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  • 1.
    Aminoff, Hedviq
    et al.
    Infocentret Ankaret.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Understanding Coordination in Emergency Response2007In: European Annual Conference on Human Decision-Making and Manual Control,2007, Lyngby, Denmark: Technical University of Denmark , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses analysis of an emergency management exercise. In the exercise scenario, different emergency management organizations jointly try to cope with a forest fire and related incidents. The Extended Control Model is utilized for examination of the establishment of en emergent emergency response organization. Ambiguity in how functions are to be handled in a large event, indicating vulnerabilities in face of larger crises; functions moving across roles during the evolving event; and recognizable phases of a response are uncovered. This is assessed by utilizing episodic analysis of the communication between different functions and roles in the participating emergency management organizations. The results indicate requirements for future information and communication technologies, and occurrences that can be explored in future studies.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granlund, Rego
    Rationella Datortjänster, Rimforsa.
    The Effect of Geographical Information Systems on a Collaborative Command and Control Task2007In: Proceedings ISCRAM2007 / [ed] B. Van de Walle, P. Burghardt and C. Nieuwenhuis, Delft, Nederland: Delft University of Technology , 2007, p. 191-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tests the claimed benefits of using geographical information systems (GIS) in emergency response operations. An experimental study comparing command teams using GIS and paper-based maps is presented. The study utilized a combined approach using microworld simulations together with physical artefacts. Participants in the experiment took the role of command teams, facing the task of extinguishing a simulated forest fire. A total of 132 persons, forming 22 teams, participated in the study. In eleven of the teams, the participants were given access to GIS with positioning of fire-brigades as well as sensor data about the fire outbreak. In the other eleven teams, the participants were using paper-based maps. The result shows that teams using GIS performed significantly better than teams with paper-based maps in terms of saved area. Communication volume was considerably reduced in the case of GIS teams. Implications of these results on GIS are discussed as well as methodological considerations for future research.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    LeDuc, Michael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Aspects of GI and GIS Use in Pre-and Post-flooding Phases of Swedish Emergency Management - a case study2005In: European Safety, Reliability Data Association Seminar,2005, Ispra, Italy: Joint Research Centre , 2005, p. 213-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the present role of geographic information (GI) and geographic information systems (GIS) in flood emergency management (EM) is investigated. A case study method is used to study pre- and post-flooding phases of EM in two Swedish municipalities. The results indicate apparent ontological and semantic differences between the involved decision-makers on what constitutes important problems and on what type of information is relevant. Furthermore, knowledge of GI and GIS was also found differing between the decision-makers. Organizational, conceptual, ontological, and semantic problems were identified as essential for GI and GIS utilization. Concerning the increasing role of GI and GIS in EM, further research on the studied problems is necessary as their elimination or at least minimization is a prerequisite for introducing a mature GIS in flood EM.

  • 4.
    Sivertun, Åke
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Information i kris och stora påfrestningar?2003In: VR-Forum: Kris och stora påfrestningar,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring Tactical Command and Control: A Role-Playing Simulation Approach2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns command and control (C2) work at the tactical level in emergency and crisis response operations. The presented research addresses two main research questions. The first question is whether it is feasible to simulate and study C2 work in the initial stages of response operations by means of role-playing simulations. If so, the second question is how to develop and execute role-playing simulations in order to explore this type of C2 work in a methodologically sound way. The presented research is based on simulations as methodological means for qualitative research. The utilized simulation approach is scenario-based real-time role-playing simulations grounded in models of C2 work and response operations. Three simulations have been conducted based on this methodology and are reported in this thesis. Simulation I focused on the work practice of cooperating commanders whose activities may be enhanced by the use of artifacts. Simulation II concerned the issues of operationalizing advanced technological artifacts in rapid response expert teams. Simulation III gave attention to the role improvisation in C2 teams designated for international operations. The results from the simulations and from the work conducted and presented in this thesis contribute with knowledge and experience from using role-playing simulations to study C2 work. This includes the methodological aspects of designing and conducting role-playing simulations such as scenarios, realism, evaluation and simulation format and control. It also includes the identification of the main application and problem areas for which the methodology is suitable, that is explorative qualitative inquiries and evaluation studies. The thesis provides new insights in C2 work with respect to adaptive behavior and improvisation. The thesis also identifies areas that need to be considered in order to further develop the role-playing simulation approach and its applicability.

    List of papers
    1. Role-Playing Exercise: A Real-Time Approach to Study Collaborative Command and Control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role-Playing Exercise: A Real-Time Approach to Study Collaborative Command and Control
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Intelligent Control and Systems, ISSN 0218-7965, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 218-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    During emergency response, emergency management and its command andcontrol system are particularly challenged as the responding taskforce putscountermeasures in place intensively and dynamically. To respondeffectively these countermeasures are typically coordinated throughcollaborative work of commanding staff. Information seeking,communication, and data sharing are essential elements of this collaborativecommand and control work. The traditional research methods used incommand and control research do not always allow researchers to fullyinvestigate these elements of collaborative work. In this paper, we describethe role-playing exercise, a real-time approach combining role-playing gamesand emergency management exercises, for studying collaborative command and control, particularly during improvisation and adaptation work. We alsodescribe the practical application of the role-playing exercise approach in theALFA-05 research study. This is followed by a discussion on methodologicallessons learned from this study. This includes simulation realism and control,ecological and communication settings, and data collection. Our experiencesuggests that the role-playing exercise approach can be considered as afeasible method for research studies, where interaction and communicationof commanding staff are in focus.

    Keywords
    Emergency response, command and control, collaboration, simulation, real-time approach, role-playing exercise
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20636 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2009-09-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Collaborative Command and Control Practice: Adaptation, Self-Regulation and Supporting Behavior
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative Command and Control Practice: Adaptation, Self-Regulation and Supporting Behavior
    2009 (English)In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 47-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a study, which aimed to document the work practice ofa team of commanders responding to an emergency, and to identify areasand activities, that may be enhanced by the use of command and controltools. The study was based on a “human-in-the-loop” simulation withemergency management commanders as participants. Communicationanalyses – episodic analysis, socio-metric status and communication roles –were used to assess coordination among the commanders. The resultsindicate that the commanders used informal arrangements within theestablished command and control structures to perform various informalfunctions and take on diverse communication roles across organizational anddomain boundaries. Cross-domain and cross-organizational knowledge wasthe most important enabler of this type of coordination. General toolsproviding methods and aids to indicate and support informal functions andcommunication roles were identified as absent.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20637 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2009-09-15Bibliographically approved
    3. Do Experts Teams in Rapid Crisis Response Use Their Tools Efficiently?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Experts Teams in Rapid Crisis Response Use Their Tools Efficiently?
    2009 (English)In: Advances inManagement Information Systems: Volume on Information Systemsfor Emergency ManagementEdited by: Bartel Van de Walle, Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, 2009, 1, p. 126-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational use of earth observation technologies by expert teams in thecrisis response domain is a critical socio-technical process. The uniquecontext and characteristics of every crisis have an impact on the extent towhich these technologies, such as computer-based tools for objectidentification, feature recognition, and change detection, will be used, andhow the actual work and the interactions of expert teams deploying thetechnologies will emerge. Beyond the mere technical characteristics offunctioning and operating the earth observation technologies, crucialprerequisites for their successful application in a crisis situation arepredominantly set by “soft” factors such as management, process control,and clear and accurate communication. The knowledge of these factors isessential in order to build and train expert teams capable of using thesetechnologies and performing effectively under a wide variety of situationsand conditions. This chapter reviews experience and lessons learned from a simulation of operational deployment of earth observation technologies byexpert teams in rapid crisis response. The exploitation of these technologiesby expert teams while responding to a nuclear emergency scenario isstudied. On the basis of the scenario-based exercise methodology, a real-timesimulation was prepared and executed. In this simulation, three teamscomposed of experts were given the task of providing rapid mappingproducts within thirty-three hours. During this period the teams had accessto satellite imagery as well as off-the-shelf and custom computer-based tools.This chapter identifies opportunities and constraints regarding the practicalapplication of earth observation technologies by expert teams in rapid crisisresponse. The chapter also suggests areas for further research.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20639 (URN)978-0-7656-2134-4 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2013-04-30Bibliographically approved
    4. A Model-Based Simulation Approach to Study Role Improvisation of a Command Staff
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model-Based Simulation Approach to Study Role Improvisation of a Command Staff
    2009 (English)In: IEEE transactions on systems, man and cybernetics. Part A. Systems and humans, ISSN 1083-4427, E-ISSN 1558-2426Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    This research gives attention to role improvisation in command and controlteams designated for crisis and disaster response operations in aninternational context. The paper reports a study, which had the goal todevelop, on the bases of real response operations, a role-playing simulationto explore and study role improvisation in highly realistic situations. Thestudy was based on a single-case, the command staff of the SwedishResponse Team. The objective of the study was achieved by (a) identifyingcritical areas concerning role improvisation of the command staff, (b)proposing a model-based simulation design that incorporates these areas,and (c) preparing and executing a role-playing simulation based on thisdesign. The critical areas were identified from two previous responseoperations. The analysis utilized a phenomenological approach, and wasbased on twenty-two interviews and three workshops. The identified critical areas were integrated in the simulation design by means of the initial set-up,scenario stimuli, and interactions with the simulation staff. This was basedon a synthesis of the models of command and control and responseoperations, scenario and tasks, simulation approach and manipulation of theimprovisation variables. The developed simulation was a scenario-basedreal-time role-playing simulation with a progressively unfolding scenario.The scenario was based on events taking place during the 2007 Californiawildfires. The simulation was evaluated by assessing the subjective realism.The paper reports experience from designing and conducting the roleplayingsimulation. It identifies demands and requirements, which have tobe met in order to simulate highly realistic situations. It also demonstrateshow, on the bases of real response operations, such simulations can bedesigned. Lastly, it also identifies areas that require attention in order o usethe role-playing simulations to explore and study role improvisation.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20640 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    HAZMAT Transportation Routing, Monitoring and Incident Solving in GIS Environment2001In: AGILE Conference on Geographic Science,2001, Brno, Czech Republic: Masaryk University , 2001, p. 327-344Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prerequisites for data sharing in emergency management: joint analysis using a real-time role-playing exercise approach2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explains how semi-coordinated or separated utilization of information and communication technologies may affect collaborative work between different emergency management organizations, and their capabilities to perform joint tasks during emergency responses. Another aim is to explore the modeling of emergency management and data collection methods with respect to utilization of these technologies.

    The theoretical basis for the thesis consists of system science, cognitive system engineering, communication, informatics, simulation, emergency management, and command and control. Important notions are the joint cognitive systems concept and the communication infrastructure concept. The case study method and the real-time role-playing exercise approach are the main methodological approaches.

    On the basis of two main studies, geospatial data and related systems are studied as an example. Study I focuses on emergency management organizations' abilities to collaborate effectively by assessing their communication infrastructure. Study II, on the other hand, highlights the emerging effects in use of data in collaborative work when responding to a forest fire scenario.

    The results from the studies, and from the general work conducted and presented here, show that the semi-coordinated or separated utilization of the technologies affects (a) how well the organizations can collaborate, (b) the capabilities to carry out collaborative tasks during crises and disasters, and (c) to what extent the technology can be used in real-life situations. The results also show that the joint cognitive system notion and the real-time role-playing exercise approach provided new ways to conceptualize and study the emergency management and the command and control system.

    List of papers
    1. Utilization and Exchange of Geospatial Data in Swedish Emergency Management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilization and Exchange of Geospatial Data in Swedish Emergency Management
    2005 (English)In: ScanGIS' 2005: proceedings of the 10th Scandinavian Research Conference on Geographical Information Sciences / [ed] H. Hauska & H. Tveite, Stockholm, Sweden: Universitetsservice US AB , 2005, p. 53-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, research investigating the current situation with respect to geospatial data (GSD) access and integration at the interorganizational level in Swedish local and regional emergency management (EM) is presented. The performed analysis resulted in a range of conceptual, organizational, administrative and ontological problems, recognized by the international research community and also identified among the studied Swedish EM organizations. Additionally, close interconnection between particular problems or groups of problems was observed in several cases. The documented findings can be seen as hindering the sharing of GSD. Moreover, development of useful GIS-based analytical and decision-support applications for day-to-day use in EM is becoming difficult without effectively sharing GSD. It is suggested to promote further research in an integrated way to understand the full complexity of the problems. Moreover, involving both the research and EM communities is seen as essential.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm, Sweden: Universitetsservice US AB, 2005
    Keywords
    Geographical information systems, geospatial data, emergency management
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32462 (URN)18368 (Local ID)91-7323-126-6 (ISBN)18368 (Archive number)18368 (OAI)
    Conference
    10th Scandinavian Research Conference on Geographical Information Science (ScanGIS). Stockholm, Sweden, June 13-15, 2005.
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    2. Inter-organizational Issues in ICT, GIS and GSD - Mapping Swedish Emergency Management at the Local and Regional Level
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inter-organizational Issues in ICT, GIS and GSD - Mapping Swedish Emergency Management at the Local and Regional Level
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) / [ed] Van de Walle, B. & Carlé, B., Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg University , 2005, p. 75-82Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-organizational issues are very challenging in emergency management (EM). In this paper, aspects of information and communication technologies (ICT), geographical information systems (GIS) and geospatial data (GSD) in the Swedish EM system, an EM system involving a large number of EM organizations, are reported based on a case study. The issues concerned include separated ICT & GIS development between organizations and formation of technological coalitions, problems of identification and access of GSD, located through the large number organizations, as well as uncoordinated launching of web-based GIS service. Possible implications of this situation for command and control are discussed. Additionally, areas for further research are suggested.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg University, 2005
    Keywords
    Emergency management, ICT, GIS, inter-organizational cooperation, geospatial data exchange, services
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32464 (URN)18370 (Local ID)90-7697-109-9 (ISBN)18370 (Archive number)18370 (OAI)
    Conference
    2nd International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM), Brussels, Belgium. April 18-20 2005.
    Note

    Mike Meleshkin Award for best ISCRAM 2005 PhD student paper received.

    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    3. A real-time role-playing exercise as a methodology to support command and control research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A real-time role-playing exercise as a methodology to support command and control research
    2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM), Newark, New Jersey, USA: New Jersey Institute of Technology , 2006, p. 559-568Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, methodological issues in research and training of complex command and control structures in emergency management are addressed. In particular, a methodological approach combining real-time role-playing exercise, after action review and observations is presented. An explorative study - ALFA-05 - utilizing this approach is described. A brief overview of methodological aspects of preparation and execution is given. Further, experience gained and methodological lessons learned are also discussed. Finally, real-time role-playing exercise in combination with other methods is suggested as a feasible method for researchers and exercise managers to tackle present and future command and control in complex settings, where interaction and communication are in focus. In addition, areas for further development of the real-time role-playing exercises as a research method are suggested.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Newark, New Jersey, USA: New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2006
    Keywords
    Role-playing exercise, After action review, Command and control, Complexity, Collaboration, Emergency response
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-34229 (URN)21046 (Local ID)90-9020-601-9 (ISBN)21046 (Archive number)21046 (OAI)
    Conference
    3rd International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM). Newark, New Jersey., May 13-17, 2006)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13
  • 8.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Using Low-Fidelity Simulations to Support Design of Decision-Support Systems for Command and Control Applications2008In: Distributed Multimedia Systems,2008, Skokie, IL, USA: Knowledge Systems Institute , 2008, p. 158-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern decision-support systems for command and control may lead to radical organizational and technological changes. This paper describes a methodology to support designers and developers of such system in order to identify this type of changes in the design process. The methodology is based on a shorter series of low-fidelity simulations. The analyses do not focus on individual actions of the decision-support system operators, but instead on impacts of the systems on situated and joint actions of the command and control teams in terms of communication and coordination. The simulation series presented in the paper shows how the use of a decision-support system combining real-time data from various sensors led to changes in the content and structure of the communication as well as the resource coordination. Findings from the discussed simulations suggest that more attention should be given to possible impacts of decision-support systems on the joint actions of the command and control teams, as well as how these teams- actions are situated within the larger command and control system. 

  • 9.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs.
    A real-time role-playing exercise as a methodology to support command and control research2006In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM), Newark, New Jersey, USA: New Jersey Institute of Technology , 2006, p. 559-568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, methodological issues in research and training of complex command and control structures in emergency management are addressed. In particular, a methodological approach combining real-time role-playing exercise, after action review and observations is presented. An explorative study - ALFA-05 - utilizing this approach is described. A brief overview of methodological aspects of preparation and execution is given. Further, experience gained and methodological lessons learned are also discussed. Finally, real-time role-playing exercise in combination with other methods is suggested as a feasible method for researchers and exercise managers to tackle present and future command and control in complex settings, where interaction and communication are in focus. In addition, areas for further development of the real-time role-playing exercises as a research method are suggested.

  • 10.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role-Playing Exercise: A Real-Time Approach to Study Collaborative Command and Control2006In: International Journal of Intelligent Control and Systems, ISSN 0218-7965, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 218-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During emergency response, emergency management and its command andcontrol system are particularly challenged as the responding taskforce putscountermeasures in place intensively and dynamically. To respondeffectively these countermeasures are typically coordinated throughcollaborative work of commanding staff. Information seeking,communication, and data sharing are essential elements of this collaborativecommand and control work. The traditional research methods used incommand and control research do not always allow researchers to fullyinvestigate these elements of collaborative work. In this paper, we describethe role-playing exercise, a real-time approach combining role-playing gamesand emergency management exercises, for studying collaborative command and control, particularly during improvisation and adaptation work. We alsodescribe the practical application of the role-playing exercise approach in theALFA-05 research study. This is followed by a discussion on methodologicallessons learned from this study. This includes simulation realism and control,ecological and communication settings, and data collection. Our experiencesuggests that the role-playing exercise approach can be considered as afeasible method for research studies, where interaction and communicationof commanding staff are in focus.

  • 11.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Saab Security, Sweden.
    Collaborative Command and Control Practice: Adaptation, Self-Regulation and Supporting Behavior2009In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 47-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a study, which aimed to document the work practice ofa team of commanders responding to an emergency, and to identify areasand activities, that may be enhanced by the use of command and controltools. The study was based on a “human-in-the-loop” simulation withemergency management commanders as participants. Communicationanalyses – episodic analysis, socio-metric status and communication roles –were used to assess coordination among the commanders. The resultsindicate that the commanders used informal arrangements within theestablished command and control structures to perform various informalfunctions and take on diverse communication roles across organizational anddomain boundaries. Cross-domain and cross-organizational knowledge wasthe most important enabler of this type of coordination. General toolsproviding methods and aids to indicate and support informal functions andcommunication roles were identified as absent.

  • 12.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Resilient Emergency Response: Supporting Flexibility and Improvisation2013In: Crisis Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, IGI Global, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this chapter is the design and development of Information and Communication Technologies that support collaborative work and processes in command and control teams, more specifically, in joint emergency response operations. The unique contexts and varying circumstances of response operations have an impact on how collaborative work and interactions among commanders emerge, as well as on the extent to which Information and Communication Technologies are used. 

  • 13.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Rationella Datortjänster HB.
    Information Support in Collaborative Command and Control Work - An Empirical Research Using a Role-Playing Exercise Approach2006In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims at improving knowledge on design of computer-supported command and control systems. In particular, aspects of communication and information seeking are investigated. The method of role-playing exercises is presented and some empirical data from a study using that method is presented. A role-playing exercise is a real-time approach where participants act in their professional roles to manage various situations in a collaborative matter. In this case, a forest-fire together with additional incidents was used in order to study collaborative command and control work between commanding officers from different organizations, such as police, fire & rescue and emergency call-centers. Commanders- local knowledge and experience from similar events are factors influencing information seeking. Other types of information are seen as additional, and further information seeking depends on the dynamics of the events and the workload. The essential contribution of the role-playing exercise approach lays in its possibilities to document and identify differences between planned and intended command and control processes and real command and control work.

  • 14.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Rationella Datortjänster HB.
    Investigating the Impact of Spatial Decision Support Systems in Modern Emergency Management using Microworld Simulations2005In: International Conference on Modeling and Simulation for Safety and Security,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims at increasing understanding about the mechanisms behind learning and the usage of Spatial Decision Support Systems in emergency management. An experimental study using the C3Fire microworld simulation as a platform for data collection is suggested and four main hypothesises are put forward.

  • 15.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Le Duc, Michael
    Sivertun, Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inter-organizational Issues in ICT, GIS and GSD - Mapping Swedish Emergency Management at the Local and Regional Level2005In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) / [ed] Van de Walle, B. & Carlé, B., Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg University , 2005, p. 75-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-organizational issues are very challenging in emergency management (EM). In this paper, aspects of information and communication technologies (ICT), geographical information systems (GIS) and geospatial data (GSD) in the Swedish EM system, an EM system involving a large number of EM organizations, are reported based on a case study. The issues concerned include separated ICT & GIS development between organizations and formation of technological coalitions, problems of identification and access of GSD, located through the large number organizations, as well as uncoordinated launching of web-based GIS service. Possible implications of this situation for command and control are discussed. Additionally, areas for further research are suggested.

  • 16.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Le Duc, Michael
    Sivertun, Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utilization and Exchange of Geospatial Data in Swedish Emergency Management2005In: ScanGIS' 2005: proceedings of the 10th Scandinavian Research Conference on Geographical Information Sciences / [ed] H. Hauska & H. Tveite, Stockholm, Sweden: Universitetsservice US AB , 2005, p. 53-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, research investigating the current situation with respect to geospatial data (GSD) access and integration at the interorganizational level in Swedish local and regional emergency management (EM) is presented. The performed analysis resulted in a range of conceptual, organizational, administrative and ontological problems, recognized by the international research community and also identified among the studied Swedish EM organizations. Additionally, close interconnection between particular problems or groups of problems was observed in several cases. The documented findings can be seen as hindering the sharing of GSD. Moreover, development of useful GIS-based analytical and decision-support applications for day-to-day use in EM is becoming difficult without effectively sharing GSD. It is suggested to promote further research in an integrated way to understand the full complexity of the problems. Moreover, involving both the research and EM communities is seen as essential.

  • 17.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jungert, Erland
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Model-Based Simulation Approach to Study Role Improvisation of a Command Staff2009In: IEEE transactions on systems, man and cybernetics. Part A. Systems and humans, ISSN 1083-4427, E-ISSN 1558-2426Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research gives attention to role improvisation in command and controlteams designated for crisis and disaster response operations in aninternational context. The paper reports a study, which had the goal todevelop, on the bases of real response operations, a role-playing simulationto explore and study role improvisation in highly realistic situations. Thestudy was based on a single-case, the command staff of the SwedishResponse Team. The objective of the study was achieved by (a) identifyingcritical areas concerning role improvisation of the command staff, (b)proposing a model-based simulation design that incorporates these areas,and (c) preparing and executing a role-playing simulation based on thisdesign. The critical areas were identified from two previous responseoperations. The analysis utilized a phenomenological approach, and wasbased on twenty-two interviews and three workshops. The identified critical areas were integrated in the simulation design by means of the initial set-up,scenario stimuli, and interactions with the simulation staff. This was basedon a synthesis of the models of command and control and responseoperations, scenario and tasks, simulation approach and manipulation of theimprovisation variables. The developed simulation was a scenario-basedreal-time role-playing simulation with a progressively unfolding scenario.The scenario was based on events taking place during the 2007 Californiawildfires. The simulation was evaluated by assessing the subjective realism.The paper reports experience from designing and conducting the roleplayingsimulation. It identifies demands and requirements, which have tobe met in order to simulate highly realistic situations. It also demonstrateshow, on the bases of real response operations, such simulations can bedesigned. Lastly, it also identifies areas that require attention in order o usethe role-playing simulations to explore and study role improvisation.

  • 18.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    GIS in emergency management as a core information system and related new requirements to emergency telecommunication2002In: Emergency Telecommunication Workshop,2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Trnka, Jiri Trnka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kemper, Thomas
    n/a.
    Schneiderbauer, Stefan
    n/a.
    Do Experts Teams in Rapid Crisis Response Use Their Tools Efficiently?2009In: Advances inManagement Information Systems: Volume on Information Systemsfor Emergency ManagementEdited by: Bartel Van de Walle, Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, 2009, 1, p. 126-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational use of earth observation technologies by expert teams in thecrisis response domain is a critical socio-technical process. The uniquecontext and characteristics of every crisis have an impact on the extent towhich these technologies, such as computer-based tools for objectidentification, feature recognition, and change detection, will be used, andhow the actual work and the interactions of expert teams deploying thetechnologies will emerge. Beyond the mere technical characteristics offunctioning and operating the earth observation technologies, crucialprerequisites for their successful application in a crisis situation arepredominantly set by “soft” factors such as management, process control,and clear and accurate communication. The knowledge of these factors isessential in order to build and train expert teams capable of using thesetechnologies and performing effectively under a wide variety of situationsand conditions. This chapter reviews experience and lessons learned from a simulation of operational deployment of earth observation technologies byexpert teams in rapid crisis response. The exploitation of these technologiesby expert teams while responding to a nuclear emergency scenario isstudied. On the basis of the scenario-based exercise methodology, a real-timesimulation was prepared and executed. In this simulation, three teamscomposed of experts were given the task of providing rapid mappingproducts within thirty-three hours. During this period the teams had accessto satellite imagery as well as off-the-shelf and custom computer-based tools.This chapter identifies opportunities and constraints regarding the practicalapplication of earth observation technologies by expert teams in rapid crisisresponse. The chapter also suggests areas for further research.

  • 20.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role-Playing Exercises to Strengthen the Resilience of Command and Control Systems2006In: ECCE '06 Proceedings of the 13th Eurpoean conference on Cognitive ergonomics: trust and control in complex socio-technical systems / [ed] Antonio Rizzo; Gudela Grote; William B L Wong, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2006, p. 71-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe how role-playing exercises can be used to strengthen the resilience of command and control systems in emergency management. Through role-playing exercises, the participants gain experience with adapting to changing demands and risk relative to challenges to their ability to predict future risk, adapt, and recover from harmful events. Role-playing exercises at the same time enable researchers to analyse how resilient behaviour emerges, or how the resilience of complex socio-technical systems may be improved. Two role-playing exercises, one concerning forest fire fighting, the other concerning power grid restoration, are discussed to illustrate these concepts.

1 - 20 of 20
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