invasive strategy on 5 years outcome in men and women with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes2014In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 168, no 4, p. 522-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A routine invasive (RI) strategy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) has been associated with better outcome compared with a selective invasive (SI) strategy in men, but results in women have yielded disparate results. The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in long-term outcome with an SI compared with an RI strategy in NSTE ACS. Methods Individual patient data were obtained from the FRISC II trial, ICTUS trial, and RITA 3 trial for a collaborative meta-analysis. Results Men treated with an RI strategy had significantly lower rate of the primary outcome 5-year cardiovascular (CV) death/myocardial infarction (MI) compared with men treated with an SI strategy (15.6% vs 19.8%, P = .001); risk-adjusted hazards ratio (HR) 0.73 (95% CI 0.63-0.86). In contrast, there was little impact of an RI compared with an SI strategy on the primary outcome among women (16.5% vs 15.1%, P = .324); risk-adjusted HR 1.13 (95% CI 0.89-1.43), interaction P = .01. For the individual components of the primary outcome, a similar pattern was seen with lower rate of MI (adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.83) and CV death (adjusted HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.89) in men but without obvious difference in women in MI (adjusted HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.85-1.50) or CV death (adjusted HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.68-1.39). Conclusions In this meta-analysis comparing an SI and RI strategy, benefit from an RI strategy during long-term follow-up was confirmed in men. Conversely, in women, there was no evidence of benefit.

  • 4.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Käll, Anna
    Tilander, Hanna
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sex matters-lipid goal achievement in a population admitted to a coronary care unit2008In: X Svenska Kardiovaskulära Vårmötet,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Number A13731

  • 5.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Lindahl, Tomas L
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Logander, Elisabeth
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Large early variation of residual platelet reactivity in Acute Coronary Syndrome patients treated with clopidogrel: Results from Assessing Platelet Activity in Coronary Heart Disease (APACHE).2015In: Thrombosis Research, ISSN 0049-3848, E-ISSN 1879-2472, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 335-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: There is a large inter-individual variation in response to clopidogrel treatment and previous studies have indicated higher risk of thrombotic events in patients with high residual platelet reactivity (HRPR), but the optimal time-point for testing is not established. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal time-point for aggregometry testing and the risk of major adverse cardiac events associated with HRPR.

    METHOD AND RESULTS: We included 125 patients with ACS (73 with STEMI, and 71 received abciximab). The prevalence of HRPR varied substantially over time. The rate of HRPR in patients treated and not treated with abciximab were 43% vs 67% (p=0.01) before, 2% vs 23% (p=0.001) 6-8h after, 8% vs 9% (p=0.749) 3days after, and 23% vs 12% (p=0.138) 7-9 days after loading dose of clopidogrel. We found HRPR in 18% of the patients but only four ischemic events during 6months follow-up, with no significant difference between HRPR patients compared to the rest of the population. There were 3 TIMI major bleedings, all of which occurred in the low residual platelet reactivity (LRPR) group.

    CONCLUSION: There is a large variation in platelet reactivity over time, also depending on adjunctive therapy, which has a large impact on optimal time-point for assessment. We found HRPR in almost 1 in 5 patients, but very few MACE, and not significantly higher in HRPR patients. In a contemporary ACS population, with low risk for stent thrombosis, the predictive value of HRPR for ischemic events will probably be low.

  • 6.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Lindbäck, Johan
    Uppsala University.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Similar outcome with an invasive strategy in men and women with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes From the Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART)2011In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 32, no 24, p. 3128-3136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To assess gender differences in outcome with an early invasive or non-invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods and results We included 46 455 patients [14 819 women (32%) and 31 636 men (68%)] from the SWEDEHEART register, with NSTE ACS, between 2000 and 2006, and followed them for 1 year. In the non-invasive strategy arm, the relative risk (RR) of death was (women vs. men) 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.11] and in the invasive strategy arm 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96-1.29). After adjustment for baseline differences between the genders, with propensity score and discharge medication, there was a similar trend towards better outcome among women in both the early non-invasive cohort [RR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99)] and the early invasive cohort [RR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76-1.06)], although it did not reach statistical significance in the early invasive cohort. Results were similar with the combined endpoint death/myocardial infarction. An early invasive treatment was associated with a marked, and similar, mortality reduction in women [RR 0.46 (95% CI, 0.38-0.55)] and men [RR 0.45 (95% CI, 0.40-0.52)], without interaction with gender. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion In this large cohort of patients with NSTE ACS, reflecting real-life management, women and men had similar and better outcome associated with an invasive strategy.

  • 7.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Roe, Matthew T.
    Duke University of School Med, NC USA.
    Risks and Benefits of Triple Oral Anti-Thrombotic Therapies After Acute Coronary Syndromes and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention2015In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 481-491Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key pathophysiological process underlying symptomatic coronary artery disease, including acute coronary syndromes (ACS), is usually a rupture or an erosion of an atherosclerotic plaque, followed by platelet activation and subsequent thrombus formation. Early clinical trials showed benefit with long-term aspirin treatment, and later-based on large clinical trials-dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT), initially with clopidogrel, and more recently with prasugrel or ticagrelor, has become the established treatment in the post-ACS setting and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Treatment with DAPT is recommended for both ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation ACS, as well as after PCI with stenting, in American and European clinical guidelines. Notwithstanding the benefits observed with DAPT, including third-generation P2Y(12) receptor inhibitors plus aspirin, ACS patients remain at high risk for a recurrent cardiovascular event, suggesting that other treatment strategies, including the addition of a third oral anti-platelet agent or a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) to standard DAPT regimens, may provide additional benefit for post-ACS patients and for patients undergoing PCI. Adding a third anti-thrombotic agent to DAPT after an ACS event or a PCI procedure has been shown to have modest benefit in terms of ischemic event reduction, but has consistently been associated with increased bleeding complications. Therefore, the quest to optimize anti-thrombotic therapies post-ACS and post-PCI continues unabated but is tempered by the historical experiences to date that indicate that careful patient and dose selection will be critical features of future randomized trials.

  • 8.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Gender influence tretment and outcome of patients with unstable coronary artery disease.2003In: European Heart Journal,2003, 2003, p. 72-72Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Unstable coronary artery disease - a missed diagnosis.2003In: European Heart Journal,2003, 2003, p. 74-74Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sederholm-Lawesson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Although women are less likely to be admitted to coronary care units, they are treated equally to men and have better outcome: A prospective cohort study in patients with non ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes2009In: Acute cardiac care, ISSN 1748-295X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in admission level of care, management and outcome in patients with non ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), initially admitted to either coronary care units (CCU) or general wards. Method: Patients admitted to CCUs were routinely registered in the RIKS-HIA registry. In addition, patients admitted to general wards with suspected ACS were also identified and registered. Multivariable regression analysis was used to adjust for baseline differences between the genders. Results: We included 570 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of NSTE-ACS. Women were less likely to be admitted to coronary care units (56% versus 69%, P=0.002), even after adjustment (odds ratio (OR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.98). After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, women were treated similarly to men. We found no significant differences in crude short-, or long-term mortality between the genders. However, adjustment for background characteristics revealed lower one-year mortality in women (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34-0.99). Conclusion: In this study on patients with NSTE-ACS, women were less likely to be admitted to coronary care units. However, the overall treatment was as intensive for women as for men. Moreover, after adjustment, one-year mortality was lower in women.

  • 11.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Duke Clin Research Institute, NC 27705 USA.
    Stebbins, Amanda
    Duke Clin Research Institute, NC 27705 USA.
    Brennan, J. Matthew
    Duke University, NC USA.
    Matsouaka, Roland
    Duke University, NC USA.
    Afilalo, Jonathan
    McGill University, Canada.
    Peterson, Eric D.
    Duke Clin Research Institute, NC 27705 USA; Duke University, NC USA.
    Vemulapalli, Sreekanth
    Duke University, NC USA.
    Rumsfeld, John S.
    University of Colorado, CO USA.
    Shahian, David
    Massachusetts Gen Hospital, MA 02114 USA.
    Mack, Michael J.
    Baylor Scott and White Heatlh, TX USA.
    Alexander, Karen P.
    Duke Clin Research Institute, NC 27705 USA; Duke University, NC USA.
    Gait Speed Predicts 30-Day Mortality After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Results From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry2016In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 133, no 14, p. 1351-1359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Surgical risk scores do not include frailty assessments (eg, gait speed), which are of particular importance for patients with severe aortic stenosis considering transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Methods and Results We assessed the association of 5-m gait speed with outcomes in a cohort of 8039 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (November 2011-June 2014) and were included in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry. We evaluated the association between continuous and categorical gait speed and 30-day all-cause mortality before and after adjustment for Society of Thoracic Surgeons-predicted risk of mortality score and key variables. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, bleeding, acute kidney injury, and stroke. The overall median gait speed was 0.63 m/s (25th-75th percentile, 0.47-0.79 m/s), with the slowest walkers (&lt;0.5 m/s) constituting 28%, slow walkers (0.5-0.83 m/s) making up 48%, and normal walkers (&gt;0.83 m/s) constituting 24% of the population. Thirty-day all-cause mortality rates were 8.4%, 6.6%, and 5.4% for the slowest, slow, and normal walkers, respectively (P&lt;0.001). Each 0.2-m/s decrease in gait speed corresponded to an 11% increase in 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.22). The slowest walkers had 35% higher 30-day mortality than normal walkers (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.80), significantly longer hospital stays, and a lower probability of being discharged to home. Conclusions Gait speed is independently associated with 30-day mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Identification of frail patients with the slowest gait speeds facilitates preprocedural evaluation and anticipation of a higher level of postprocedural care. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01737528.

  • 12.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lawesson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Gender differences in level of care, management and outcome in non ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes.2008In: ESC,2008, 2008, p. 3169-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lindback, J
    Wallentin, L
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Similar outcome in women and men with an invasive strategy2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lindbäck, Johan
    Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Similar outcome with an invasive strategy in men and women with Non ST-Elevation Acute Coronary SyndromesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gender differences in benefit from an early invasive strategy in patients with Non ST-elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACS) have been debated and results are conflicting. Some studies have even indicated harm for women associated with a routine invasive strategy.

    Method: We included 46 455 patients ( 14 819 women (32%) and 31 636 men (68%)) from The Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA), with a diagnosis of either unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. All patients were admitted to intensive coronary care units in Sweden, between 2000 and 2006, and followed for 1 year. Adjustment for baseline differences between the genders was made.

    Results: In the non-invasive strategy arm relative risk (RR) of death was (women vs. men) 1.02 (95% CI, 0.94-1.11) and in the invasive strategy arm 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96-1.29). After adjustment for baseline differences between the genders with propensity score and discharge medication there was a trend towards lower mortality among women, RR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99) in the early non-invasive group but still no difference in the early invasive cohort RR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76-1.06). Results were similar with the combined end-point death/MI. The risk reduction with an invasive strategy was similar in women (RR 0.46 (95% CI 0.38-0.55)) and men (RR 0.45 (95% CI 0.40-0.52).

    Conclusion: In this large cohort of patients with NSTE ACS, reflecting real life management, women and men had similar outcome and similar benefit with an early invasive strategy.

  • 15.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, L
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sex-based differences in management and outcome in unstable coronary artery disease2005In: Second International Conference on Women, Heart disease and Stroke,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Gender differences in management and outcome in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome2007In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 1357-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study gender differences in management and outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Design, setting and patients: Cohort study of 53 781 consecutive patients (37% women) from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA), with a diagnosis of either unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. All patients were admitted to intensive coronary care units in Sweden, between 1998 and 2002, and followed for 1 year. Main outcome measures: Treatment intensity and in-hospital, 30-day and 1 -year mortality. Results: Women were older (73 vs 69 years, p<0.001) and more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but less likely to have a history of myocardial infarction or revascularisation. After adjustment, there were no major differences in acute pharmacological treatment or prophylactic medication at discharge. Revascularisation was, however, even after adjustment, performed more often in men (OR 1.15, 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.21). After adjustment, there was no significant difference in in-hospital (OR 1.03, 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13) or 30-days (OR 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.15) mortality, but at 1 year being male was associated with higher mortality (OR 1.12, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19). Conclusion: Although women are somewhat less intensively treated, especially regarding invasive procedures, after adjustment for differences in background characteristics, they have better long-term outcomes than men.

  • 17.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Management of acute coronary syndromes from a gender perspective2010In: FUNDAMENTAL and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, ISSN 0767-3981, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 719-728Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute Coronary Syndromes are the most frequent manifestations of coronary heart disease (CHD). Gender differences in treatment intensity, including differences in level of care, have been reported. Also differences in benefit from certain treatments, especially invasive treatment, have been discussed. Finally, differences in outcome between men and women have been proposed. Results have been inconsistent, partly depending on if and how adjustment for differences in background characteristics has been made.

  • 18.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, L
    ST-segment depression and elevated biochemical cardiac markers are highly predictive of worse outcome in both women and men.2004In: XXVI Congress of the European Soceity of Cardiology,2004, 2004, p. 1762-1762Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    De Geer, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Sandstedt, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Björkholm, Anders
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Software-based on-site estimation of fractional flow reserve using standard coronary CT angiography data.2016In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 57, no 10, p. 1186-1192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The significance of a coronary stenosis can be determined by measuring the fractional flow reserve (FFR) during invasive coronary angiography. Recently, methods have been developed which claim to be able to estimate FFR using image data from standard coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) exams.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of non-invasively computed fractional flow reserve (cFFR) from CCTA.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 23 vessels in 21 patients who had undergone both CCTA and invasive angiography with FFR measurement were evaluated using a cFFR software prototype. The cFFR results were compared to the invasively obtained FFR values. Correlation was calculated using Spearman's rank correlation, and agreement using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value for significant stenosis (defined as both FFR ≤0.80 and FFR ≤0.75) were calculated.

    RESULTS: The mean cFFR value for the whole group was 0.81 and the corresponding mean invFFR value was 0.84. The cFFR sensitivity for significant stenosis (FFR ≤0.80/0.75) on a per-lesion basis was 0.83/0.80, specificity was 0.76/0.89, and accuracy 0.78/0.87. The positive predictive value was 0.56/0.67 and the negative predictive value was 0.93/0.94. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was ρ = 0.77 (P < 0.001) and ICC = 0.73 (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: This particular CCTA-based cFFR software prototype allows for a rapid, non-invasive on-site evaluation of cFFR. The results are encouraging and cFFR may in the future be of help in the triage to invasive coronary angiography.

  • 20.
    Ehnsio, G.
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Norderfeldt, J.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Platelet Reactivity During Carciopulmonary Bypass: Marked Reduction Followed by Early Restitution2009In: in Intensive Care Medicine, vol 35, Supplement 1, Posters, Springer, 2009, Vol. 35, p. 132-132Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) affects platelets, and platelet dysfunction is considered to be an important risk factor for post-operative bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Monitoring platelet function in the peri-operative period therefore is of importance to reduce morbidity due to both bleeding and post-operative graft occlusion. Our aim was to study platelet reactivity in CABG patients in the peri-operative period.

    METHODS. Platelet function in 30 patients undergoing CABG was analyzed using an impedance aggregometry point-of-care (POC) instrument (Multiplate). Platelet reactivity was measured preoperatively at induction of anaesthesia, preoperatively immediately before CPB, after 30 minutes of CPB, after end of CPB, postoperatively at arrival to the ICU and finally at 3 and 18 h after surgery. Whole blood platelet aggregation was measured after activation with ADP (adenosin diphosphate), TRAP (thrombin receptor activating peptide), AA (arachidonic acid) and collagen. Platelet count was measured, and circulating platelet pool was assessed by correcting for hemodilution by indexing to hemoglobin. Non-parametric statistics were used, results are presented as median and 25–75%-percentiles.

    RESULTS. Reactivity to ADP, TRAP and AA agonists was significantly reduced at 30 min of CPB and at the end of CPB, followed by a rapid increase after CPB to preoperative values. Collagen showed a similar, but not significant, decrease during CPB followed by a post-CPB increase to values above baseline (p\0.001). Platelet count dropped after 30 min of CPB from 240 (204–301) preoperatively to 150 (132–189) after 30 min of CPB and further to 134 (120–151) 9 109/L at the end of CPB (p\0.001). Corrected for blood loss and hemodilution there was a reduced platelet pool at the end of CPB and at arrival at the ICU (p\0.001)

    CONCLUSION. There is an early decrease in platelet reactivity during CPB followed by a rapid post-CPB restitution of platelet function, despite low preoperative aggregometry values and lower post-CPB platelet count. The rapid preoperative changes in aggregometry points to a possible role for POC analysis of hemostatic function. The post-CPB increase in platelet reactivity simultaneously to the decrease in platelet count could imply increased aggregating tendency for remaining platelets, with possible implications for early graft failure and postoperative anti-platelet therapy.

  • 21.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, LIME, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Lindenberger, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frailty is independently associated with 1-year mortality for elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction2014In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1216-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: For the large population of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, it is crucial to identify clinically relevant measures of biological age and their contribution to risk. Frailty is denoting decreased physiological reserves and increased vulnerability. We analysed the manner in which the variable frailty is associated with 1-year outcomes for elderly non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients aged 75 years or older, with diagnosed NSTEMI were included at three centres, and clinical data including judgment of frailty were collected prospectively. Frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. Of 307 patients, 149 (48.5%) were considered frail. By Cox regression analyses, frailty was found to be independently associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for cardiovascular risk and comorbid conditions (hazard ratio 4.3, 95% CI 2.4-7.8). The time to the first event was significantly shorter for frail patients than for nonfrail (34 days, 95% CI 10-58, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is strongly and independently associated with 1-year mortality. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may constitute an important risk prediction concept in regard to cardiovascular patients with complex needs.

  • 22.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, LIME, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lindenberger, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frailty as a Predictor of Short-Term Outcomes for Elderly Patients with non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background – For the large and growing population of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease it is important to identify clinically relevant measures of biological age and their contribution to risk. Frailty is an emerging concept in medicine denoting increased vulnerability and decreased physiologic reserves. We analyzed how the variable frailty predicts short-term outcomes for elderly NSTEMI patients.

    Methods and Results – Patients, aged 75 years or older, with diagnosed NSTEMI were included at three centers, and clinical data including judgement of frailty were collected prospectively. Frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Of 307 patients, 150 (48.5%) were considered frail. Frail patients were slightly older and presented with a greater burden of comorbidity. By multiple logistic regression, frailty was found to be a strong independent risk factor for inhospital mortality, one-month mortality (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 10.8) and the primary composite outcome (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.7). Particularly frail patients with a high comorbidity burden manifested a markedly increased risk for the primary composite outcome. By multiple linear regression, frailty was identified as a strong independent predictor for prolonged hospital care (frail 13.4 bed days, non-frail 7.5 bed days; P<0.0001).

    Conclusions - Frailty is a strong independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, one-month mortality, prolonged hospital care and the primary composite outcome. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may constitute an ultimate risk prediction concept regarding cardiovascular patients with complex needs.

  • 23.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Löfmark, Rurik
    LIME, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindenberger, Marcus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frailty is independently associated with short-term outcomes for elderly patients with non-st-segment elevation myocardial infarction2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Department of Medical Ethics, LIME, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindenberger, Marcus
    Department of Medicine, Ryhov County Hospital Jönköping.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frailty Is Independently Associated With Short-Term Outcomes for Elderly Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction2011In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 124, no 22, p. 2397-2404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For the large and growing population of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, it is important to identify clinically relevant measures of biological age and their contribution to risk. Frailty is an emerging concept in medicine denoting increased vulnerability and decreased physiological reserves. We analyzed the manner in which the variable frailty predicts short-term outcomes for elderly non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients.

    Methods and results: Patients aged ≥ 75 years, with diagnosed non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were included at 3 centers, and clinical data including judgment of frailty were collected prospectively. Frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. The impact of the comorbid conditions on risk was quantified by the coronary artery disease-specific index. Of 307 patients, 149 (48.5%) were considered frail. By multiple logistic regression, frailty was found to be strongly and independently associated with risk for the primary composite outcome (death from any cause, myocardial reinfarction, revascularization due to ischemia, hospitalization for any cause, major bleeding, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and need for dialysis up to 1 month after inclusion) (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.7) in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-16.8), and 1-month mortality (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-13.0).

    Conclusions: Frailty is strongly and independently associated with in-hospital mortality, 1-month mortality, prolonged hospital care, and the primary composite outcome. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may constitute an ultimate risk prediciton concept in regard to cardiovascular patients with complex needs.

  • 25.
    Holm, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Sederholm-Lawesson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Gender difference in prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding after myocardial infarction - data from the SWEDEHEART registry.2016In: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care, ISSN 2048-8734, Vol. 6, p. 463-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Bleeding complications increase mortality in myocardial infarction patients. Potential gender difference in bleeding regarding prevalence and prognostic impact is still controversial.

    OBJECTIVES: Gender comparison regarding incidence and prognostic impact of bleeding in patients hospitalised with myocardial infarction during 2006-2008.

    METHODS: Observational study from the SWEDEHEART register. Outcomes were in-hospital bleedings, in-hospital mortality and one-year mortality in hospital survivors.

    RESULTS: A total number of 50,399 myocardial infarction patients were included, 36.6% women. In-hospital bleedings were more common in women (1.9% vs. 3.1%, p<0.001) even after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.37). The increased risk for women was found in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.94) and in those who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.45-2.24). In contrast the risk was lower in medically treated women (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.00). After adjustment, in-hospital bleeding was associated with higher risk of one-year mortality in men (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.74), whereas this was not the case in women (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72-1.31).

    CONCLUSIONS: Female gender is an independent risk factor of in-hospital bleeding after myocardial infarction. A higher bleeding risk in women appeared to be restricted to invasively treated patients and ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Even though women have higher short- and long-term mortality, there was no difference between the genders among bleeders. After multivariable adjustment the prognostic impact of bleeding complications was higher in men.

  • 26.
    Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Management of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction differs between the sexes which may impair the outcome for the female patient.2003In: European Heart Journal,2003, 2003, p. 233-233Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sex differences in rate of thrombolysis in acute ST-evation myocardial infarction is caused by longer delay times in women.2003In: European Heart Journal,2003, 2003, p. 232-232Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Tödt, Tim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Gender difference in prevalence and prognostic impact of renal insufficiency in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention2011In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 308-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To evaluate if female gender is associated with renal insufficiency in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and if there is a gender difference in the prognostic importance of renal insufficiency in STEMI. Design Single-centre observational study. Setting One tertiary cardiac centre. Patients All consecutive patients with STEMI planned for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in one Swedish county in 2005 (98 women and 176 men). Main outcome measures Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the predictors of renal insufficiency, associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and outcome in each gender and a possible interaction between gender and eGFR regarding outcome. Results Renal insufficiency was defined as eGFR less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). 67% of women had renal insufficiency compared with 26% of men, OR 5.06 (95% CI 2.66 to 9.59) after multivariable adjustment. In women each 10 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 increment of eGFR was associated with a 63% risk reduction for 1-year mortality, OR 0.37 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.89). No such association was found in men, OR 1.05 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.76). A trend towards a significant interaction between gender and eGFR regarding 1-year mortality was found, OR 2.05 (95% CI 0.93 to 4.50). Conclusions A considerable gender difference in the prevalence of renal insufficiency in STEMI was found and renal insufficiency seemed to be a more important prognostic marker in women. These results are important as previous STEMI studies have shown higher multivariable adjusted mortality in women than in men but renal function has seldom been taken into consideration.

  • 29.
    Lindholm, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 14B, 1 tr, SE-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Angerås, Oskar
    Department of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Böhm, Felix
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Calais, Fredrik
    Faculty of Health, Department of Cardiology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Koul, Sasha
    Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 14B, 1 tr, SE-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Renlund, Henrik
    Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 14B, 1 tr, SE-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarno, Giovanna
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 14B, 1 tr, SE-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Varenhorst, Christoph
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 14B, 1 tr, SE-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Timing of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a SWEDEHEART study2017In: European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, ISSN 2058-5225, E-ISSN 2058-1742, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although routine invasive management is recommended in NSTEMI patients, the optimal timing of the procedure is not defined. The aim of this study was to assess outcomes in relation to timing of PCI in NSTEMI patients.

  • 30.
    Melki, Dina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lugnegard, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Lind, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Implications of Introducing High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Into Clinical Practice Data From the SWEDEHEART Registry2015In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 65, no 16, p. 1655-1664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI). OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine the implications of introducing high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) into clinical practice and to define at what hs-cTnT level risk starts to increase. METHODS We analyzed data from 48,594 patients admitted because of symptoms suggesting an acute coronary syndrome and who were entered into a large national registry. Patients were divided into Group 1, those with hs-cTnT less than6 ng/l; Group 2, those with hs-cTnT 6 to 13 ng/l; Group 3, those with hs-cTnT 14 to 49 ng/l (i.e., a group in which most patients would have had a negative cardiac troponin T with older assays); and Group 4, those with hs-cTnT greater than= 50 ng/l. RESULTS There were 5,790 (11.9%), 6,491 (13.4%), 10,476 (21.6%), and 25,837 (53.2%) patients in Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In Groups 1 to 4, the proportions with MI were 2.2%, 2.6%, 18.2%, and 81.2%. There was a stepwise increase in the proportion of patients with significant coronary stenoses, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and death during follow-up. When dividing patients into 20 groups according to hs-cTnT level, the adjusted mortality started to increase at an hs-cTnT level of 14 ng/l. CONCLUSIONS Introducing hs-cTnT into clinical practice has led to the recognition of a large proportion of patients with minor cardiac troponin increases (14 to 49 ng/l), the majority of whom do not have MI. Although a heterogeneous group, these patients remain at high risk, and the adjusted mortality rate started to increase at the level of the 99th percentile in healthy controls.

  • 31.
    ODonoghue, Michelle L.
    et al.
    Brigham and Womens Hospital, USA .
    Vaidya, Ajay
    University of Calif San Francisco, USA .
    Afsal, Rizwan
    McMaster University, Canada .
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Boden, William E.
    Albany Stratton VA Medical Centre, USA .
    Braunwald, Eugene
    Brigham and Womens Hospital, USA .
    Cannon, Christopher P.
    Brigham and Womens Hospital, USA .
    Clayton, Tim C.
    London School Hyg and Trop Med, England .
    de Winter, Robbert J.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Fox, Keith A. A.
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland Royal Infirm Edinburgh NHS Trust, Scotland .
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden .
    McCullough, Peter A.
    St John Providence Health Syst Providence Pk Heart, MI USA .
    Murphy, Sabina A.
    Brigham and Womens Hospital, USA .
    Spacek, Rudolf
    3rd Medical Fac Prague, Czech Republic .
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Windhausen, Fons
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Sabatine, Marc S.
    Brigham and Womens Hospital, USA .
    An Invasive or Conservative Strategy in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes A Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials2012In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine an invasive or conservative strategy in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients. Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome, yet it remains unknown whether they derive enhanced benefit from an invasive strategy. Methods Randomized trials comparing an invasive versus conservative treatment strategy were identified. The prevalence of cardiovascular events through 12 months was reported for each trial, stratified by diabetes mellitus status and randomized treatment strategy. Relative risk (RR) ratios and absolute risk reductions were combined using random-effects models. Results Data were combined across 9 trials comprising 9,904 subjects of whom 1,789 (18.1%) had diabetes mellitus. The RRs for death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or rehospitalization with an acute coronary syndrome for an invasive versus conservative strategy were similar between diabetic patients (RR: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 1.03) and nondiabetic patients (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.06; p interaction = 0.83). An invasive strategy reduced nonfatal MI in diabetic patients (RR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.92), but not in nondiabetic patients (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.29; p interaction = 0.09). The absolute risk reduction in MI with an invasive strategy was greater in diabetic than nondiabetic patients (absolute risk reduction: 3.7% vs. 0.1%; p interaction = 0.02). There were no differences in death or stroke between groups (p interactions 0.68 and 0.20, respectively). Conclusions An early invasive strategy yielded similar RR reductions in overall cardiovascular events in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. However, an invasive strategy appeared to reduce recurrent nonfatal MI to a greater extent in diabetic patients. These data support the updated guidelines that recommend an invasive strategy for patients with diabetes mellitus and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.

  • 32. Olsson, A
    et al.
    Håkansson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Protamine reduces whole blood platelet aggregation after cardiopulmonary bypass2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Olsson, Anki
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. BTH, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Improved quality of retransfused residual blood from the cardio-pulmonary bypass circuit with Ringer wash-in technique2014In: Sixth Joint Scandinavian Conference in Cardiothoracic Surgery 2014.: Abstract O35., 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Olsson, Anki
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping. Blekinge Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Håkansson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Protamine reduces whole blood platelet aggregation after cardiopulmonary bypass2016In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 58-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet dysfunction is an important cause of postoperative bleeding after cardiac surgery. Protamine is routinely used for reversal of heparin after cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP), but may affect platelet aggregation. We assessed changes in platelet function in relation to protamine administration. Design: Platelet aggregation was analyzed by impedance aggregometry before and after protamine administration in 25 adult cardiac surgery patients. Aggregation was also studied after in vitro addition of heparin and protamine. The activators adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAP), arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen (COL) were used.Results: Platelet aggregation was reduced by approximately 50% after in vivo protamine administration; ADP 640 +/- 230 (AU*min, mean +/- SD) to 250 +/- 160, TRAP 939 +/- 293 to 472 +/- 260, AA 307 +/- 238 to 159 +/- 143 and COL 1022 +/- 350 to 506 +/- 238 (all p&lt;0.001). Aggregation was also reduced after in vitro addition of protamine alone with activators ADP from 518 +/- 173 to 384 +/- 157 AU*min p&lt;0.001, and AA 449 +/- 311 to 340 +/- 285 (p&lt;0.01) and protamine combined with heparin (1:1 ratio) with activators ADP to 349 +/- 160 and AA to 308 +/- 260 (both p&lt;0.001); and COL from 586 +/- 180 to 455 +/- 172 (p&lt;0.05). Conclusions: Protamine given after CPB markedly reduces platelet aggregation. Protamine added in vitro also reduces platelet aggregation, by itself or in combination with heparin.

  • 35.
    Panayi, Georgios
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wieringa, Wouter G.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Carlsson, Jorg
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Pundziute, Gabija
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Computed tomography coronary angiography in patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal invasive coronary angiography2016In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 16, no 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Three to five percent of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have normal coronary arteries on invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The aim of this study was to assess the presence and characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques on computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and describe the clinical characteristics of this group of patients. Methods: This was a multicentre, prospective, descriptive study on CTCA evaluation in thirty patients fulfilling criteria for AMI and without visible coronary plaques on ICA. CTCA evaluation was performed head to head in consensus by two experienced observers blinded to baseline patient characteristics and ICA results. Analysis of plaque characteristics and plaque effect on the arterial lumen was performed. Coronary segments were visually scored for the presence of plaque. Seventeen segments were differentiated, according to a modified American Heart Association classification. Echocardiography performed according to routine during the initial hospitalisation was retrieved for analysis of wall motion abnormalities and left ventricular systolic function in most patients. Results: Twenty-five patients presented with non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and five with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Mean age was 60.2 years and 23/30 were women. The prevalence of risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD) was low. In total, 452 coronary segments were analysed. Eighty percent (24/30) had completely normal coronary arteries and twenty percent (6/30) had coronary atherosclerosis on CTCA. In patients with atherosclerotic plaques, the median number of segments with plaque per patient was one. Echocardiography was normal in 4/22 patients based on normal global longitudinal strain (GLS) and normal wall motion score index (WMSI); 4/22 patients had normal GLS with pathological WMSI; 3/22 patients had pathological GLS and normal WMSI; 11/22 patients had pathological GLS and WMSI and among them we could identify 5 patients with a Takotsubo pattern on echo. Conclusions: Despite a diagnosis of AMI, 80 % of patients with normal ICA showed no coronary plaques on CTCA. The remaining 20 % had only minimal non-obstructive atherosclerosis. Patients fulfilling clinical criteria for AMI but with completely normal ICA need further evaluation, suggestively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  • 36.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    A gender perspective on short- and long term mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report from the SWEDEHEART register2013In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 1041-1047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies of patients admitted for ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] have indicated that women have a higher risk of early mortality than do men. These studies have presented limited information on gender related differences in the short term and almost no information on the long term. Methods and results: We analysed a prospective, consecutively included STEMI population consisting of 54,146 patients (35% women). This population consists of almost all patients hospitalised in Sweden between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2006 as recorded in the SWEDEHEART register (formerly RIKS-HIA). Follow-up time ranged from one to 13 years (mean 4.6). Women had a lower probability of being given reperfusion therapy, odds ratio [OR] 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.88). During the time these STEMI patients were in the hospital, 13% of the women and 7% of men died, multivariable adjusted OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.11-1.32). During the follow up period, 46% of the women died as compared with 32% of the men. There was, however, no gender difference in age-adjusted risk of long term mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01) whereas the multivariable adjusted risk was lower in women (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.89-0.96). The long term risk of re-infarction was the same in men and women (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93-1.03) whereas men in the youngest group had a higher risk than women in that age group (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94). Conclusion: In STEMI, women had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality but the long-term risk of death was higher in men. More studies are needed in the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) era that are designed to determine why women fare worse than men after STEMI during the first phase when they are in hospital

  • 37.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Time trends in STEMI—improved treatment and outcome but still a gender gap: a prospective observational cohort study from the SWEDEHEART register2012In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective In ST elevation myocardial infarction women received less evidence-based medicine and had worse outcome during the fibrinolytic era. With the shift to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) as preferred reperfusion strategy, the authors aimed to investigate whether these gender differences has diminished.

    Design, setting and participants Cohort study including consecutive ST elevation myocardial infarction patients registered 1998–2000 (n=15 697) and 2004–2006 (n=14 380) in the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions.

    Outcome measures 1. Use of evidence-based medicine such as reperfusion therapy (pPCI or fibrinolysis) and evidence-based drugs at discharge. 2. Inhospital and 1-year mortality.

    Results Of those who got reperfusion therapy, pPCI was the choice in 9% in the early period compared with 68% in the late period. In the early period, reperfusion therapy was given to 63% of women versus 71% of men, p<0.001. Corresponding figures in the late period were 64% vs 75%, p<0.001. After multivariable adjustments, the ORs (women vs men) were 0.86 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.94) in the early and 0.80 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.89) in the late period. As regards evidence-based secondary preventive drugs at discharge in hospital survivors (platelet inhibitors, statins, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and β-blockers), there were small gender differences in the early period. In the late period, women had 14%–25% less chance of receiving these drugs, OR 0.75 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.81) through 0.86 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.00). In both periods, multivariable-adjusted inhospital mortality was higher in women, OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.36) and 1.21 (1.00 to 1.46). One-year mortality was gender equal, HR 0.95 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.05) and 0.96 (0.86 to 1.08), after adding evidence-based medicine to the multivariable adjustments.

    Conclusion In spite of an intense gender debate, focus on guideline adherence and the change in reperfusion strategy, the last decade gender differences in use of reperfusion therapy and evidence-based therapy at discharge did not decline during the study period, rather the opposite. Moreover, higher mortality in women persisted.

  • 38.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Szummer, Karolina
    Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, KI, Stockholm.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Prevalence and prognostic impact of chronic kidney disease in STEMI from a gender perspective: data from the SWEDEHEART register, a large Swedish prospective cohort.2015In: BMJ open, ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 6, p. e008188-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Gender differences in prevalence and prognostic impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have been poorly evaluated. In STEMI, female gender has been independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CKD has been found to be an important prognostic marker in myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate gender differences in prevalence and prognostic impact of CKD on short-term and long-term mortality.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study.

    SETTING: The national quality register SWEDEHEART was used. In the beginning of the study period, 94% of the Swedish coronary care units contributed data to the register, which subsequently increased to 100%. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) according to Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) and Cockcroft-Gault (CG).

    PARTICIPANTS: All patients with STEMI registered in SWEDEHEART from the years 2003-2009 were included (37,991 patients, 66% men).

    MAIN RESULTS: Women had 1.6 (MDRD) to 2.2 (CG) times higher multivariable adjusted risk of CKD. Half of the women had CKD according to CG. CKD was associated with 2-2.5 times higher risk of in-hospital mortality and approximately 1.5 times higher risk of long-term mortality in both genders. Each 10 mL/min decline of eGFR was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital and long-term mortality (22-33% and 9-16%, respectively) and this did not vary significantly by gender. Both in-hospital and long-term mortality were doubled in women. After multivariable adjustment including eGFR, there was no longer any gender difference in early outcome and the long-term outcome was better in women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with STEMI, female gender was independently associated with CKD. Reduced eGFR was a strong independent risk factor for short-term and long-term mortality without a significant gender difference in prognostic impact and seems to be an important reason why women have higher mortality than men with STEMI.

  • 39.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Szummer, Karolina
    Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Institution of Medicine (H7), Karolinska Institutet, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Prevalence and prognostic impact of renal insufficiency in STEMI from a gender perspective: data from a large prospective cohortManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Data indicate that female gender may be associated with increased risk of RI in MI but also that presence of RI has higher prognostic impact in women. In case of ST-elevation MI [STEMI], women have higher adjusted mortality compared to men but RI has seldom been taken into account.

    Methods and Results: All STEMI patients registered in the Swedish national quality register SWEDEHEART between 2003 and 2009 were included (37991 patients, 66% men). Based on s-creatinine on admission, glomerular filtration rate [GFR] was estimated according to MDRD and Cockcroft-Gault [CG]. RI was defined as eGFR below 60 mL/min. Women had 1.6-2.2 times higher multivariable adjusted risk of RI and half of all women had RI according to CG. RI was associated with 2-2.5 times higher risk of in-hospital and approximately 1.5 times higher risk of long-term mortality in both genders. Each 10 mL/min decline of eGFR was associated with 22-33% and 9-16% increased risk of in-hospital and. long-term mortality, respectively. There was no significant interaction between gender and eGFR regarding outcome. Both in-hospital and long-term mortality was twice as high in women but after adjusting for eGFR according to CG, there was no longer any gender difference in early outcome and long term outcome was better in women.

    Conclusions: Among STEMI patients

    1) Female sex was independently associated with RI

    2) Reduced eGFR regardless of used formula was a strong independent risk factor for mortality without a significant gender difference in prognostic impact.

    3) Reduced eGFR (according to CG) appeared to be a main explanatory variable to the higher mortality in women.

  • 40. Shakeri, Zahar
    et al.
    Hammar-Henriksson, Malin
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Evaluating cardiodetect with card test for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.2008In: X Svenska Kardiovaskulära Vårmöte,2008, 2008, p. 37-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Swahn, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Invasive Treatment of Non-ST-segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: Cardiac Catheterization/Revascularization for All?: [Tratamiento invasivo del síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST: ¿cateterismo cardiaco/ revascularización en todos los casos?]2014In: Revista Española de Cardiología, ISSN 0300-8932, E-ISSN 1579-2242, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 218-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients admitted to hospital with symptoms and signs of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes have different risk profiles and are in need of an individualized approach that takes into consideration not only age and sex but also comorbidities such as diabetes, renal failure, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, earlier revascularization, etc. According to evidence-based medicine and as documented in current guidelines, there is currently evidence for early catheterization and, if feasible, revascularization in high-risk patients, especially in men. Nevertheless, because of a lack of definitive evidence, there is uncertainty about treating women in the same way. Because women are usually older and have more comorbidities, they are frailer and revascularization should be indicated with greater caution. There is no evidence that catheterization as such is worse for women than for men; however, for both men and women with low risk, a less invasive approach, such as coronary computed tomography angiography, could be considered as a first diagnostic tool. 

  • 42.
    Swahn, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Afzal, Rizwan
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Budaj, Andrzej
    Postgraduate Medical School, Grochowski Hospital, Warsaw, Poland.
    Chrolavicius, Susan
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Fox, Keith
    Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Jolly, Sanjit
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Mehta, Shamir R
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    de Winter, Robbert
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Early invasive compared with a selective invasive strategy in women with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a substudy of the OASIS 5 trial and a meta-analysis of previous randomized trials2012In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare benefits and risks of a routine invasive compared with a selective invasive strategy in women with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Methods and results We randomly assigned 184 women, either to a routine or to a selective invasive strategy as a substudy to the OASIS 5 trial, who were followed for 2 years. Meta-analysis of data from previous randomized trials was also done. There were no significant differences between the two treatment strategies in the primary outcome death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke [21.0 vs. 15.4%, HR = 1.46, 95% CI (0.73-2.94)], in the secondary outcome death/MI [18.8 vs. 14.3%, HR = 1.39, 95% CI (0.67-2.88)], or separately analysed outcomes MI [12.9 vs. 13.3%, HR = 0.95, 95% CI (0.42-2.19)] or stroke [2.3 vs. 4.4%, HR = 0.67, 95% CI (0.12-3.70)]. However, there were significantly more deaths after 1 year (8.8 vs. 1.1%, HR = 9.01, 95% CI (1.11-72.90) and a higher rate of major bleeding at 30 days [8.8 vs. 1.1%, HR = 11.45, 95% CI (1.43-91.96)] in the routine invasive strategy group. A meta-analysis including 2692 women in previous randomized trials, with a gender perspective, showed no significant difference in the composite outcome death/MI, OR = 1.18, 95% CI (0.92-1.53) but a higher mortality with a routine invasive strategy for women, OR = 1.51, 95% CI (1.00-2.29). Conclusion The rate of death, MI, or stroke in women was not different in patients treated with a routine invasive strategy compared with a selective invasive strategy, but there was a concerning trend towards higher mortality. When combined with data from previous trials, there does not appear to be a benefit of an early invasive strategy in women with ACS, which differs from the results in men. These data emphasize the lack of clear evidence in favour of an invasive strategy in women and suggest caution in extrapolating the results from men to women.

  • 43.
    Tödt, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Maret, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Relationship between ischemia duration and final infarct size in STEMI patients treated with prehospital abciximab and primary PCI.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Tödt, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Maret, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Relationship between the duration of ischemia and final infarct size in STEMI patients treated with abciximab and primary PCI.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Tödt, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Maret, Eva
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Relationship between treatment delay and final infarct size in STEMI patients treated with abciximab and primary PCI2012In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Studies on the impact of time to treatment on myocardial infarct size have yielded   conflicting results. In this study of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) treated   with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we set out to investigate the   relationship between the time from First Medical Contact (FMC) to the demonstration   of an open infarct related artery (IRA) and final scar size.

    Between February 2006 and September 2007, 89 STEMI patients treated with primary PCI   were studied with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ceMRI) 4 to 8 weeks   after the infarction. Spearman correlation was computed for health care delay time   (defined as time from FMC to PCI) and myocardial injury. Multiple linear regression   was used to determine covariates independently associated with infarct size.

    Results

    An occluded artery (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, TIMI flow 0-1 at initial   angiogram) was seen in 56 patients (63%). The median FMC-to-patent artery was 89 minutes.   There was a weak correlation between time from FMC-to-patent IRA and infarct size,   r = 0.27, p = 0.01. In multiple regression analyses, LAD as the IRA, smoking and an occluded vessel   at the first angiogram, but not delay time, correlated with infarct size.

    Conclusions

    In patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI we found a weak correlation between   health care delay time and infarct size. Other factors like anterior infarction, a   patent artery pre-PCI and effects of reperfusion injury may have had greater influence   on infarct size than time-to-treatment per se.

  • 46.
    Tödt, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sederholm-Lawesson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Early treatment with abciximab in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction results in a high rate of normal or near normal blood flow in the infarct related artery2010In: Acute cardiac care, ISSN 1748-295X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is debate whether early treatment with GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors is of clinical benefit in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study explored the effects of early given abciximab on coronary blood flow and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI and adjunctive abciximab. We studied all consecutive patients from our catchment area with STEMI undergoing acute angiography with the intention of primary PCI during 2005. Abciximab was given as early pre-treatment before, (n = 133) or at the cath. lab. after a diagnostic angiography (n = 109). Pre-procedural TIMI 2-3 flow was observed in 45.9 % of patients in the early group versus 20.2 % in the cath. lab. group, P = 0.0001. Mortality rates were 3.8 % versus 3.7% inhospital and 8.3 % versus 7.3% at one year in the early respectively the cath. lab. group, both P = NS. The MACE rate (death, non fatal myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularization) at one year was 19.5 % (early group) and 26.6 % (cath. lab. group), P = 0.19. CONCLUSION: In this single centre registry study of unselected patients with STEMI early given abciximab was associated with a significantly higher rate of TIMI 2-3 flow compared to abciximab given after the acute angiography.

  • 47.
    Tödt, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Strategies TO reduce time delays in patients with AcuTe coronary heart diasease treated with primary PCI - the STOP WATCH study: a multistage action research project2013In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3, no 3493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To identify, evaluate and reduce system delay times in an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) network by targeted reorganisation of logistics and personal feedback to staff on time delays.

    Design

    Multistage action research project. Three study phases were used (exploration, tailored intervention and evaluation).

    Setting

    Single centre study, Sweden.

    Patients

    Consecutive patients (N=156) with prehospital STEMI onset treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

    Interventions

    Areas of delays were identified through participant observations and collaborative discussions. To increase the awareness of delay factors, continuous feedback on time delays was given. Elements of the logistics’ reorganisation were (1) prioritised ECG recording by emergency medical services personnel, (2) central evaluation of ECG in all patients and (3) start of PCI procedure when two of three PCI team members were on site. Multiple key time measurements were made before (N=67) and after (N=89) the intervention.

    Main outcomes

    Time difference (minutes) in system delay between the preintervention and postintervention phases.

    Results

    Time from first medical contact (FMC) to a patent artery and time from FMC-to-catheter laboratory (cath-lab) arrival decreased by 6 and 12 min, respectively (ns). Time from FMC-to-ECG recording remained unchanged after the intervention. Time from ECG to decision for primary PCI was reduced by 6 min, p=0.004 and time from ECG-to-cath-lab arrival by 11 min, p=0.02. Total time from diagnosis to a patent artery decreased by 11 min (ns).

    Conclusions

    Identification of time delays in an STEMI network with awareness of delay factors, reorganisation of logistics and continuous feedback can reduce system delay times significantly.

  • 48.
    Tödt, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Strategies to reduce time delays in patients with acute coronary heart disease treated with primary PCI.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Venetsanos, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Segelmark, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Nephrology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Lawesson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during and after STEMI: a single-centre, methodological study comparing estimated and measured GFR2015In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 1-8, article id e007835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To validate the performance of the most commonly used formulas for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) against measured GFR during the index hospitalisation for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Setting: Single centre, methodological study. Participants: 40 patients with percutaneous coronary intervention-treated STEMI were included between November 2011 and February 2013. Patients on dialysis, cardiogenic shock or known allergy to iodine were excluded. Outcome measures: Creatinine and cystatin C were determined at admission and before discharge in 40 patients with STEMI. Clearance of iohexol was measured (mGFR) before discharge. We evaluated and compared the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-IDMS), the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) and the Grubb relative cystatin C (rG-CystC) with GFR regarding correlation, bias, precision and accuracy (P30). Agreement between eGFR and mGFR to discriminate CKD was assessed by Cohens. statistics. Results: MDRD-IDMS and CKD-EPI demonstrated good performance to estimate GFR (correlation 0.78 vs 0.81%, bias -1.3% vs 1.5%, precision 17.9 vs 17.1 mL/min 1.73 m(2) and P30 82.5% vs 82.5% for MDRD-IDMS vs CKD-EPI). CKD was best classified by CKD-EPI (. 0.83). CG showed the worst performance (correlation 0.73%, bias -1% to 3%, precision 22.5 mL/min 1.73 m(2) and P30 75%). The rG-CystC formula had a marked bias of -17.8% and significantly underestimated mGFR (p=0.03). At arrival, CKD-EPI and rG-CystC had almost perfect agreement in CKD classification (kappa=0.87), whereas at discharge agreement was substantially lower (kappa=0.59) and showed a significant discrepancy in CKD classification (p=0.02). Median cystatin C concentration increased by 19%. Conclusions: In acute STEMI, CKD-EPI showed the best CKD-classification ability followed by MDRD-IDMS, whereas CG performed the worst. STEMI altered the performance of the cystatin C equation during the acute phase, suggesting that other factors might be involved in the rise of cystatin C.

  • 50.
    Venetsanos, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fröbert, O.
    Department of Cardiology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Omerovic, E.
    Department of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Henareh, L.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Robertsson, L.
    Department of Cardiology, Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus, Sweden.
    Linder, R.
    Department of Cardiology, Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
    Götberg, M.
    Department of Cardiology, Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    James, S.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Erlinge, D.
    Department of Cardiology, Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Sex-related response to bivalirudin and unfractionated heparin in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A subgroup analysis of the VALIDATE-SWEDEHEART trial2019In: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care, ISSN 2048-8734, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 502-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims:

    Our aim was to study the impact of sex on anticoagulant treatment outcomes during percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction patients.

    Methods:

    This study was a prespecified analysis of the Bivalirudin versus Heparin in ST-Segment and Non ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients on Modern Antiplatelet Therapy in the Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated according to Recommended Therapies Registry Trial (VALIDATE-SWEDEHEART) trial, in which patients with myocardial infarction were randomised to bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary outcome was the composite of death, myocardial infarction or major bleeding at 180 days.

    Results:

    There was a lower risk of the primary outcome in women assigned to bivalirudin than to unfractionated heparin (13.6% vs 17.1%, hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval (0.60–1.00)) with no significant difference in men (11.8% vs 11.2%, hazard ratio 1.06 (0.89–1.26), p for interaction 0.05). The observed difference was primarily due to lower risk of major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition 2, 3 or 5) associated with bivalirudin in women (8.9% vs 11.8%, hazard ratio 0.74 (0.54–1.01)) but not in men (8.5% vs 7.3%, hazard ratio 1.16 (0.94–1.43) in men, pfor interaction 0.02). Conversely, no significant difference in the risk of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3 or 5 bleeding, associated with bivalirudin, was found in women 4.5% vs 5.4% (hazard ratio 0.84 (0.54–1.31)) or men 2.9% vs 2.1% (hazard ratio 1.36 (0.93–1.99)). Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2 bleeding occurred significantly less often in women assigned to bivalirudin than to unfractionated heparin. The risk of death or myocardial infarction did not significantly differ between randomised treatments in men or women.

    Conclusion:

    In women, bivalirudin was associated with a lower risk of adverse outcomes, compared to unfractionated heparin, primarily due to a significant reduction in Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2 bleeds.

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