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  • 1.
    Amloy, Supaluck
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Y. T.
    Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Chen, K. H.
    Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Hsu, H. C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, C. L.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan.
    Chen, L. C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excitons and biexcitons in InGaN quantum dot like localization centersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium segregation in a narrow InGaN single quantum well creates quantum dot (QD) like exciton localization centers. Cross section transmission electron microscopy reveals varying shapes and lateral sizes in the range ~1-5 nm of the QD-like features, while scanning near field optical microscopy demonstrates a highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution of optically active individual localization centers. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy confirms the spectrally inhomogeneous distribution of localization centers, in which the exciton and the biexciton related emissions from single centers of varying geometry could be identified by means of excitation power dependencies. Interestingly, the biexciton binding energy (Ebxx) was found to vary from center to center, between 3 to -22 meV, in correlation with the exciton emission energy. Negative binding energies justify the three-dimensional quantum confinement, which confirms QD-like properties of the localization centers.! The observed energy correlation is proposed to be understood as variations of the lateral extension of the confinement potential, which would yield smaller values of Ebxx for reduced lateral extension and higher exciton emission energy. The proposed relation between lateral extension and Ebxx is further supported by the exciton and the biexciton recombination lifetimes of a single QD, which suggest a lateral extension of merely ~3 nm for a QD with strongly negative Ebxx = -15.5 meV.

  • 2.
    Amloy, Supaluck
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Thaksin University, Thailand.
    Karlsson, K. Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Martin O
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Y. T.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Academia Sinica, Taiwan .
    Chen, K. H.
    Academia Sinica, Taiwan; National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsu, H. C.
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, C. L.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Chen, L. C.
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excitons and biexcitons in InGaN quantum dot like localization centers2014In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, Vol. 25, no 49, p. 495702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium segregation in a narrow InGaN single quantum well creates quantum dot (QD) like exciton localization centers. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy reveals varying shapes and lateral sizes in the range ∼1–5 nm of the QD-like features, while scanning near field optical microscopy demonstrates a highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution of optically active individual localization centers. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy confirms the spectrally inhomogeneous distribution of localization centers, in which the exciton and the biexciton related emissions from single centers of varying geometry could be identified by means of excitation power dependencies. Interestingly, the biexciton binding energy (Ebxx) was found to vary from center to center, between 3 to −22 meV, in correlation with the exciton emission energy. Negative binding energies are only justified by a three-dimensional quantum confinement, which confirms QD-like properties of the localization centers. The observed energy correlation is proposed to be understood as variations of the lateral extension of the confinement potential, which would yield smaller values of Ebxx for reduced lateral extension and higher exciton emission energy. The proposed relation between lateral extension and Ebxx is further supported by the exciton and the biexciton recombination lifetimes of a single QD, which suggest a lateral extension of merely ∼3 nm for a QD with strongly negative Ebxx = −15.5 meV. 

  • 3.
    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Manchester, England.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    dos Santos, Renato B.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Rivelino, Roberto
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-Healing in Carbon Nitride Evidenced As Material Inflation and Superlubric Behavior2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 19, p. 16238-16243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All known materials wear under extended mechanical contacting. Superlubricity may present solutions, but is an expressed mystery in C-based materials. We report negative wear of carbon nitride films; a wear-less condition with mechanically induced material inflation at the nanoscale and friction coefficient approaching ultralow values (0.06). Superlubricity in carbon nitride is expressed as C-N bond breaking for reduced coupling between graphitic-like sheets and eventual N-2 desorption. The transforming surface layer acts as a solid lubricant, whereas the film bulk retains its high elasticity. The present findings offer new means for materials design at the atomic level, and for property optimization in wear-critical applications like magnetic reading devices or nanomachines.

  • 4.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Room-Temperature mobility above 2200 cm2/V.s of two-dimensional electron gas in a sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, no 25, article id 251601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high mobility of 2250 cm2/V·s of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was demonstrated. The mobility enhancement was a result of better electron confinement due to a sharp AlGaN/GaN interface, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis, not owing to the formation of a traditional thin AlN exclusion layer. Moreover, we found that the electron mobility in the sharp-interface heterostructures can sustain above 2000 cm2/V·s for a wide range of 2DEG densities. Finally, it is promising that the sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure would enable low contact resistance fabrication, less impurity-related scattering, and trapping than the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure, as the high-impurity-contained AlN is removed.

  • 5.
    Chen, Yen-Ting
    et al.
    Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Araki, Tsutomu
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan .
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanishi, Yasushi
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan .
    Nucleation of single GaN nanorods with diameters smaller than 35 nm by molecular beam epitaxy2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 20, p. 203108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation mechanism of catalyst-free GaN nanorod grown on Si(111) is investigated by the fabrication of uniform and narrow (andlt; 35 nm) nanorods without a pre-defined mask by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct evidences show that the nucleation of GaN nanorods stems from the sidewall of the underlying islands down to the Si(111) substrate, different from commonly reported ones on top of the island directly. Accordingly, the growth and density control of the nanorods is exploited by a "narrow-pass" approach that only narrow nanorod can be grown. The optimal size of surrounding non-nucleation area around single nanorod is estimated as 88 nm.

  • 6.
    Fallqvist, Amie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olovsson, Weine
    Linköping University, National Supercomputer Centre (NSC). Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Belov, M. P.
    Natl Univ Sci and Technol MISIS, Russia.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resolving the debated atomic structure of the metastable cubic SiNx tissue phase in nanocomposites with TiN2018In: Physical Review Materials, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 2, no 9, article id 093608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TiN/SiNx nanocomposite and nanolaminate systems are the archetype for super if not ultrahard materials. Yet, the nature of the SiNx tissue phase is debated. Here, we show by atomically resolved electron microscopy methods that SiNx is epitaxially stabilized in a NaCl structure on the adjacent TiN(001) surfaces. Additionally, electron energy loss spectroscopy, supported by first-principles density functional theory calculations infer that SiNx hosts Si vacancies.

  • 7.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of Ti3AuC2, Ti3Au2C2 and Ti3IrC2 by noble metal substitution reaction in Ti3SiC2 for high-temperature-stable Ohmic contacts to SiC2017In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 814-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large class of layered ceramics encompasses both van der Waals (vdW) and non-vdW solids. While intercalation of noble metals in vdW solids is known, formation of compounds by incorporation of noble-metal layers in non-vdW layered solids is largely unexplored. Here, we show formation of Ti3AuC2 and Ti3Au2C2 phases with up to 31% lattice swelling by a substitutional solid-state reaction of Au into Ti3SiC2 single-crystal thin films with simultaneous out-diffusion of Si. Ti3IrC2 is subsequently produced by a substitution reaction of Ir for Au in Ti3Au2C2. These phases form Ohmic electrical contacts to SiC and remain stable after 1,000 h of ageing at 600 degrees C in air. The present results, by combined analytical electron microscopy and ab initio calculations, open avenues for processing of noble-metal-containing layered ceramics that have not been synthesized from elemental sources, along with tunable properties such as stable electrical contacts for high-temperature power electronics or gas sensors.

  • 8.
    Filippov, Stanislav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ishikawa, Fumitaro
    Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Japan.
    Chen, Weimin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Buyanova, Irina A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strongly polarized quantum-dot-like light emitters embedded in GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires2016In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 8, no 35, p. 15939-15947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in fabrication techniques and extensive investigations of the physical properties of III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs), such as GaAs NWs, have demonstrated their potential for a multitude of advanced electronic and photonics applications. Alloying of GaAs with nitrogen can further enhance the performance and extend the device functionality via intentional defects and heterostructure engineering in GaNAs and GaAs/GaNAs coaxial NWs. In this work, it is shown that incorporation of nitrogen in GaAs NWs leads to formation of three-dimensional confining potentials caused by short-range fluctuations in the nitrogen composition, which are superimposed on long-range alloy disorder. The resulting localized states exhibit a quantum-dot like electronic structure, forming optically active states in the GaNAs shell. By directly correlating the structural and optical properties of individual NWs, it is also shown that formation of the localized states is efficient in pure zinc-blende wires and is further facilitated by structural polymorphism. The light emission from these localized states is found to be spectrally narrow (similar to 50-130 mu eV) and is highly polarized (up to 100%) with the preferable polarization direction orthogonal to the NW axis, suggesting a preferential orientation of the localization potential. These properties of self-assembled nano-emitters embedded in the GaNAs-based nanowire structures may be attractive for potential optoelectronic applications.

  • 9.
    Folkenant, M.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nygren, K.
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Impact Coatings AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Malinovskis, Paulius
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O.Å .
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lewin, E.
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, U.
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Structure and properties of Cr–C/Ag films deposited by magnetron sputtering2015In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 281, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr–C/Ag thin films with 0–14 at.% Ag have been deposited by magnetron sputtering from elemental targets. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their structure and chemical bonding. A complex nanocomposite structure consisting of three phases; nanocrystalline Ag, amorphous CrCx and amorphous carbon is reported. The carbon content in the amorphous carbide phase was determined to be 32–33 at.% C, independent of Ag content. Furthermore, SEM and XPS results showed higher amounts of Ag on the surface compared to the bulk. The hardness and Young's modulus were reduced from 12 to 8 GPa and from 270 to 170 GPa, respectively, with increasing Ag content. The contact resistance was found to decrease with Ag addition, with the most Ag rich sample approaching the values of an Ag reference sample. Initial tribological tests gave friction coefficients in the range of 0.3 to 0.5, with no clear trends. Annealing tests show that the material is stable after annealing at 500 °C for 1 h, but not after annealing at 800 °C for 1 h. In combination, these results suggest that sputtered Cr–C/Ag films could be potentially applicable for electric contact applications.

  • 10.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Holec, D.
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-structuring in Zr1-xAlxN films as a function of composition and growth temperature2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 16327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructure formation via surface-diffusion-mediated segregation of ZrN and AIN in Zr1-xAlxN films during high mobility growth conditions is investigated for 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 1. The large immiscibility combined with interfacial surface and strain energy balance resulted in a hard nanolabyrinthine lamellar structure with well-defined (semi) coherent c-ZrN and w-AlN domains of sub-nm to similar to 4 nm in 0.2 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 0.4 films, as controlled by atom mobility. For high AlN contents (x amp;gt; 0.49) Al-rich ZrN domains attain wurtzite structure within fine equiaxed nanocomposite wurtzite lattice. Slow diffusion in wurtzite films points towards crystal structure dependent driving force for decomposition. The findings of unlikelihood of isostructural decomposition in c-Zr1-xAlxN, and stability of w-Zr1-xAlxN (in large x films) is complemented with first principles calculations.

  • 11.
    Halim, Joseph
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    E. J., Moon
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    M., Precner
    Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava 84104, Slovak Republic.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    M. W., Barsoum
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Nb1.33C (MXene) with Randomly Distributed Vacancies by Etching of the Quaternary Solid Solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX Phase2018In: ACS Applied Nano Materials, ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 2455-2460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing point defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can alter or enhance their properties. Here, we demonstrate how etching a laminated (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX phase (solid solution) of both the Sc and Al atoms results in a 2D Nb1.33C material (MXene) with a large number of vacancies and vacancy clusters. This method is applicable to any quaternary, or higher, MAX phase, wherein one of the transition metals is more reactive than the other and could be of vital importance in applications such as catalysis and energy storage. We also report, for the first time, on the existence of solid solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)3AlC2 and (Nb2/3Sc1/3)4AlC3 phases.

  • 12.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlGaN Multiple Quantum Wells and AlN Grown in a Hot-wall MOCVD for Deep UV Applications2009In: ECS Transactions, Vol. 25, Iss. 8, ECS , 2009, p. 837-844Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells (MQW) were grown on AlN epilayer grown on 4H-SiC substrate. The growth was performed without interruption in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD reactor using a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen as carrier gases. The precursors were ammonia, trimethylaluminum and trimethylgallium. Results obtained from X-ray diffraction and infra-red reflectance were used to obtain the composition of the films when growing simple AlxGa1 xN layer. Visible reflectance was used to evaluate the thickness of the films. Finally the MQW parameters as thicknesses and composition variation were obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy and demonstrated an agreement with the growth parameters used

  • 13.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Curved-Lattice Epitaxial Growth of InxAl1-xN Nanospirals with Tailored Chirality2015In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 294-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chirality, tailored by external morphology and internal composition, has been realized by controlled curved-lattice epitaxial growth (CLEG) of uniform coatings of single-crystalline InxAl1-xN nanospirals. The nanospirals are formed by sequentially stacking segments of curved nanorods on top of each other, where each segment is incrementally rotated around the spiral axis. By controlling the growth rate, segment length, rotation direction, and incremental rotation angle, spirals are tailored to predetermined handedness, pitch, and height.  The curved morphology of the segments is a result of a lateral compositional gradient across the segments while maintaining a preferred crystallographic growth direction, implying a lateral gradient in optical properties as well. Left- and right-handed nanospirals, tailored with 5 periods of 200 nm pitch, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, exhibit uniform spiral diameters of ~80 nm (local segment diameters of ~60 nm) with tapered hexagonal tips.  High resolution electron microscopy, in combination with nanoprobe energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and valence electron energy loss spectroscopy, show that individual nanospirals consist of an In-rich core with ~15 nm-diameter hexagonal cross-section, comprised of curved basal planes. The core is surrounded by an Al-rich shell with a thickness asymmetry spiraling along the core. The ensemble nanospirals, across the 1 cm2 wafers, show high in-plane ordering with respect to shape, crystalline orientation, and direction of compositional gradient. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the tailored chirality is manifested in the polarization state of light reflected off the CLEG nanospiral-coated wafers. In that, the polarization state is shown to be dependent on the handedness of the nanospirals and the wavelength of the incident light in the ultraviolet-visible region.

  • 14.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Curved-lattice epitaxial growth of chiral AlInN twisted nanorods for optical applications2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite of using chiral metamaterials to manipulate light polarization states has been demonstrated their great potential for applications such as invisible cloaks, broadband or wavelength-tunable circular polarizers, microreflectors, etc. in the past decade [1-6], operating wavelength in ultraviolet-visible range is still a challenge issue. Since these chiral structures often consist of metallic materials, their operation is designed for the infrared and microwave regions [2-4]. Here, we show how a controlled curved-lattice epitaxial growth (CLEG) of wide-bandgap AlInN semiconductor curved nanocrystals [7] can be exploited as a novel route for tailoring chiral nanostructures in the form of twisted nanorods (TNRs). The fabricated TNRs are shown to reflect light with a high degree of polarization as well as a high degree of circular polarization (that is, nearly circularly polarized light) in the ultravioletvisible region. The obtained polarization is shown to be dependent on the handedness of the TNRs.

  • 15.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Ruei-San
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O.Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Composition tunable Al1-xInxN nanorod arrays grown by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled ternary Al1-xInxN nanorod arrays with variable In concentration, 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.32 have been realized onto c-plane sapphire substrates by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy with Ti0.21Zr0.79N or VN seed layers assistance. The formation of nanorods was very sensitive to the applied seed layer. Without proper seed layer assistance a continuous Al1-xInxN film was grown. The nanorods exhibit hexagonal crosssections with preferential growth along the c axis. A coaxial rod structure with higher In concentration in the core was observed by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in combination with low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive xray spectroscopy. 5 K cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of Al0.86In0.14N nanorods revealed band edge emission at ~5.46 eV, which was accompanied by a strong defectrelated emission at ~ 3.38 eV.

  • 16.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Qingxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Room-temperature heteroepitaxy of single-phase Al1-xInxN films with full composition range on isostructural wurtzite templates2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 524, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al1-xInxN heteroepitaxial layers covering the full composition range have been realized by magnetron sputter epitaxy on basal-plane AlN, GaN, and ZnO templates at room temperature (RT). Both Al1-xInxN single layers and multilayers grown on these isostructural templates show single phase, single crystal wurtzite structure. Even at large lattice mismatch between the film and the template, for instance InN/AlN (similar to 13% mismatch), heteroepitaxy is achieved. However, RT-grown Al1-xInxN films directly deposited on non-isostructural c-plane sapphire substrate exhibit a polycrystalline structure for all compositions, suggesting that substrate surface structure is important for guiding the initial nucleation. Degradation of Al1-xInxN structural quality with increasing indium content is attributed to the formation of more point-and structural defects. The defects result in a prominent hydrostatic tensile stress component, in addition to the biaxial stress component introduced by lattice mismatch, in all RT-grown Al1-xInxN films. These effects are reflected in the measured in-plane and out-of-plane strains. The effect of hydrostatic stress is negligible compared to the effects of lattice mismatch in high-temperature grown AlN layers thanks to their low amount of defects. We found that Vegards rule is applicable to determine x in the RT-grown Al1-xInxN epilayers if the lattice constants of RT-sputtered AlN and InN films are used instead of those of the strain-free bulk materials.

  • 17.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Muhammad, Junaid
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Ruei-San
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spontaneous Formation of AlInN Core–Shell Nanorod Arrays by Ultrahigh-Vacuum Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy2011In: Applied Physics Express, ISSN 1882-0786, Vol. 4, no 115002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spontaneous formation of AlInN core–shell nanorod arrays with variable In concentration has been realized by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy with Ti0.21Zr0.79N or VN seed layer assistance. The nanorods exhibit hexagonal cross sections with preferential growth along the c-axis. A core–shell rod structure with a higher In concentration in the core was observed by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in combination with low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. 5 K cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of Al0.86In0.14N nanorods revealed band edge emission at ∼5.46 eV, which was accompanied by a strong defect-related emission at ∼3.38 eV

  • 18.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Serban, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nucleation and core-shell formation mechanism of self-induced InxAl1−xN core-shell nanorods grown on sapphire substrates by magnetron sputter epitaxy2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131, p. 39-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation of self-induced nanorod and core-shell structure formation by surface-induced phase separation have been studied at the initial growth stage. The growth of well-separated core shell nanorods is only found in a transition temperature region (600 degrees C amp;lt;= T amp;lt;= 800 degrees C) in contrast to the result of thin film growth outside this region (T amp;lt; 600 degrees C or T amp;gt; 800 degrees C). Formation of multiple compositional domains, due to phase separation, after similar to 20 nm InxAl1-xN epilayer growth from sapphire substrate promotes the core-shell nanorod growth, showing a modified Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. The use of VN seed layer makes the initial growth of the nanorods directly at the substrate interface, revealing a Volmer-Weber growth mode. Different compositional domains are found on VN template surface to support that the phase separation takes place at the initial nucleation process and forms by a self-patterning effect. The nanorods were grown from In-rich domains and initiated the formation of core-shell nanorods due to spinodal decomposition of the InxAl1-xN alloy with a composition in the miscibility gap.

  • 19.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, K. Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Controlled Growth of GaN Pyramidal template hosting InGaN Quantum DotsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission properties of InGaN grown on hexagonal GaN pyramids with various pitch distances (PD) are studied. Emissions associated with InGaN quantum wells (QWs) and InGaN quantum dots (QDs) can be identified. The emission energies of InGaN QWs and QDs shift toward opposite directions with increasing PD; red-shift for QWs and blue-shift for QDs. Based on the source supply mechanism in a selective area growth process, the formation of InGaN QDs on GaN pyramids is believed to be a combined effect of Stranski-Krastanow growth mode and spinodal decomposition taking place at the microscopic (0001) surfaces on GaN pyramids.

  • 20.
    Israr, Muhammed Qadir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sadaf, Jamil Rana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yang, Li-Li
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trimming of aqueous chemically grown ZnO nanorods into ZnO nanotubes and their comparative optical properties2009In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 073114-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly oriented ZnO nanotubes were fabricated on a silicon substrate by aqueous chemical growth at low temperature (andlt; 100 degrees C) by trimming of ZnO nanorods. The yield of nanotubes in the sample was 100%. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of the nanotubes reveals an enhanced and broadened ultraviolet (UV) emission peak, compared with the initial nanorods. This effect is attributed to whispering gallery mode resonance. In addition, a redshift of the UV emission peak is also observed. Enhancement in the deep defect band emission in the nanotubes compared to nanorods was also manifested as a result of the increased surface area.

  • 21.
    Ivanova, Mariya E.
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany.
    Meulenberg, Wilhelm A.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany.
    Sebold, Doris
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany.
    Solís, Cecilia
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Valencia.
    Ziegner, Mirko
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany.
    Serra, Jose M.
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Valencia.
    Mayer, Joachim
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany.
    Hänsel, Michael
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany.
    Guillon, Olivier
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany.
    Functional properties of La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ proton conductors where X is an alkaline earth cation2015In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 1239-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lanthanum niobates with general formulas of La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ (X = Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba) were synthesized via the conventional solid state reaction. Specimens with relative density above 96% were produced after sintering. Structural and phase composition studies revealed predominant monoclinic Fergusonite structure for the majority of samples. SEM and TEM studies elucidated the effect of the used dopant combinations on grain growth, micro-crack formation and secondary phase formation. Results from microstructural study were correlated to the grain interior and grain boundary conductivities for selected samples (La0.99Sr0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99Sr0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ). The majority of co-doped niobates exhibited appreciable protonic conductivity under humid atmospheres at intermediate temperatures. Sr- or Ca-doped compounds displayed the highest total conductivities with values for LSNA equal to 6 × 10−4 S/cm and 3 × 10−4 S/cm in wet air and in wet 4% H2–Ar (900 °C), respectively. Additionally, thermal expansion was studied to complete functional characterization of co-doped LaNbO4.

  • 22.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Macrodefects in cubic silicon carbide crystals2010In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 645-648, Transtec Publications; 1999 , 2010, Vol. 645-648, p. 375-378Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different sublimation growth conditions of 3C-SiC approaching a bulk process have been investigated with the focus on appearance of macrodefects. The growth rate of 3C-SiC crystals grown on 6H-SiC varied from 380 to 460 mu m/h with the thickness of the crystals from 190 to 230 mu m, respectively. The formation of macrodefects with void character was revealed at the early stage of 3C-SiC crystal growth. The highest concentration of macrodefects appears in the vicinity of the domain in samples grown under high temperature gradient: and fastest temperature ramp up. The formation of macrodefects was related to carbon deficiency which appear due to high Si/C ratio which is used to enable formation of the 3C-SiC polytype.

  • 23.
    Jouanny, I
    et al.
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA .
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ngo, C
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA .
    Mayrhofer, P H.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A .
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kodambaka, S
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA .
    In situ transmission electron microscopy studies of the kinetics of Pt-Mo alloy diffusion in ZrB2 thin films2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using in situ high-temperature (1073–1173 K) transmission electron microscopy, we investigated the thermal stability of Pt and Mo in contact with polycrystalline ZrB2 thin films deposited on Al 2O3(0001). During annealing, we observed the diffusion of cubic-structured Pt1− x Mo x (with x = 0.2 ± 0.1) along the length of the ZrB2 layer. From the time-dependent increase in diffusion lengths, we determined that the Pt1− x Mo x does not react with ZrB2, but diffuses along the surface with a constant temperature-dependent velocity. We identify the rate-limiting step controlling the observed phenomenon as the flux of Mo atoms with an associated activation barrier of 3.8 ± 0.5 eV.

  • 24.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Yen-Ting
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of N2 Partial Pressure on Growth, Structure, and Optical Properties of GaN Nanorods Deposited by Liquid-Target Reactive Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy2018In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 223Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GaN nanorods, essentially free from crystal defects and exhibiting very sharp band-edge luminescence, have been grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputter epitaxy onto Si (111) substrates at a low working pressure of 5 mTorr. Upon diluting the reactive N2 working gas with a small amount of Ar (0.5 mTorr), we observed an increase in the nanorod aspect ratio from 8 to ~35, a decrease in the average diameter from 74 to 35 nm, and a two-fold increase in nanorod density. With further dilution (Ar = 2.5 mTorr), the aspect ratio decreased to 14, while the diameter increased to 60 nm and the nanorod density increased to a maximum of 2.4 × 109 cm−2. Yet, lower N2 partial pressures eventually led to the growth of continuous GaN films. The observed morphological dependence on N2 partial pressure is explained by a change from N-rich to Ga-rich growth conditions, combined with reduced GaN-poisoning of the Ga-target as the N2 gas pressure is reduced. Nanorods grown at 2.5 mTorr N2 partial pressure exhibited a high intensity 4 K photoluminescence neutral donor bound exciton transitions (D0XA) peak at ~3.479 eV with a full-width-at-half-maximum of 1.7 meV. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy corroborated the excellent crystalline quality of the nanorods.

  • 25.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic-grade GaN(0001)/Al2O3(0001) grown by reactive DC-magnetron sputter epitaxy using a liquid Ga target2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 14, p. 141915-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic-grade GaN (0001) epilayers have been grown directly on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by reactive DC-magnetron sputter epitaxy (MSE) from a liquid Ga sputtering target in an Ar/N2 atmosphere. The as-grown GaN epitaxial film exhibit low threading dislocation density on the order of ≤ 1010 cm-2 obtained by transmission electron microscopy and modified Williamson-Hall plot. X-ray rocking curve shows narrow fullwidth at half maximum (FWHM) of 1054 arcsec of the 0002 reflection. A sharp 4 K photoluminescence peak at 3.474 eV with a FWHM of 6.3 meV is attributed to intrinsic GaN band edge emission. The high structural and optical qualities indicate that MSEgrown GaN epilayers can be used for fabricating high-performance devices without the need of any buffer layer.

  • 26.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lai, W.-J.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.
    Chen, L.-C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.
    Chen, K.-H.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan/Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial Growth of GaN (0001)/Al2O3 (0001) by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputter DepositionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial GaN (0001) thin films were grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of liquid Ga targets in a mixed N2/Ar discharge. A combination of x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, μ-Raman mapping and spectroscopy, μ-photoluminescence, time of flight elastic recoil detection, and cathodoluminescence showed the formation of relaxed and strained domains in the same films. While the strained domains form due to ion bombardment during growth, the relaxed domains exhibit

  • 27.
    Khatibi, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Face-Centered Cubic (Al1-xCrx)2O32011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 8, p. 2426-2429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of a face-centered cubic (Al1−xCrx)2O3 solid solution [0.60bxb0.70] in films grownonto Si substrates using reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering from Al and Cr targets at 400 °C. Theproposed structure is NaCl-like with 33% vacancies on the metal sites. The unit cell parameter is 4.04 Å asdetermined by X-ray diffraction. The films have a b100N preferred crystallographic orientation and exhibithardness values up to 26 GPa and an elastic modulus of 220–235 GPa.

  • 28.
    Kodambaka, S
    et al.
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Ngo, C
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mayrhofer, P H.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kinetics of Ga droplet decay on thin carbon films2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we investigated the kinetics of liquid Ga droplet decay on thin amorphous carbon films during annealing at 773 K. The transmission electron microscopy images reveal that liquid Ga forms spherical droplets and undergo coarsening/decay with increasing time. We find that the droplet volumes change non-linearly with time and the volume decay rates depend on their local environment. By comparing the late-stage decay behavior of the droplets with the classical mean-field theory model for Ostwald ripening, we determine that the decay of Ga droplets occurs in the surface diffusion limited regime.

  • 29.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phase formation of nanolaminated Mo2AuC and Mo-2(Au1-xGax)(2)C by a substitutional reaction within Au-capped Mo2GaC and Mo2Ga2C thin films2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 45, p. 17681-17687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Au-containing nanolaminated carbides Mo2AuC and Mo-2(Au1-xGax)(2)C were synthesized by a thermally induced substitutional reaction in Mo2GaC and Mo2Ga2C, respectively. The Au substitution of the Ga layers in the structures was observed using cross-sectional high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Expansion of c lattice parameters was also observed in the Au-containing phases compared to the original phases. Energy dispersive spectroscopy detected residual Ga in Au-substituted layers of both phases with a peculiar Ga in-plane ordering for Au : Ga = 9 : 1 ratio along the Au-Ga layers in Mo-2(Au1-xGax)(2)C. These results indicate a generalization of the Au substitution reaction for the A elements in MAX phases.

  • 30.
    Lundskog, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, K Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Unexpected behavior of InGaN quantum dot emission energy located at apices of hexagonal GaN pyramidsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    InGaN quantum dots (QDs) have been grown at the apices of hexagonal GaN pyramids. The pyramids were selectively grown on a (0001) oriented GaN template through circular apertures in a SiN mask positioned in square arrays. The emission of the InGaN QDs was shifted towards higher energies when the center-to-center distance of the pyramids was increased, while the emission from InGaN quantum wells located on the {1101} facets of the pyramids was energetically shifted towards lower energies. No energy shift was observed for (0001) truncated pyramids with truncation diameters larger than 100 nm.

  • 31.
    Lundskog, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    InGaN quantum dot formation mechanism on hexagonal GaN/InGaN/GaN pyramids2012In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 23, no 30, p. 305708-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing InGaN quantum dots (QDs) at the apex of hexagonal GaN pyramids is an elegant approach to achieve a deterministic positioning of QDs. Despite similar synthesis procedures by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, the optical properties of the QDs reported in the literature vary drastically. The QDs tend to exhibit either narrow or broad emission lines in the micro-photoluminescence spectra. By coupled microstructural and optical investigations, the QDs giving rise to narrow emission lines were concluded to nucleate in association with a (0001) facet at the apex of the GaN pyramid.

  • 32.
    Magnus, F.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Warnatz, T.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Pålsson, G. K.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Devishvili, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Ukleev, V
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Kurchatov Inst, Russia; RIKEN, Japan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjorvarsson, B.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sequential magnetic switching in Fe/MgO(001) superlattices2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 97, no 17, article id 174424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarized neutron reflectometry is used to determine the sequence of magnetic switching in interlayer exchange coupled Fe/MgO(001) superlattices in an applied magnetic field. For 19.6 angstrom thick MgO layers we obtain a 90 degrees periodic magnetic alignment between adjacent Fe layers at remanence. In an increasing applied field the top layer switches first followed by its second-nearest neighbor. For 16.4 angstrom MgO layers, a 180 degrees periodic alignment is obtained at remanence and with increasing applied field the layer switching starts from the two outermost layers and proceeds inwards. This sequential tuneable switching opens up the possibility of designing three-dimensional magnetic structures with a predefined discrete switching sequence.

  • 33.
    Malinovskis, P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lewin, E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Synthesis and characterisation of Mo-B-C thin films deposited by non-reactive DC magnetron sputtering2017In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 309, p. 506-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films in the Mo-B-C system with varying carbon content (up to 37 at.%) were deposited using non-reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The phase composition and microstructure were determined and the potential use of the films in sliding electrical contact applications was evaluated. Films with lower than 23 at.% carbon content consisted of nanocrystalline MoB2 - x grains surrounded by an amorphous tissue phase (a-B for binary, and a-BCx for ternary films). With increasing carbon content grain sizes was found to decrease (from 16 to 5 nm), and above 23 at.% carbon the films deposited at room temperature were X-ray amorphous. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveal that these films contain Mo-rich and Mo-poor regions, and thus are two-phase amorphous nanocomposites. Low-carbon content samples exhibited a friction coefficient against the steel counter surface of 1.1; this was reduced to 0.8 for high carbon-content films. Analysis of the tribofilm revealed formation of molybdenum oxide and amorphous carbon, however without significant lubricating effect at room temperature. Hardness and elastic modulus decrease with carbon content from similar to 29 to similar to 22 GPa and similar to 526 to similar to 326 GPa. These values give an WE ratio of 0.06 to 0.07, indicating brittle material. Resistivity was found to increase with carbon content from similar to 175 mu Omega cm for binary Mo-B to similar to 395 mu Omega cm for Mo-B-C thin film with 37 at.% of C. Therefore all the above results suggest that the Mo-B-C films are not suitable for sliding electrical contacts. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Malinovskis, Paulius
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Synthesis and characterization of MoB2-x thin films grown by nonreactive DC magnetron sputtering2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, p. 031511-1-031511-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DC magnetron sputtering was used to depositmolybdenumboridethin films for potential low-friction applications. The films exhibit a nanocomposite structure with ∼10 nm large MoB2−x (x > 0.4) grains surrounded by a boron-rich tissue phase. The preferred formation of the metastable and substoichiometric hP3-MoB2structure (AlB2-type) is explained with kinetic constraints to form the thermodynamically stable hR18-MoB2 phase with a very complex crystal structure. Nanoindentation revealed a relatively high hardness of (29 ± 2) GPa, which is higher than bulk samples. The high hardness can be explained by a hardening effect associated with the nanocomposite microstructure where the surrounding tissue phase restricts dislocation movement. A tribological study confirmed a significant formation of a tribofilm consisting of molybdenum oxide and boron oxide, however, without any lubricating effects at room temperature.

  • 35.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wickman, Bjorn
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Shixuan
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Intikhab, Saad
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Snyder, Joshua
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Yildizhan, Melike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    W-Based Atomic Laminates and Their 2D Derivative W1.33C MXene with Vacancy Ordering2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 21, article id 1706409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural design on the atomic level can provide novel chemistries of hybrid MAX phases and their MXenes. Herein, density functional theory is used to predict phase stability of quaternary i-MAX phases with in-plane chemical order and a general chemistry (W2/3M1/32)(2)AC, where M-2 = Sc, Y (W), and A = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, and Sn. Of over 18 compositions probed, only twowith a monoclinic C2/c structureare predicted to be stable: (W2/3Sc1/3)(2)AlC and (W2/3Y1/3)(2)AlC and indeed found to exist. Selectively etching the Al and Sc/Y atoms from these 3D laminates results in W1.33C-based MXene sheets with ordered metal divacancies. Using electrochemical experiments, this MXene is shown to be a new, promising catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The addition of yet one more element, W, to the stable of M elements known to form MAX phases, and the synthesis of a pure W-based MXene establishes that the etching of i-MAX phases is a fruitful path for creating new MXene chemistries that has hitherto been not possible, a fact that perforce increases the potential of tuning MXene properties for myriad applications.

  • 36.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Berastegui, P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nedfors, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patscheider, J.
    EMPA, Switzerland.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Age hardening in (Ti1-xAlx)B2+Delta thin films2017In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 127, p. 122-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of (Ti0.71Al0.29)B2+1.08 have been deposited by magnetron sputtering. Post-deposition annealing at 1000 degrees C for 1 h results in increased hardness and elastic modulus, from 32 to 37 GPa and from 436 to 461 GPa, respectively. In both as-deposited and annealed states the films adhere well to the substrate, indicating no considerable internal stress. The initial high hardness is attributed to a columnar microstructure consisting of crystalline (Ti,Al)B-2 columns separated by an amorphous B matrix. The observed age hardening corresponds to phase separation within the (Ti,Al)B-2 columns including the formation of Ti-deficient crystallites within the grain interior upon annealing. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nedfors, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berastegui, P.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SKF Res and Technol Dev Ctr, Netherlands.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patscheider, J.
    Evatec AG, Switzerland.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis and characterization of (Ti1-xAlx)B2+Delta thin films from combinatorial magnetron sputtering2019In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti1-xAlx)B2+Delta films with a lateral composition gradient of x = [0.30-0.66] and Delta = [0.07-1.22] were deposited on an Al2O3 wafer by dual magnetron sputtering at 400 degrees C from sintered TiB2 and AlB2 targets. Composition analysis indicates that higher Ti:Al ratios favor overstoichiometry in B and a reduced incorporation of O. Transmission electron microscopy reveals distinctly different microstructures of Ti- and Al-rich compositions, with formation of characteristic conical growth features for the latter along with a lower degree of crystallinity and significantly less tissue phase from B segregation at the grain boundaries. For Al-rich films, phase separation into Ti- and Al-rich diboride nanometer-size domains is observed and interpreted as surface-initiated spinodal decomposition. The hardness of the films ranges from 14 to 28 GPa, where the higher values were obtained for the Ti-rich regions of the metal boride.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-26 15:00
  • 38.
    Moubah, R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University. Sweden.
    Magnus, F.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Warnatz, T.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Palsson, G. K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kapaklis, V.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Devishvili, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjörvarsson, B.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Discrete Layer-by-Layer Magnetic Switching in Fe/MgO(001) Superlattices2016In: Physical Review Applied, ISSN 2331-7019, Vol. 5, no 044011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a discrete layer-by-layer magnetic switching in Fe=MgO superlattices driven by anantiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling. The strong interlayer coupling is mediated by tunnelingthrough MgO layers with thicknesses up to at least 1.8 nm, and the coupling strength varies with MgOthickness. Furthermore, the competition between the interlayer coupling and magnetocrystalline anisotropystabilizes both 90° and 180° periodic alignment of adjacent layers throughout the entire superlattice. Thetunable layer-by-layer switching, coupled with the giant tunneling magnetoresistance of Fe=MgO=Fejunctions, is an appealing combination for three-dimensional spintronic memories and logic devices.

  • 39.
    Muhammad, Junaid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Yen-Ting
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liquid-target Reactive Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy of High Quality GaN(0001ɸ)ɸ Nanorods on Si(111)2015In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 39, p. 702-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct current magnetron sputter epitaxy with a liquid Ga sputtering target hasbeen used to grow single-crystal GaN(0001) nanorods directly on Si(111)substrates at different working pressures ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr of pure N2,.The as-grown GaN nanorods exhibit very good crystal quality from bottom to topwithout stacking faults, as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Thecrystal quality is found to increase with increasing working pressure. X-raydiffraction results show that all the rods are highly (0001)-oriented. Thenanorods exhibit an N-polarity, as determined by convergent beam electrondiffraction methods. Sharp and well-resolved 4 K photoluminescence peaks at ~3.474 eV with a FWHM ranging from 1.7 meV to 35 meV are attributed to theintrinsic GaN band edge emission and corroborate the superior structuralproperties of the material. Texture measurements reveal that the rods haverandom in-plane orientation when grown on Si(111) with native oxide, while theyhave an in-plane epitaxial relationship of GaN[110] // Si[110] when grown onsubstrates without surface oxide.

  • 40.
    Muhammad, Junaid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lai, W-J
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, L-C
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, K-H
    National Taiwan University.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Two-domain formation during the epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) on c-plane Al2O3 (0001) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering2011In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 110, no 12, p. 123519-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of high power pulses in reactive magnetron sputter epitaxy on the structural properties of GaN (0001) thin films grown directly on Al2O3 (0001) substrates. The epilayers are grown by sputtering from a liquid Ga target, using a high power impulse magnetron sputtering power supply in a mixed N2/Ar discharge. X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, micro-photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy investigations show the formation of two distinct types of domains. One almost fully relaxed domain exhibits superior structural and optical properties as evidenced by rocking curves with a full width at half maximum of 885 arc sec and a low temperature band edge luminescence at 3.47 eV with the full width at half maximum of 10 meV. The other domain exhibits a 14 times higher isotropic strain component, which is due to the higher densities of the point and extended defects, resulting from the ion bombardment during growth. Voids form at the domain boundaries. Mechanisms for the formation of differently strained domains, along with voids during the epitaxial growth of GaN are discussed.

  • 41.
    Muhammad, Junaid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stress Evolution during Growth of GaN (0001)/Al2O3 (0001) by Reactive DC Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy2014In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 47, no 14, p. 145301-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the real time stress evolution, by in-situ curvature measurements, during magnetron sputter epitaxy of GaN (0001) epilayers at different growth temperatures, directly on Al2O3 (0001) substrates. The epilayers are grown by sputtering from a liquid Ga target in a mixed N2/Ar discharge. For 600 °C, a tensile biaxial stress evolution is observed, while for 700 °C and 800 °C, compressive stress evolutions are observed. Structural characterization by crosssectional transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that films grew at 700 °C and 800 °C in a layer-by-layer mode while a growth temperature of 600 °C led to an island growth mode. High resolution Xray diffraction data showed that edge and screw threading dislocation densities decreased with increasing growth temperature with a total density of 5.5×1010 cm-2. The observed stress evolution and growth modes are explained by a high adatom mobility during magnetron sputter epitaxy at 700 - 800 °C. Also other possible reasons for the different stress evolutions are discussed.

  • 42.
    Nedfors, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Influence of pulse frequency and bias on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiB2 coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering2016In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 304, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high plasma density and large fraction of ionized species created in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge add new measures to control the sputtering process. We have studied the sputtering of TiB2 coatings by HiPIMS from a compound target in an industrial system. How the degree of ionized species effects coating microstructure and mechanical properties has been investigated by varying the pulse frequency between 200 Hz and 1000 Hz while keeping the average power constant at 2 kW. The coatings have a B/Ti atomic ratio amp;gt;= 2.5 and a microstructure exhibiting 001 textured nanocolumnar grains with an amorphous B tissue phase in grain boundaries. Lower frequencies provide higher degree of ionization, which does, however, increase the compressive residual stress in the coatings. This results in harder coatings and the highest hardness of 49 GPa is measured for the coating deposited at 200 Hz (-3.8 GPa residual stress). A change in texture from random orientation to 001 texture is achieved when going from regular dc sputtering to HiPIMS at a floating bias. Superhard (H = 43 GPa) TiB2 coatings with a relatively low compressive stress of about -1 GPa can be deposited by HiPIMS at 1000 Hz using floating bias. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Nedfors, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mraz, Stanislav
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kolozsvari, Szilard
    Plansee Composite Mat GmbH, Germany.
    Schneider, Jochen M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Influence of the Al concentration in Ti-Al-B coatings on microstructure and mechanical properties using combinatorial sputtering from a segmented TiB2/AlB2 target2019In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 364, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of (TixAl1-x)B2 +y coatings with compositions in the range of x = 0.01-0.94 and y = 1.70-2.92 has been synthesized using magnetron sputtering from a segmented TiB2/AlB2 target. The coatings are amorphous at x amp;lt;= 0.05 while a (TixAl1-x)B2+y solid solution forms for x amp;gt; 0.05. As a consequence of the sputtering process, the B/(Ti + Al) atomic ratio varied with the metal content resulting in the formation of under-stoichiometric coatings at x amp;lt; 0.35 and over-stoichiometric coatings at x amp;gt; 0.35. Surplus Al segregates to grain boundaries of the under-stoichiometric coatings whereas the over-stoichiometric coatings have a tissue phase containing mainly B and some Al. The B-rich tissue phase restrains grain growth in the in-plane direction while an increase in Ti content promotes the growth of columnar structured coatings with a pronounced (001) texture up to x = 0.84. The combination of such preferred orientation and tissue phase results in the highest hardness of 39 GPa for the (Ti0.79Al0.21)B-2.70 coating. The Youngs modulus, on the other hand, increases continuously from 262 GPa for the most Al-rich coating to 478 GPa for the most Ti-rich coating. Comparing to calculated values of Youngs modulus, good agreement is observed for the close to stoichiometric coatings (x = 0.40-0.50). For the off-stoichiometric coatings, the experimental values are lower due to the existence of the tissue phase.

  • 44.
    Novoselova, Iuliia P.
    et al.
    Faculty of Physics and Center for Nanointegration (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg, Germany..
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wiedwald, Ulf
    Faculty of Physics and Center for Nanointegration (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg, Germany.; National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049, Moscow, Russian Federation..
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Grein Research ehf. Dunhaga 5, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Hase, Thomas
    Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK..
    Magnus, Fridrik
    Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107, Reykjavik, Iceland.; Division of Materials Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75121, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kapaklis, Vassilios
    Division of Materials Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75121, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spasova, Marina
    Faculty of Physics and Center for Nanointegration (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg, Germany..
    Farle, Michael
    Faculty of Physics and Center for Nanointegration (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg, Germany.; Center for Functionalized Magnetic Materials (FunMagMa), Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation..
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salikhov, Ruslan
    Faculty of Physics and Center for Nanointegration (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg, Germany. ruslan.salikhov@uni-due.de.; Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 420029, Kazan, Russian Federation. ruslan.salikhov@uni-due.de..
    Large uniaxial magnetostriction with sign inversion at the first order phase transition in the nanolaminated Mn2GaC MAX phase2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 2637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, a new class of inherently nanolaminated magnetic materials, the so called magnetic MAX phases, was discovered. Following predictive material stability calculations, the hexagonal Mn2GaC compound was synthesized as hetero-epitaxial films containing Mn as the exclusive M-element. Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggested a high magnetic ordering temperature and non-collinear antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin states as a result of competitive ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. In order to assess the potential for practical applications of Mn2GaC, we have studied the temperature-dependent magnetization, and the magnetoresistive, magnetostrictive as well as magnetocaloric properties of the compound. The material exhibits two magnetic phase transitions. The Néel temperature is T N  ~ 507 K, at which the system changes from a collinear AFM state to the paramagnetic state. At T t  = 214 K the material undergoes a first order magnetic phase transition from AFM at higher temperature to a non-collinear AFM spin structure. Both states show large uniaxial c-axis magnetostriction of 450 ppm. Remarkably, the magnetostriction changes sign, being compressive (negative) above T t and tensile (positive) below the T t . The sign change of the magnetostriction is accompanied by a sign change in the magnetoresistance indicating a coupling among the spin, lattice and electrical transport properties.

  • 45.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of III-Nitride Semiconductors2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Licentiate Thesis covers experimental and theoretical investigations of the bulk plasmon response to different compositions and strain states of group III-nitride materials. Investigated materials were grown using magnetron sputtering epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapour deposition and studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

    It is shown that low-loss EELS is a powerful method for a fast compositional determination in AlxIn1-xN system. The bulk plasmon energy of the investigated material system follows a linear relation with respect to lattice parameter and composition in unstrained layers.

    Furthermore, the effect of strain on the bulk plasmon peak position has been investigated by using low-loss EELS in group III-nitrides. We experimentally determine the AlN bulk plasmon peak shift of 0.156 eV per 1% volume change. The AlN peak shift was corroborated by full potential calculations (Wein2k), which reveal that the bulk plasmon peak position of III-nitrides varies near linearly with unit cell volume variations.

    Finally, self-assembled ternary Al1-xInxN nanorod arrays with variable In concentration have been realized onto c-plane sapphire substrates by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputtering epitaxy with Ti0.21Zr0.79N or VN seed layer assistance. The nanorods exhibit hexagonal cross-sections with preferential growth along the Al1-xInxN c-axis. A coaxial rod structure with higher In concentration in the core was observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with low-loss EELS.

    List of papers
    1. Standard-free composition measurements of Alx In1–xN by low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Standard-free composition measurements of Alx In1–xN by low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: physica status solidi (RRL) – Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 50-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a standard-free method to retrieve compositional information in Alx In1–xN thin films by measuring the bulk plasmon energy (Ep), employing electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Two series of samples were grown by magnetron sputter epitaxy (MSE) and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), which together cover the full com- positional range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Complementary compositional measurements were obtained using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and the lattice parameters were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is shown that Ep follows a linear relation with respect to composition and lattice parameter between the alloying elements from AlN to InN allowing for straightforward compositional analysis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2011
    Keywords
    AlInN;low-loss EELS;thin films;compositional analysis
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65816 (URN)10.1002/pssr.201004407 (DOI)000288178300002 ()
    Note
    This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Justinas Palisaitis, Ching-Lien Hsiao, Muhammad Junaid, Mengyao Xie, Vanya Darakchieva, Jean-Francois Carlin, Nicolas Grandjean, Jens Birch, Lars Hultman and Per O.Å. Persson, Standard-free composition measurements of AlxIn1-xN by low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy, 2011, physica status solidi (RRL) – Rapid Research Letters, (5), 2, 50-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssr.201004407 Copyright: Wiley Available from: 2011-02-21 Created: 2011-02-21 Last updated: 2018-03-08
    2. Effect of strain on low-loss electron energy loss spectra of group III-nitrides
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of strain on low-loss electron energy loss spectra of group III-nitrides
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, no 24, p. 245301-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Low-loss EELS was used to acquire information about the strain state in group III-nitrides. Experimental and theoretical simulation results show that the bulk plasmon peak position varies near linearly with unit cell volume variations due to strain. A unit cell volume change of 1% results in a bulk plasmon peak shift of 0.159 eV, 0.168 eV, and 0.079 eV for AlN, GaN, and InN, respectively, according to simulations. The AlN peak shift was experimentally corroborated with a peak shift of 0.156 eV, where the applied strain caused a 1% volume change. It is also found that while the bulk plasmon energy can be used as a measure of the composition in a III-nitride alloy for relaxed structures, the presence of strain significantly affects such a measurement. The strain has a lower impact on the peak shift for Al(1-x)InxN (3% compositional error per 1 % volume change) and In(1-x)GaxN alloys compared to significant variations for Al(1-x)GaxN (16% compositional error for 1% volume change). Hence low-loss studies off III-nitrides, particularly for confined structures, must be undertaken with care and understanding.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physical Society, 2011
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67981 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.84.245301 (DOI)000297767800004 ()
    Available from: 2011-05-04 Created: 2011-05-04 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Composition tunable Al1-xInxN nanorod arrays grown by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composition tunable Al1-xInxN nanorod arrays grown by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy
    Show others...
    2011 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled ternary Al1-xInxN nanorod arrays with variable In concentration, 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.32 have been realized onto c-plane sapphire substrates by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy with Ti0.21Zr0.79N or VN seed layers assistance. The formation of nanorods was very sensitive to the applied seed layer. Without proper seed layer assistance a continuous Al1-xInxN film was grown. The nanorods exhibit hexagonal crosssections with preferential growth along the c axis. A coaxial rod structure with higher In concentration in the core was observed by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in combination with low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive xray spectroscopy. 5 K cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of Al0.86In0.14N nanorods revealed band edge emission at ~5.46 eV, which was accompanied by a strong defectrelated emission at ~ 3.38 eV.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67983 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-04 Created: 2011-05-04 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved
  • 46.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Two Dimensional X-ray Diffraction Mapping of Basal Plane Orientation on SiC Substrates2009In: ECSCRM2008,2009, Materials Science Forum Vols. 615-617: Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 275-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed 2D X-ray diffraction mapping of the SiC lattice basal plane orientation over full 2” SiC substrates. Measurements of the omega angle were made in two perpendicular directions <11-20> and <1-100>, which gives the complete vectorized tilt of the basal planes. The Mapping revealed two characteristic bending behaviors on measured commercial wafers. The first is characterized by large variations in omega angle across the wafer in both crystallographic directions. The continuously changing omega angle in both directions gives the wafer an apparent rotationally symmetric bending which is concave towards the growth direction. The second characteristic behavior is seen in wafers with lower degree of omega angle variation. The variations in this type of wafers are not changing linearly, but are bending the basal planes with two-fold symmetry.

  • 47.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spinodal decomposition of Al0.3In0.7N(0001) layers following in-situ thermal annealing as investigated by STEM-VEELS2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal stability and spinodal decomposition of thin Al0.3In0.7N layers was studied in-situ by scanning transmission electron microscopy following annealing in a temperature range from 700 oC to 900 oC. The results show that for increasing layer thicknesses (from ~4 nm to ~22 nm) surface directed spinodal decomposition is initiated at Al0.3In0.7N/AlN interfaces and columnar boundaries in the Al0.3In0.7N layers. In the thin layers (~10 nm) annealing caused a single composition layer to split into doubly modulated layers with a compositional undulation perpendicular to the interfaces, while for the thicker layers (~22 nm) the spinodally decomposed structure is more random.

  • 48.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermal stability of Al1−xInxN (0 0 0 1) throughout the compositional range as investigated during in situ thermal annealing in a scanning transmission electron microscope2013In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 61, no 12, p. 4683-4688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal stability of Al1−xInxN (0 ⩽ ⩽ 1) layers was investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging, electron diffraction, and monochromated valence electron energy loss spectroscopy during in situ annealing from 750 to 950 °C. The results show two distinct decomposition paths for the layers richest in In (Al0.28In0.72N and Al0.41In0.59N) that independently lead to transformation of the layers into an In-deficient, nanocrystalline and a porous structure. The In-richest layer (Al0.28In0.72N) decomposes at 750 °C, where the decomposition process is initiated by In forming at grain boundaries and is characterized by an activation energy of 0.62 eV. The loss of In from the Al0.41In0.59N layer was initiated at 800 °C through continuous desorption. No In clusters were observed during this decomposition process, which is characterized by an activation energy of 1.95 eV. Finally, layers richest in Al (Al0.82In0.18N and Al0.71In0.29N) were found to resist thermal annealing, although the initial stages of decomposition were observed for the Al0.71In0.29N layer.

  • 49.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Core-shell formation in self-induced InAlN nanorods2017In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 28, no 11, article id 115602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have examined the early stages of self-induced InAlN core-shell nanorod (NR) formation processes on amorphous carbon substrates in plan-view geometry by means of transmission electron microscopy methods. The results show that the grown structure phase separates during the initial moments of deposition into a majority of Al-rich InAlN and a minority of In-enriched InAlN islands. The islands possess polygonal shapes and are mainly oriented along a crystallographic c-axis. The growth proceeds with densification and coalescence of the In-enriched islands, resulting in a base for the In-enriched NR cores with shape transformation to hexagonal. The Al-rich shell formation around such early cores is observed at this stage. The matured core-shell structure grows axially and radially, eventually reaching a steady growth state which is dominated by the axial NR growth. We discuss the NR formation mechanism by considering the adatom surface kinetics, island surface energy, phase separation of InAlN alloys, and incoming flux directions during dual magnetron sputter epitaxy.

  • 50.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Direct observation of spinodal decomposition phenomena in InAlN alloys during in-situ STEM heating2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spinodal decomposition and thermal stability of thin In0.72Al0.28N layers and In0.72Al0.28N/AlN superlattices with AlN(0001) templates on Al2O3(0001) substrates was investigated by in-situ heating up to 900 degrees C. The thermally activated structural and chemical evolution was investigated in both plan-view and cross-sectional geometries by scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with valence electron energy loss spectroscopy. The plan-view observations demonstrate evidence for spinodal decomposition of metastable In0.72Al0.28N after heating at 600 degrees C for 1 h. During heating compositional modulations in the range of 2-3 nm-size domains are formed, which coarsen with applied thermal budgets. Cross-sectional observations reveal that spinodal decomposition begin at interfaces and column boundaries, indicating that the spinodal decomposition has a surface-directed component.

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