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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    What’s in the body? Children’s annotated drawings2019In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of children’s ideas of the body’s internal structure. Children between four and 13 years (N = 170) individually produced drawings. During each drawing session the children explained their drawings to a facilitator and added written labels either by them- selves or, if they were too young to write, with the facilitator’s help. The results provide an updated comprehensive picture of children in differ- ent age groups and their views on the internal structure of the body. The type and numbers of organs drawn are similar to those documented in previous studies. However, in comparison to recent studies, the children drew more organs, the brain was indicated almost as often as the heart, and the Valentine heart was frequently used as a symbol. In contrast with previous research, children drew connections between organs. This result calls for caution regarding conclusions made from decontextua- lized questions. The importance of providing children with the opportu- nity to clarify their drawings is emphasised since it otherwise becomes a question of the researcher’s interpretation. The connections they draw, and explanations they give to their drawings, have interesting implica- tions for understanding children’s ideas, and hence both for teaching and learning and for science education research.

  • 2.
    Berg, Astrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Eriksson, I
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Constituted vs pontential chemistry content2008In: NFPF/NERA,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Berg, Astrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete, Stockholms universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Observationer i kemiklassrummet - att lära sig se kemiska reaktioner2010In: Innehållet i fokus - kemiundervisning i finlandssvenska klassrum / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2010, p. 37-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera jämförande internationella studier hamnar de finska eleverna i toppen. Hur bedrivs kemiundervisningen i finlandssvenska klassrum? Rapporten består av sex kapitel där författarna bl.a. tar upp följande frågor: Vad kännetecknar undervisningspraktiken i en finlandssvensk klass? Vilka texter används i klassrummet? Vad betraktas som viktig respektive mindre viktig kunskap? I ett av kapitlen analyseras vilka frågor läraren ställer till eleverna och vilken feedback som ges. I studien ingick fyra lärare, och i det avslutande kapitlet analyseras deras provkonstruktion och bedömningsarbete.Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av bedömningsfrågor, kunskapsfrågor, lärande och undervisning. Forskningsprojektet är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 4.
    Berg, Astrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Chemistry content in a laboratory based teaching practice2007In: NFPF/NERA,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 5.
    Berg, Astrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Eriksson, Inger
    Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm.
    Kemiinnehåll i undervisningen för nybörjare. En studie av hur ämnesinnehållet får konkurrera med målet att få eleverna intresserade av naturvetenskap2007In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 146-162Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Danielsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linneuniversitetet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jahic Pettersson, Alma
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gains and losses: Metaphors in chemistry classrooms2018In: Global developments in literacy research for science education / [ed] Kok-Sing Tang & Kristina Danielsson, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 219-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reports on findings from classroom communication in secondary chemistry teaching and learning. The data was analyzed qualitatively regarding the use of metaphors and analogies in relation to atoms and ion formation, with an intention to shed light on students’ scientific understanding as well as on their enculturation into the disciplinary discourse. Theoretically we draw on social semiotics, which allows analyses of language use in its widest sense, comprised of verbal language, images, action, gestures, and more. In our data, we identified common disciplinary metaphors in science, as well as metaphors connected to everyday life. Through the analyses based on systemic functional linguistics (SFL), we also identified anthropomorphic metaphors, with particles, atoms, and ions being humanized with intentions and feelings. Linguistic choices signaling metaphoric language were mainly noted in relation to quite obvious metaphors whereas no such signals or explanations were noted in connection to anthropomorphic metaphors. The study has implications for the design of classroom practices, including the use of discussions to enhance a more reflective use and understanding of the gains and losses around metaphors.

  • 7.
    Danielsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jahic Pettersson, Alma
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gains and losses: Pictorial language in chemistry classrooms2014In: International Science Education Conference, ISEC, Singapore, 25-27 november, 2014, Singapore, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on findings from two data sets in chemistry learning; one from a multidisciplinary project on teacher lead whole-class teaching, and one from a small-scale study on teacher students’ animations of chemical reactions. The data was analysed as to the use of pictorial language in relation to atoms and ion formation with an intention to shed light on students’ scientific understanding as well as their enculturation into the disciplinary discourse. Theoretically we draw on social semiotics, allowing analyses of language use in its widest sense, comprising verbal language, images, action, gestures, etc., though here with a main focus on verbal language.  In both learning contexts, we identified common disciplinary metaphors as well as more occasional metaphors. By the use of analyses based on systemic functional grammar (SFG) we also noted more “hidden” metaphoric use, with particles, atoms, and ions being humanised with intentions and feelings. Also, we identified interesting patterns as to the ways students use metaphors to sort out difficulties in understanding chemical processes. The study has implications for the design of classroom practices, not the least as regards possibilities to use meta-discussions to enhance a more reflective use and understanding of the gains and losses around analogies; both as regards teaching material and student-generated analogies.

  • 8.
    Hultman, Glenn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Subject didactics in practice - hidden in the process: A study of teaching logics and classroom cultures2012In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns teachers’ professional knowledge. Sixteen teachers, all with more than 25 years’ experience in the profession, participated in the study in which they were given three differ- ent opportunities to show and formulate their professional skills. We initially asked the teachers to answer questions via e-mail. In the second part, the teachers were filmed in various teaching situations that allowed stimulated recall conversations afterwards. The analysis of this data then formed the basis of so-called dialogue seminars. The participating teachers show a great ability to create contexts for student learning. It was evident when they introduced new tasks and areas of work. Other important skills are, according to the participating teachers, dealing with students in groups and individually, organising, being leaders, and understanding students. The results also show there were a few occasions when the teachers touched upon subject didactics and learning theories in their discussions.

  • 9.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Prov, vitsord och bedömning som aspekter av kemilärares bedömningspraktik2011In: Ämnesdidaktik - dåtid, nutid och framtid. Bidrag från femte rikskonferensen i ämnesdidaktik vid Linköpings universitet 26-27 maj 2010 / [ed] Bengt-Göran Martinsson, Suzanne Parmenius Swärd, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, p. 41-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under temat ”Ämnesdidaktik – dåtid, nutid och framtid” samlades i Linköping den 26 – 27 maj 2010 ett 90-tal forskare, forskarstuderande och lärare för att delta i den femte nationella rikskonferensen i ämnesdidaktik. Arrangör var det nationella nätverket för ämnesdidaktik och Linköpings universitet. De nationella konferenserna har gått från att vara årliga till att hållas vartannat år. Från 2007, med början i Oslo, varvas nämligen de nationella konferenserna med nordiska konferenser.

    Kännetecknande för dessa konferenser, både de nationella och de nordiska, är att de utgör en mötesplats över didaktiska ämnesgränser utan att man för den skull tvingas söka sig till det allmändidaktiska fältet för att finna gemenskap. De olika ämnesdidaktiska inriktningarna skapar en vetenskaplig bred..

  • 10.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Provkonstruktion och bedömning som aspekter av kemilärares bedömningspraktik2010In: Innehållet i fokus - kemiinnehållet i finlandssvenska klassrum / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2010, 8, p. 175-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera jämförande internationella studier hamnar de finska eleverna i toppen. Hur bedrivs kemiundervisningen i finlandssvenska klassrum? Rapporten består av sex kapitel där författarna bl.a. tar upp följande frågor:

    • Vad kännetecknar undervisningspraktiken i en finlandssvensk klass?
    • Vilka texter används i klassrummet?
    • Vad betraktas som viktig respektive mindre viktig kunskap?

    I ett av kapitlen analyseras vilka frågor läraren ställer till eleverna och vilken feedback som ges. I studien ingick fyra lärare, och i det avslutande kapitlet analyseras deras provkonstruktion och bedömningsarbete.

    Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av bedömningsfrågor, kunskapsfrågor, lärande och undervisning. Forskningsprojektet är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet

  • 11.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Vad krävs för godkänt i kemi?2011In: Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2011, p. 114-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka kemikunskaper prioriteras i svenska och finlandssvenska klassrum? Vad finns det för kulturella skillnader i sättet att undervisa?Den här studien har bland annat tillkommit till följd av att finska elevers resultat är bland de främsta i flera jämförande internationella studier. Rapporten består av sju kapitel som alla på olika sätt analyserar videobandade klassrumsobservationer, intervjuer och texter från tre svenska och fyra finlandssvenska klassrum. De olika analyserna som presenteras i denna rapport ger mångsidiga beskrivningar av hur ett specifikt naturvetenskapligt innehåll tar form i undervisningen. Sammantaget ger texterna ett underlag för en fördjupad diskussion om vad som utgör skillnader och likheter i undervisningen i de två länderna.Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av frågor om undervisning, textbruk, kunskap, lärande och bedömning, med speciellt fokus på kemi. Forskningsprojektet har finansierats av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 12.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Vilket kemikunnade efterfrågas och görs tillgängligt för eleverna? - Frågor, svar och feedback i kemiklassrummet2010In: Innehållet i fokus - kemiundervisning i finlandssvenska klassrum / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2010, p. 145-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera jämförande internationella studier hamnar de finska eleverna i toppen. Hur bedrivs kemiundervisningen i finlandssvenska klassrum? Rapporten består av sex kapitel där författarna bl.a. tar upp följande frågor: Vad kännetecknar undervisningspraktiken i en finlandssvensk klass? Vilka texter används i klassrummet? Vad betraktas som viktig respektive mindre viktig kunskap? I ett av kapitlen analyseras vilka frågor läraren ställer till eleverna och vilken feedback som ges. I studien ingick fyra lärare, och i det avslutande kapitlet analyseras deras provkonstruktion och bedömningsarbete.Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av bedömningsfrågor, kunskapsfrågor, lärande och undervisning. Forskningsprojektet är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet

  • 13.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Alone with the test - students´perspectives on an enacted policy of national testing in Swedish schools2015In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 34-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Explosion positions given to parents and claims of agency in student’s stories about grades2016In: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 140-140Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on data collected in a wider study of national testing and grading policies for school year six that were introduced in Sweden 2012. The research project focuses specifically on elementar y students’ experiences of receiving grades and taking the national tests. In this paper we direct the interest towards the positions given to parents in the student’s stories about talking about grades with their parents. The purpose of the paper is to ex plore how ‘territories of agency’ take shape in student’s stories in relation to discursive narratives of performative pressure within global and national education systems. The now stronger focus on grades in Sweden is considered a part of the delivery chain -stressing learning outcomes as the main issue for everyone involved in education – reaching from global actors such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to the individual students (Ball, et al. 2012). The performativ e pressure on schools, teachers, and students aiming to improve results and schools’ ranking positions affects the local actor’s actions and identities. As subjects to policy their agency is limited but in their stories student’s make claims of having some degree of freedom to act. These ‘claims of territories of agency’ are understood as expressed through narrative performances of individual and collective identities in student’s stories about experiences of talking about grades with parents. This narrativ e approach lets us focus on the links between how students position themselves relation to their parents and vis - a - vis discourses of performativity (Ball, 1997) in their stories and through their storytelling (Bamberg, 1997). Students from eleven differen t schools in five different municipalities were interviewed with the purpose of obtaining a great variety of student experiences. In total we have conducted 80 interviews with 195 students and some of them have been interviewed twice. Students were intervi ewed in groups (n= 2 - 5). The analysis in this paper is based on what students told us about their experiences of talking to parents about grades. In a thematic analysis we found three different themes regarding how the students described their parent’s att itudes towards grades and the student’s efforts related to grades. The first theme is about parents that do not talk about grades with their children. The second is about parents that put pressure on their children to get good grades often without engagin g -or knowing how to engage -in how this is done. The third theme is about parents that focus on their children’s wellbeing by putting the grades in different perspectives – e.g. by downplay the importance of grades or emphasize the importance of having one’s own agenda. In this paper we further investigate how the positions are given to parents in the “story - world” (Bamberg, 1997) and how the students position themselves as students when telling the stories. Preliminary results suggest that students ‘cla im territories of agency’ for themselves by positioning their parents in different ways in the story - worlds.

  • 15.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Motståndskraft i berättelser om betyg och föräldrar2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1:1, p. 51-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Performative pressure and identity formation in Swedish students’ stories about national tests2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Preparations for national tests in grade six – narratives from those that are assessed2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss how students are prepared and prepare themselves before conducting national tests. Recently the routines of national testing were extended in Sweden by introducing national tests in Science and Social science in grade six. The intentions with the test is to contribute to that the assessment will be equal and fair, to concretize the curricula and to improve students’ results. The tests are conducted during the spring term and they are supposed to mirror the summative learning results of the students’ achievements for the passed school years. An implicit idea in this policy is that students and schools should not prepare for the tests. The policy of extended national testing is regarded as an expression of the state’s increased demands on accountability and of a need for unambiguous information on a national school market. The research builds on a vision of educational reform as something that both frames the terms of the school’s stakeholders and is shaped by the local translations and enactments of the reforms. Data consists of interviews with sixth-grade students from ten schools who are characterized by different background factors, such as socioeconomic conditions and geographic location. The students were interviewed groups of students (n. 2-5) a few days after the national test. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We have conducted an analysis of micro-narratives of students’ stories about their experiences of preparing for national tests. Preliminary results indicate that schools and students in varying degrees prepare for individual tests. Students variously spend a lot of energy to prepare, or just follow the preparations done in school, or do not prepare at all. Some schools prepare students a lot and others leave the task of preparation to the students to solve alone. A conclusion suggested in the paper is that the tests from a students’ perspective can be said to contribute to differences in students’ possibilities to prepare and perform good results in school.

  • 18.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Pupils’ enactments of a policy for equivalence: Stories about different conditions when preparing for national tests2018In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article revolves around the educational policy introduced in Swedish schools that has extended national testing to younger pupils. The policy is intended to support equal assessment and grading. With the exception of short-term preparations for the tests focused on here, the testing routines are regulated by the state. The paper aims to examine how the policy of national testing in grade six is enacted in different school contexts from a pupil’s point of view, and how this affects equivalence in school. A narrative analysis was conducted of pupils’ (n = 150) stories about preparing for national tests in 11 schools. Three forms of enactments were distinguished according to how responsibility for test preparations was allocated in each school. In some schools, teachers invited the pupils systematically to the translation process. In other schools, pupils were given most of the responsibility for preparation and were left alone as actors vis-a-vis the policy. Finally, in schools that applied ad hoc preparations, the pupils’ position as actors became less secure and more multifaceted. This variety regarding the pupils’ test preparations in school stress that the different enactments of this policy of national testing have implications for the interpretation of equivalence in school.

  • 19.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap Historia, Karlstads universitet.
    “Ni blir inte betygsatta… det är lärarna som blir det”: En liten berättelse om press och eget ansvar som en del av den stora framgångsberättelsen2018In: Berättelser: Vänbok till Héctor Pérez PrietoAnnica / [ed] Annica Löfdahl Hultman, Marie Tanner och Christina Olin-Scheller, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet , 2018, p. 105-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet kommer vi att återberätta en berättelse som de tre eleverna Björn, Erik och Cissi1 berättade för oss våren efter att de hade fått sina första betyg. Denna vår år 2014 var också den första på många år som svenska elever i årskurs 6 fick betyg över huvud taget. Berättelsen handlar om just dessa elevers erfarenheter av att få betyg, men den kan också förstås som ett bidrag till en större berättelse om betydelsen av att forma framgångsrika och konkurrenskraftiga elever. Den berättelsen berättas idag av många olika aktörer både i och utanför skolan. Såväl elever, lärare och rektorer på enskilda skolor som nationella och globala aktörer är idag upptagna av att mäta och visa upp framgångsrika resultat (Lingard, 2011; Lingard, Martino & Rezai-Rashti, 2013). Vår ambition med kapitlet är att försöka illustrera hur man genom att lyssna väldigt noga på enskilda människors berättelser och sedan kontextualisera dem – det vill säga sätta dem i ett sammanhang som framstår som relevant för såväl oss som forskare som för dem som berättar – kan bidra med nya nyanser till stora eller dominerande berättelser om vad skola och utbildning är till för. Därmed ansluter vi oss till en forskningstradition som ”är ute efter människornas berättelser om vad de gör när de lever sina sociala omständigheter, och de erfarenheter som detta innebär för deras liv och för det samhälle de lever i” (Pérez Prieto, 2007, s. 289; se även Plummer, 2001; Freeman, 2010).

  • 20.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad Universitet, Sweden.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad Universitet, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Karlstad Universitet, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden.
    Att ständigt bli bedömd2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1:1, p. 175-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Betydelsen av att visa upp goda resultat på de nationella proven i NO2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1:1, p. 125-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Signaling capacity of ß2-integrins in relations to neutrophil motility1996Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutrophil granulocyte is one of the most mobile cell types in the human body and represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Adhesion and chemotactic receptors on the cell surface work together through modulations of the cytoskeleton and thereby cause the cell to move. Cell movement is dependent on actin reorganization but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this is limited. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the signaling capacity of the ß2-integrins and to try to define a signaling event responsible for the regulation of actin assembly in human neutrophils.

    Stimulation with the chemotactic peptide fMetLeuPhe causes activation of a pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein (G-protein) that in turn triggers a cascade of events in the human neutrophil. fMetLeuPhe stimulates an increase in filamentous actin (F-actin) and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and the subsequent formation of phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3). A role for PIP3 in promoting actin assembly has been suggested since the time course for PIP3 formation directly correlates with actin polymerization. The present study shows that engagement of ß2-integrins by antibody cross-linking induced a calcium signal and actin polymerization, but these responses, however, were not sensitive for pertussis toxin. The F-actin response induced by fMetLeuPhe was rapidly declining whereas the response induced by engagement of ß2-integrins was more sustained. This can be due to the inability of ß2-integrins to induce a cAMP signal since direct addition of cAMP and 1-isobutyl-methylxantine (IBMX, a phophodiesterase inhibitor) to electropermeabilized neutrophils caused a prompt reversal of the ß2-integrininduced F-actin elevation. The signaling capacity of the ß2-integrins was positively modulated by pretreatment of the cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activating agent). Priming neutrophils with lnM PMA, a low concentration that did not influence the F-actin content per se, increased the magnitude of the ß2-integrin-induced F-actin response. Interestingly, engagement of ß2-integrins was shown to induce formation of PIP3 a fmding that further supports the suggested role for PIP3 in promoting actin polymerization.

  • 23.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Elvstrand, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jansson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hur reformer styr verksamhet på fritidshem2016In: Venue, ISSN 2001-788X, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har fritidshemmen präglats av en ”reformträngsel”. Hur påverkar det den dagliga verksamheten? Genom att ta del av lärares och rektorers egna berättelser om fritidshem har vi undersökt hur reformerna förändrar fritidshemmens verksamhet idag och hur det påverkar det systematiska kvalitetsarbetet.

  • 24.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholms universitet.
    Att hitta svaret i eller bortom texten: en analys av elevers svar på PISA-frågan om ozon2011In: Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2011, p. 302-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka kemikunskaper prioriteras i svenska och finlandssvenska klassrum? Vad finns det för kulturella skillnader i sättet att undervisa?Den här studien har bland annat tillkommit till följd av att finska elevers resultat är bland de främsta i flera jämförande internationella studier. Rapporten består av sju kapitel som alla på olika sätt analyserar videobandade klassrumsobservationer, intervjuer och texter från tre svenska och fyra finlandssvenska klassrum. De olika analyserna som presenteras i denna rapport ger mångsidiga beskrivningar av hur ett specifikt naturvetenskapligt innehåll tar form i undervisningen. Sammantaget ger texterna ett underlag för en fördjupad diskussion om vad som utgör skillnader och likheter i undervisningen i de två länderna.Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av frågor om undervisning, textbruk, kunskap, lärande och bedömning, med speciellt fokus på kemi. Forskningsprojektet har finansierats av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 25.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bedömningshandlingar i två klassrum: Likartat kemiinnehåll men skilda inramningar2011In: Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2011, p. 238-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här delstudien analyseras två lärares introduktion samt uppföljning till ett moment i grundskolans kemi som berör det periodiska systemet och kemiska bindningar med särskilt fokus på lärarnas frågor, elevernas svar och den feedback lärare ger. Vi kommer i det följande att fokusera den aspekt av två lärares bedömningsarbete som är relaterad till klassrumskommunikationen – bedömningshandlingar på mikronivå under två lektioner. Det vi särskilt studerar är frågornas och svarens form och innehåll, samt lärarnas feedback till eleverna. Tidigare studier av lärares frågor till eleverna har huvudsakligen fokuserat formaspekter och visat att den typ av frågor som dominerar är sådana som enbart kräver ett kort och givet svar: ”Both in questioning and written work, teachers’ assessment focuses on low-level aims, mainly recall” (Black & Wiliam 1998a, s. 13, kursiv i originaltext). Vidare visar studierna att lärarnas respons – bedömning – av elevernas svar är kortfattad, antingen accepteras svaret eller så avvisas det. Även om forskning inriktat på klassrumskommunkation (jfr t.ex. Sahlström, 2008) har ett annat fokus, förstärker dessa studier citatet av Black och Wiliam. Ett återkommande resultat inom klassrumsforskning pekar på formen för kommunikationen, IR-E mönstret (Initiering, Respons, Evaluering), medan man sällan haft fokus på innehållsliga aspekter av kommunikationen (Carlgren, 2009). I det här kapitlet undersöker vi vilka slags frågor kemilärare i svenska och finlandssvenska ställer till sina elever, vilket innehåll som fokuseras i frågorna, vilka slags svar eleverna förväntas ge och vilken feedback lärarna ger på elevernas svar. På ett övergripande plan är vårt syfte att analysera vad som framstår som viktigt att kunna i ett specifikt moment av grundskolans kemi men också att belysa aspekter av formativ bedömning relaterad till lärares klassrumsarbete. Vi har tidigare presenterat en analys av 55 frågor (två lektioner) i ett av de finlandssvenska klassrummen, en vanlig lektion och en laborationslektion (Lindberg & Löfgren, 2010). I det kapitlet utvecklade vi den analysmetod vi nu använder som utgångspunkt samt en kompletterande jämförelse av de två lärarnas frågor, svar och feedback. Det vi avser att bidra med är kunskap om är vad som blir tillgängligt för eleverna att lära och vilket  kemikunnande som stöds i de olika klassrummen.

    Vi inleder med att introducera begreppen formativ bedömning och feedback och efter detta kommer ett avsnitt som behandlar naturvetenskapliga ämnespraktiker. Sedan följer det som är kapitlets huvudinnehåll – ett preciserat syfte, en presentation av hur vi gått tillväga metodiskt i analysarbetet och därefter följer resultat och diskussion.

  • 26.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Natural Science - Medicine - Esthetics - Communication .
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Inst. för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete Stockholms universitet.
    Feedback and examination in the chemistry classroom: Teachers´questioning and teachers constructed test2008In: NFPF/NERA,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 27.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att få sina första betyg: en rapport om elevers berättelser om sina erfarenheter av att få betyg i årskurs 62016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten belyser frågor om hur betygen i årskurs 6 tagits emot av elever och vilka effekter de har gett för dem som skolelever. Det övergripande syftet är att på ett nyanserat sätt beskriva elevers synsätt på, och erfarenheter av att få betyg i årskurs 6. Ett särskilt intresse riktas mot elevernas berättelser om hur deras tillvaro i skola och hem har förändrats i årskurs 6 och hur lärare, kam­rater och föräldrar förhåller sig till betygen. Elevberättelser från 11 olika skolor år 2014–2015 utgör projektets underlag för dataproduktionen. Kvalitativa gruppintervjuer genomfördes med elever i årskurs 6 strax efter att de genomfört nationella prov i SO eller NO samt i samband med att de fick sina betyg.

    Resultaten i den här rapporten visar att det talas mycket om betyg i skola och hem vilket sätter tryck på eleverna att visa vad de kan och att detta präglar elevernas syn på sig själva som skolelever i årskurs 6. I vissa berättelser framträ­der betygen som mindre viktiga både på kort och på lång sikt – det vill säga som ’low stake’. I andra berättelser framträder betygen i årskurs 6 som ’high stakes’ och som ytterst betydelsefulla för hur eleverna beskriver sin framtid. Resultaten visar även att variationen är stor i hur eleverna framträder som skolelever i sina berättelser om sina erfarenheter av att ha fått betyg. Här finns berättelser där elever framstår som relativt ensamma och hjälplösa med ett stort eget ansvar för att själva komma på hur de ska blir bättre och visa upp det, men det finns även berättelser där elever ger uttryck för att de får mycket stöd av sin omgivning och visar tillit inför att bli betygsatta. Det framgår tydligt i dessa data att det har betydelse hur och i vilken omfattning det talas om betyg i elevernas närmsta omgivning i det sociala samspelet mellan lärare, kamrater och föräldrar, för hur olika förhållningssätt till betyg tar form i elevernas berättelser. Rapporten vill möjliggöra ett vidare samtal om den rådande betygs- och bedömningspraktikens konsekvenser för både individer och samhälle.

  • 28.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    National tests in science in grade six - student stories about their concern for the test questions2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to investigate students’ concern for the national test in science as an effect of changes in the education system toward a stronger state interest in knowledge measurement in a decentralized and competitive school system. Our research questions are: What are students’ experiences of national tests in science? How do the students conceptualize the test questions? This paper focuses on elementary students’ experiences of assessment against the backdrop of the now extensive practice of national testing in the sixth grade of Swedish schools. The students were interviewed in a group of students (n. 2-5) a few days after the national test. They were asked to refer to their feelings about performing the test (e.g. Can you tell us what it was like to take a national test?) and about their strategies to answer the questions (e.g. Can you tell us about your experiences about the test questions?). All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We listened to the interviews and read the transcripts and conducted an analysis of narratives of students’ stories about their experiences of the national test. The students tell about a great concern for the national tests in science and how important the national tests are for their grades. They tell stories about limited possibilities to prepare before the test. They also talk about questions that do not challenge their knowledge, as well as questions that are difficult to conceptualize. From a student perspective, some questions are impossible to answer because they are “dealing with the wrong stuff” since the science content in the test questions do not always reflect the content of the science teaching in school. It is evident in our data that the now extended practice of assessment is in a process of taking shape. The national tests do not just create opportunities for students to improve their grades, but they also limit students’ opportunities to participate in a science practice.

  • 29.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Göteborgs University, Sweden.
    Betygens betydelse: nu och i framtiden2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1:1, p. 35-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Pupils perceptions of grades: a narrative analysis of stories about getting graded for the first time2019In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 259-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this article is changes in the Swedish assessment system which stated that pupils are to receive grade reports in school year 6 (12-13 years old) during the academic year 2012-2013. Since the 1970s, compulsory school pupils have received their first grade reports in grade 7 and/or 8. The issue here is to present pupils narratives about the possible future significance of grade reports in school year 6. Pupils were interviewed about their experiences of getting their first grade reports, and a narrative analysis was conducted. More specifically, we investigated pupils conceptions of themselves as pupils and of their future possibilities, as described in their stories of getting their first grade report. The findings show that pupils perceive grades in year 6 differently, showing both adaption and resistance to the new grading discourse. Our conclusion concerns pupils learning and well-being when national assessment policies are changed.

  • 31.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Student stories about their malleability in relation to grades and national tests in school year six2015In: EARLI 2015 Book of Abstracts, European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction , 2015, p. 579-579Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to investigate students’ experiences of the national test as an effect of changes in the education system toward a stronger state interest in knowledge measurement in a decentralized and competitive school system. Our research questions are: What are students’ experiences of national tests in relation to their grades? How do the students talk about their own malleability? The students were interviewed in a group of students (n. 2-5). They were asked to refer to their grades in relation to the national tests (e.g. Are the national tests important for your grades?) and about their possibilities to change their grades. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We listened to the interviews and read the transcripts and conducted an analysis of narratives of students’ stories about their experiences of the national test. The students tell about a great variation when talking about the role of national tests for their grades, some students say that the national tests are very important for their grades whereas other say that the national tests only can raise the grades never lower them and some state that the national tests are of no importance for their grades. They also tell stories about their ability to change their grades later on in school. However, from a student perspective the national tests and the grades in school year six do not just create opportunities for students, they also limit students’ opportunities.

    Theoretically and methodology framework

    In Sweden the practice of national testing now is extended through the introduction of national tests in Science (Chemistry, Physics and Biology) and Social Science (History, Geography, Religion and Social Studies) in grade six. This is one in a series of reforms aiming to tighten the impact of learning goals formulated by the state. The reform is regarded as an expression both of the state’s increasing interest in managing and controlling schools and of a need for unambiguous information about schools’ effectiveness from actors on a national school market (Lundahl, 2005). Both the state and parents choosing schools for their children ask for simple measures of schools’ quality (Lindblad, 2000). Further, one fundamental aspect of the system is that by providing information about learning outcomes, students themselves can develop their own learning. Yet we know little about the ways students, the subjects of governance, experience and share their experiences of national tests.

    A central idea in the paper is that reforms are interpreted and enacted rather than implemented, and therefore it is useful to listen to the actors’ experiences (Ball et al., 2012). Theoretically, this research builds on a vision of educational reform as something that, on one hand, frames and shapes the terms of the school’s stakeholders and their ability to shape their identities. On the other hand, the actors’ stories or translations of those reforms reflect how reform is enacted in practice and how its results can be understood (Ball, 2006; Ball et al., 2012). Research on assessment from a student perspective is unusual, especially when it involves young learners (Forsberg & Lindberg, 2010). Most evaluation research focuses on student achievement and on school results rather than on students’ experiences, the core of this project. However, some European studies are relevant to this paper’s discussion. Kasanen and Räty (2002) showed that self-assessment of students in first grade affects their perceptions of themselves at school and that they compete with one another, comparing their own results with those of classmates. In a study of students in grades three and six, Kärkkäinen et al. (2008) found that students develop a perception about their own abilities and their malleability quite early. The students’ results and experiences of success or failure, in conjunction with comparing their results with those of others, contribute to early and stable perceptions of themselves over time and to pessimism in terms of possible change. In addition, two studies have shown that students hold varying perceptions about assessment’s function but a common perception that assessment is done for others rather than for themselves (Törnvall, 2002; Ross et al., 2002).

    Method and data

    Data in this paper is collected within the framework of a project financed by the Swedish Science Council in which we interview sixth-grade students from ten schools who are characterized by different background factors, such as socioeconomic conditions and geographic location.The students were interviewed in a group of students (n. 2-5). They were asked to refer to their grades in relation to the national tests (e.g. Are the national tests important for your grades?) and about their possibilities to change their grades. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We listened to the interviews and read the transcripts and conducted an analysis of narratives of students’ stories about their experiences of the national test.

    Findings

    Our analysis of students’ stories indicates a narrative of an increased performative pressure when national science tests in grade six were introduced. In the students´ stories about how they cope with the pressure, identity formations of insecurity (agony) and competence (pride) are constructed. The students emphasize the importance of the situation both for the teachers and for their own future (cf. Ross et al., 2002; Kärkkäinen et al., 2008). The students tell about a great variation when talking about the role of national tests for their grades, some students say that the national tests are very important for their grades whereas other say that the national tests only can raise the grades never lower them. Some students also tell stories about their malleability i.e. their ability to change their grades later on in school. However, from a student perspective the national tests and the grades in school year six do not just create opportunities for students, they also limit students’ opportunities.

    References

    Ball, S. J. (2006). Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: Towards the performative society. In H. Lauder, P. Brown, J-A. Dillabough & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Education, globalization & social change (pp. 692–701). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactment in secondary schools. London: Routledge.

    Forsberg, E. & Lindberg, V. (2010). Svensk forskning om bedömning — en kartläggning. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

    Kasanen, K. & Räty, H. (2002). ”You have to be honest in your assessment”: Teaching and learning self-assessment. Social psychology of education 5, s. 313–328.

    Kärkkäinen, R., Räty, H. & Kasanen, K. (2008). Children’s notions of the malleability of their academic competencies. Social psychology of education 11, s. 445–458.

    Lindblad, S. (2000). Verklighetens omätbara aspekter. Pedagogiska magasinet, 4.

    Lundahl, L. (2005). A matter of self-governance and control. The reconstruction of Swedish education policy: 1980–2003. European Education, 1(37), 10–25.

    Ross, J. A., Rolheiser, C. & Hogaboam-Gray, A. (2002). Influences on students’ cognition about evaluation. Assessment in Education, Principles, Policy & Practice, 9(1), 81–95.

    Törnvall, M. (2001). Uppfattningar och upplevelser av bedömning i grundskolan. Malmö: Högskolan, Lärarutbildningen. (licentiatavhandling).

  • 32.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Karlstad universitet, Karlstad.
    Students stories about their feelings of getting grades in school year 6 – a matter of high stake?2016In: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 140-141Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates students ́experiences of getting grades and explores the identities as students that take shape in their stories. Recently, grades from school - year 6 instead of year 8 were introduced in Swedish schools. However, granting their importance in students´ life, little is known abo ut the personal meaning of grades to students, especially the feelings and understandings that students hold about grades both in a present tense as well as in a future tense. One main function of grades is to select students into higher levels in the educ ational system but they are also expected to motivate students to learn more and provide information about learning outcomes. Previous studies have shown that grades in early years contribute to stable perceptions of student selves over time and to pessimi sm in terms of possible change (Kasanen & Räty, 2002; Kärkkäinen, 2008). Often, issues of “high stake” deal with questions of tests and grades as objective gatekeepers for students ́ future possibilities to education. However, in this paper, we consider “hi gh stake” as a subjective matter linked to students ́ feelings and future dreams. The overall aim of the paper is to problematize “high stake” as a matter of objectivity by stressing students ́ subjective feelings in their stories about grades and grading. O ur research questions are: How do the students talk about the possibilities to influence their grades now and in future? What feelings take shape in the students’ stories about their experiences of grades? Students from eleven different schools in five di fferent municipalities were interviewed with the purpose of obtaining a great variety of student experiences. In total we have conducted 80 interviews with 195 students. The students were interviewed in a group of students (n=2 - 5) and asked to refer to the ir experiences and feelings of grades. We listened to the interviews and read the transcripts and conducted a narrative analysis of the students’ stories. Some students express feelings of pressure and say that the grades are deemed important for their po ssibilities to get a job in the future. This we regard as an expression of grades as “high stake”. Other students express more relaxed feelings and talk about a limited value of grades in school - year 6 for their future plans. To them the grades do not stan d out as “high stake”. Several studies indicate that younger students seem to see grades as labels that are hard to change. From this perspective all grades are “high stake” in a kind of objective sense. However, this study indicates that the grades are no t “high stake” to all students when considering their feelings and future dreams. Many of the students in this study talk about future in terms of possibilities to change their grades or find grades and grading not an important issue yet. To them the grade s might be “high stake” later on – or not.

  • 33.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    Laborationen - en miljö för lärande2003Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploratory talk in science education: Inquiry-based learning and communicative approach in primary school2013In: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, E-ISSN 2538-7138, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 482-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research on science education has increasingly focused on the role of exploratory talk for learning science in school. This study was conducted in third grade in the Swedish compulsory school and shows how difficult exploratory talk in science is to achieve. The recordings of each lesson focused mainly on the teacher but included the pupils as the teacher interacted with them. The empirical material was analysed from two different perspectives: ways of communicating the science content and communicative approach. The analysis of the classroom practice showed that scientific descriptions were dominating ways of communication. Only in a few cases explanations of scientific phenomena were in focus. Those situations caused turning points into more interactive/dialogic communications or exploratory talk. One main conclusion is that exploratory talk and scientific explanations are not easily achieved when working in primary school. These skills are not automatically attained by the use of inquiry-based material - it needs to be trained!

  • 35.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Kommunicera naturvetenskap i skolan – exempel från årskurs 3.2011In: Ämnesdidaktik -- dåtid, nutid och framtid.: Bidrag från femte rikskonferensen i ämnesdidaktik vid Linköpings universitet 26-27 maj 2010. / [ed] Martinsson, Bengt-Göran & Parmenius Swärd, Suzanne, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, p. 51-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet handlar det om kommunikation och interaktion mellan lärare och elever.Löfgren m.fl. prövar ett analysverktyg för att studera dialog- eller interaktionstyperi klassrummet. Har samtalet om ämnet någon betydelse ochvilka olika typer av elev- lärar-interaktion kan finnas? Samtalet är enligtförfattarna kontextbundet till respektive ämnes diskurs. Inom naturvetenskaputgörs diskursen främst av beskrivningar, generaliseringar och förklaringar,med andra ord hur läraren får eleverna att tillägna sig och användanaturvetenskapliga begrepp. De visar på mönster i interaktionenmellan lärare och elev och genom framför allt sociokulturella teorier omlärande analyserar de vilken typ av interaktion som bäst främjar begreppsutveckling.

  • 36.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Avdelningen för didaktik och forskning om pedagogiskt arbete (DIPA). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The content and form in science education2009In: ESERA, Istanbul, 2009, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Johnsson, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Domino Østergaard, Lars
    Institut for Medicin og Sundhedsteknologi, Aalborg Universitet, Danmark.
    Engagerande samtal i det naturvetenskapliga klassrummet [Inquiry based dialouge in science classroom]2014In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 130-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on classroom communication within an inquiry-based science education (IBSE) program, called NTA (Naturvetenskap och Teknik för Alla). The overall aim of the study is to highlight the ways in which productive and engaging conversations are conducted in the classroom. We have analysed the work within the unit ”The Chemistry of food” and the theme testing of fat in food in grade five and six in a Swedish and a Danish science classroom. We have used video cameras and mp3-players to follow the classroom interaction. Our findings indicate that the classroom communication was focused on everyday science content and that the introduction and the summary of the theme were very important for the pupils’ possibilities to productive disciplinary engagement.

  • 38.
    Ødegaard, Marianne
    et al.
    Naturfagsenteret, Oslo universitet, Norge.
    Möller Andersen, Hanne
    Aarhus universitet, Danmark.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lund Nielsen, Birgitte
    Aarhus universitet, Danmark.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Mork, Sonja M
    Naturfagsebteret, Oslo universitet, Norge.
    Explora: Koding av elevers og læreres samtaler ved praktisk arbeid i skandinaviske klasserom2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Vi håper at dette heftet kan inspirere og at kodeskjemaet (i vedlegget) kan fungere som et redskap til å observere og analysere klasseromsinteraksjoner, enten man skal analysere videoopptak eller sitte og observere i klasserom. Explora er et ekte skandinavisk samarbeidsprosjekt som har kommet i stand takket være økonomisk støtte fra Nordisk samarbeidsnemnd for humanistisk og samfunnsvitenskapelig forskning (HS-NOS). Tusen takk!

    Jan, Glenn og Ragnhild fra Linköpings universitet, Hanne og Birgitte fra Aarhus Dniversitet og Sonja og Marianne fra Dniversitetet i Oslo har mottes til eksplorerende workshops i Sverige, Danmark og Norge og jobbet fram dette produktet som du na holder i handa. Til dette arbeidet har vi fatt hjelp og go de råd fra bl.a. Lasse Bjørklund, Kirsti Klette, Nina Arnesen og Berit Haug. Tusen takk!

    Pa workshopene observerte vi klasseromsvideoer fra hverandres land, kodet, diskuterte og utvekslet erfaringer. Mange naturfaglige utfprdringer er samtalet om i vennlige omgivelser, og ikke minst har vi fatt økt innsikt i likheter og forskjeller i de skandinaviske naturfags-klasserom.

    For a fremheve det skandinaviske samarbeidet har vi valgt å skrive pa alle tre språk. Noen avsnitt er skrevet pa svensk, noen på dansk og noen på norsk. Ulike eksempler på bruk av kodeskjemaet er også presentert på ulike mater for å understreke variasjon og fleksibilitet.

    Vi anbefaler flere å prøve skandinavisk samspill!

    Marianne Ødegaard

1 - 38 of 38
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