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  • 1.
    Biteus, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Distributed diagnosis and simulation based residual generators2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault diagnosis is becoming increasingly important for many technical systems. This is for example true in automotive vehicles where fault diagnosis is needed due to economic reasons such as efficient repair and fault prevention, and legislations that mainly deal with safety and pollution. The objective for a diagnostic system is to detect and isolate faults in the system. A diagnostic system consists of several specialized parts, for example residual generators, diagnoses calculation, and communication with other systems.

    In embedded systems with dozens of electronic control units that individually states local diagnoses, it can be computationally expensive to find which combination of local diagnoses that points at the correct set of faulty components. A distributed method is proposed where local diagnoses are extended using networked information. The extension is done thru the sharing of local conflicts or local diagnoses between the electronic control units. The number of global diagnoses grows with the number of local diagnoses. Therefore, an algorithm is presented that from the local diagnoses calculates the more likely global diagnoses. This restriction to the more likely diagnoses is sometimes appropriate since there are limitations in processing power, memory, and network capacity.

    A common approach to design diagnostic systems is to use residual generators, where each residual generator is sensitive to some faults. A method is presented that constructs residual generators from sets of overdetermined model equations, such that simulation can be used to determine if the residual is zero or not. The method thus avoids the need to analytically transform the set of equations into some specific residual generator form. It can also utilize smaller sub sets of equations like minimally overdetermined sets, and it can further take advantage of object-oriented simulation tools.

  • 2.
    Biteus, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fault Isolation in Distributed Embedded Systems2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve safety, reliability, and efficiency of automotive vehicles and other technical applications, embedded systems commonly use fault diagnosis consisting of fault detection and isolation. Since many systems are constructed as distributed embedded systems including multiple control units, it is necessary to perform global fault isolation using for example a central unit. However, the drawbacks with such a centralized method are the need of a powerful diagnostic unit and the sensitivity against disconnections of this unit.

    Two alternative methods to centralized fault isolation are presented in this thesis. The first method performs global fault isolation by a istributed sequential computation. For a set of studied systems, themethod gives, compared to a centralizedmethod, amean reduction inmaximumprocessor load on any unitwith 40 and 70%for systems consisting of four and eight units respectively. The second method instead extends the result of the local fault isolation performed in each unit such that the results are globally correct. By only considering the components affecting each specific unit, the extended result in each agent is kept small. For a studied automotive vehicle, the second method gives, compared to a centralized method, a mean reduction in the sizes of the results and the maximum processor load on any unit with 85 and 90% respectively.

    To perform fault diagnosis, diagnostic tests are commonly used. If the additional evaluation of tests can not improve the fault isolation of a component then the component is ready. Since the evaluation of a test comes with a cost in for example computational resources, it is valuable to minimize the number of tests that have to be evaluated before readiness is achieved for all components. A strategy is presented that decides in which order to evaluate tests such that readiness is achieved with as few evaluations of tests as possible.

    Besides knowing how fault diagnosis is performed, it is also interesting to assess the effect that fault diagnosis has on for example safety. Since fault tree analysis often is used to evaluate safety, this thesis contributes with a systematic method that includes the effect of fault diagnosis in fault trees. The safety enhancement due to the use of fault diagnosis can thereby be analyzed and quantified.

  • 3.
    Biteus, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Fault Sensitive Model Validity Measures for Minimal Singular Equation Sets2003In: IFAC Safeprocess03,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Biteus, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mean Value Engine Model of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A first implementation of a mean value engine model (MVEM) of a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine is described in this report. Framework and sub models are described. Where applicable ISO standards are followed. Verification against static measurements shows maximum model errors of about 6 % for mass flow and inlet/exhaust manifold pressures.

  • 5.
    Biteus, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving Airplane Safety by Incorporating Diagnosis into Existing Safety Practice2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety has always been at premium in airfare. There is a long history of systematic work in the field, and current practice has established a high degree of safety that has resulted in so low failure numbers that the public finds confidence in the process of air worthiness certification. However, the design and development process of airplanes to achieve this is costly and may be even more so since modern airplanes become more and more complex. Furthermore, recent trends towards Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are likely to require even more efforts and costs, to fulfill the increased safety requirements. Therefore it is interesting to investigate modern techniques that promises to improve safety at reduced costs. One such technique is diagnosis. Diagnosis in general is a term that includes several research and application fields. Examples of such fields, that are technology drivers, are the fields of supervision both on-line (on-board) and off-line (on ground), operator support that evolved from the Harrisburg accident, and law based emission diagnostics regulation e.g. as stipulated by California Air Resource Board (CARB).

    The current work is an investigation in the cross field between safety assessment and diagnosis techniques. The first step was to root the work in existing safety practice. This means that the Swedish defense procedure has been adopted as described in H SystSäk E. It is a safety framework that uses fault tree analysis and failure mode effect analysis as important tools. Thereafter some flight applications were investigated together with Saab specialists to capture and formulate some aspects that are non-trivial to cast in the existing safety framework. Examples of such aspects found are for instance related to performance requirements in different operational model. A principle case study was then formulated using laboratory equipment, with the aim to capture some of the identified aspects in the problem formulation. A complete process for safety analysis was then completed along the lines of H SystSäk E including all meetings and documents required therein. Several observations were done during this work, but the overall conclusion so far is that the effect of introducing diagnosis algorithms can be handled in the safety analysis, and, yes, that there is a promise that diagnosis algorithms can improve safety in a structured quantitative way by lowering the contribution to the total failure risk from the subsystem being diagnosed.

  • 6.
    Biteus, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Condensed Representation of Global Diagnoses with Minimal Cardinality in Local Diagnoses2006In: 17th International Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis DX-06,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Biteus, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Distributed Diagnosis by Using a Condensed Local Representation of the Global Diagnoses with Minimal Cardinality2006In: 17 International Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis DX-06,2006, Spain: Spain , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Biteus, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    An algorithm for computing the diagnoses with minimal cardinality in a distributed system2008In: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, ISSN 0952-1976, E-ISSN 1873-6769, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 269-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fault diagnosis, the set of minimal diagnoses is commonly calculated. However, due to for example limited computation resources, the search for the set of minimal diagnoses is in some applications focused on to the smaller set of diagnoses with minimal cardinality. The key contribution in this paper is an algorithm that calculates the diagnoses with minimal cardinality in a distributed system. The algorithm is constructed such that the computationally intensive tasks are distributed to the different units in the distributed system, and thereby reduces the need for a powerful central diagnostic unit. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Biteus, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Determining a Component's Fault Status and the Status' Readiness2006In: IFAC Safeprocess06,2006, China: IFAC , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Biteus, Jonas
    et al.
    Power-Train Division, Scania.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Power-Train Division, Scania.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Determining the Fault Status of a Component and its Readiness, with a Distributed Automotive Application2009In: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, ISSN 0952-1976, E-ISSN 1873-6769, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 363-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In systems using only single-component tests, the fault status of a component is ready if a test only supervising the component has been evaluated. However, if plausibility tests that supervise multiple components are used, then a component can be ready before all tests supervising the component have been evaluated. Based on test results, this paper contributes with conditions on when a component is ready. The conditions on readiness are given for both centralized and distributed systems and are here applied to the distributed diagnostic system in an automotive vehicle.

  • 11.
    Biteus, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Jensen, Mathias
    Power-train Sc.
    Decentralized Diagnosis in Heavy Duty Vehicles2004In: CCSSE,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Biteus, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Jensen, Mathias
    Power-train Scania.
    Distributed Diagnosis for Embedded Systems in Automotive Vehicles2005In: IFAC World Congress,2005, Netherlands: Elsevier , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Warnquist, Håkan
    et al.
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Biteus, Jonas
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Guided Integrated Remote and Workshop Troubleshooting of Heavy Trucks2014In: International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, ISSN 1946-391X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a truck or bus suffers from a breakdown it is important that the vehicle comes back on the road as soon as possible. In this paper we present a prototype diagnostic decision support system capable of automatically identifying possible causes of a failure and propose recommended actions on how to get the vehicle back on the road as cost efficiently as possible.

    This troubleshooting system is novel in the way it integrates the remote diagnosis with the workshop diagnosis when providing recommendations. To achieve this integration, a novel planning algorithm has been developed that enables the troubleshooting system to guide the different users (driver, help-desk operator, and mechanic) through the entire troubleshooting process.

    In this paper we formulate the problem of integrated remote and workshop troubleshooting and present a working prototype that has been implemented to demonstrate all parts of the troubleshooting system.

  • 14.
    Åslund, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Biteus, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    A systematic inclusion of diagnosis performance in fault tree analysis2005In: IFAC World Congress,2005, Prague, Czech Republic: IFAC , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety is of major concern in many applications such as in automotive systems and aerospace. In these applications it is standard to use fault trees, and a natural question in many modern systems that include sub-systems like diagnosis, fault tolerant control and autonomous functions, is how to include the performance of these algorithms in a fault tree analysis for safety. Many possibilities exist but here a systematic way is proposed. It is shown both how safety can be analyzed and how the interplay between algorithm design in terms of missed detection rate and false alarm rate is included in the fault tree analysis. Examples illustrate analysis of diagnosis system requirement specification and algorithm tuning.

  • 15.
    Åslund, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Biteus, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Safety analysis of autonomous systems by extended fault tree analysis2007In: International journal of adaptive control and signal processing (Print), ISSN 0890-6327, E-ISSN 1099-1115, Vol. 21, no 2-3, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety is of major concern in many autonomous functions in automotive systems and aerospace. In these application areas, it is standard to use fault trees, and a natural question in many modern systems that include sub-systems like diagnosis, fault-tolerant control, and autonomous functions is how to include the performance of these algorithms in a fault tree analysis for safety. Many possibilities exist but here a systematic way is proposed. It is shown both how safety can be analysed and how the interplay between algorithm design in terms of missed detection rate and false alarm rate is included in the fault tree analysis. Examples illustrate analysis of diagnosis system requirement specification and algorithm tuning. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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