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  • 1.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

    • between industry, academia and society,
    • between different perspectives, and
    • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

    BRC’s vision is:

    BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

    For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

    This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

    Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

    In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

    This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

    The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

  • 3.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial ecology looks at landfills from another perspective2011In: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to go beyond the currently established view on landfills as final deposits for waste and analyse their potential as future resource reservoirs. We analyse whether the application of the industrial ecology concept can contribute in realising the approach of landfill mining as an alternative strategy for extraction of valuable material and energy resources. In doing so, an analytical approach involving three main steps was applied. Firstly, state-of-the-art research on landfill mining is reviewed in order to identify critical barriers for why this promising approach not yet has been fully realised. Then, some of the main constituents of industrial ecology research were briefly summarised with special emphasis on how they relate to landfills. The third and final step involved a synthesis aiming to conclude in what way industrial ecology could contribute in addressing the identified challenges for implementation of landfill mining. We conclude the systems view of industrial ecology provides both a comprehensive view on environmental potential and impacts as well as new public/private partnerships for landfill mining activities for mutual benefits.

  • 4.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Department of Engineering Management, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, BE-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, BE-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    The economic and environmental performance of a landfill mining project from the viewpoint of an industrial landfill owner2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 5-6 February, 2018, Mechelen, Belgium / [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium: University of Leuven , 2018, p. 389-396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Commission’s circular economy strategy pushes for a higher recycling rate and a more long-term waste management practice.1 Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) can contribute to this agenda as a better landfill management option, by shifting the landfill paradigm from dumping or as end-storage of waste to resource recovery or as temporary storage of resources.2-4 Through ELFM, landfills becomes a secondary source of both material (Waste-to-Material, WtM) and energy (Waste-to-Energy, WtE) with the use of innovative technologies.3,4

    Several studies explored the environmental and/or economic aspects of ELFM having different scopes and objectives. Some cover the entire process value chain while others additionally focused on comparing technological choices for WtE,5–7 WtM,8,9 and even ELFM waste valorisation.10 Furthermore, for the economic assessment, regulation-related costs and benefits as landfill taxes, gate fees and green certificates5,11,12 are also accounted for. Regarding the identification of economic hotspots, many of these studies concluded similar processes to be important. However, most of these studies were based on either hypothetical cases, or real cases but with small-scale excavation and separation using non-sophisticated set-ups, which are not likely to be used for large-scale processing. Hence, more uncertainty is expected from the lack of actual ELFM demonstration projects.

    The aim of this study is to analyse the main contributing factors that influence environmental and economic performance of ELFM, considering the landfill owner’s viewpoint. The study is based on a real case of excavation and subsequent separation in an existing stationary facility. Specifically, the influence of the prevailing system conditions is investigated as defined by the current legislation and the market situation.

  • 5.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of source-sorted food waste is increasing in Sweden. Traditionally, all large-scale co-digestion plants in Sweden, including the ones which digest food waste, are based on wet process. In this article life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used in order to investigate the environmental performance of the first dry-process biogas plant based on source-sorted municipal food waste in Sweden. The environmental performance of this plant is compared with existing typical plants which are based on wet process. Biogas production systems are complex, and there are knowledge gaps and large uncertainties regarding some of the processes. Most existing biogas LCA studies do not take into account these uncertainties and use single values in their life-cycle inventories. In this study uncertainty propagation in LCA of biogas production system is performed and the results are discussed in order to gain system-level insights on the main factors that influence the performance of producing biogas from food waste and the key uncertainties. An attributional process-based LCA model is used to study the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and non-renewable cumulative energy demand of producing biogas from food waste. A reference case is used which is based on an actual biogas plant in Sweden which uses dry process for treating source-sorted food waste. For the wet process, this case is altered using Swedish literature data on wet digestion systems. For uncertainty management, a combination of approaches, including possibility/fuzzy intervals and stochastic distributions are used. Possibility/fuzzy intervals are used for data collection, but they are translated into probability distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. A simple method for quantifying the uncertainties of the LCA results is used, so the critical uncertainties can be assessed, compared, and discussed. In addition, several key performance indicators were introduced to complement the LCA results.The results of the LCA and KPIs show that using dry process for processing of food waste has a better or comparable environmental performance compared to most existing (wet-process) biogas plants in Sweden. When uncertainties are considered, two systems are more comparable. Regardless of the choice of wet or dry process for treatment of food waste, there are large uncertainties in the non-technical parts of the system which are less dependent to the technical choices or scenario assumptions. Decision-makers who are interested in using biogas systems for treatment of source sorted food waste, should take dry process into consideration. From an energy and environmental perspective, dry process can have good or better performance compared to many existing plants which are based on the wet process. This is mainly due to simpler pretreatment and digestate management. Taking into account the uncertainties (knowledge gaps, and variabilities) in assessing and comparing the performance of biogas production from food waste, provides a more realistic picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Since some of the impacts (and benefits such as carbon sequestration) of using food waste for biogas production and its digestate as biofertilizer lies in areas with high uncertainties, communication of these benefits to wider socio-political actors can play an important role for the development of biogas from food waste in Sweden, because many of the benefits of biogas solutions are not visible when analyzed by LCA approaches that do not take into account these uncertainties.

  • 6.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 42, p. 137-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP.

    Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

  • 7.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

  • 8.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Resource and Climate Implications of Landfill Mining A Case Study of Sweden2013In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 742-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the amount of material deposited in Swedish municipal solid waste landfills, how much is extractable and recyclable, and what the resource and climate implications are if landfill mining coupled with resource recovery were to be implemented in Sweden. The analysis is based on two scenarios with different conventional separation technologies, one scenario using a mobile separation plant and the other using a more advanced stationary separation plant. Further, the approach uses Monte Carlo simulation to address the uncertainties attached to each of the different processes in the scenarios. Results show that Swedens several thousand municipal landfills contain more than 350 million tonnes (t) of material. If landfill mining combined with resource recovery is implemented using a contemporary stationary separation plant, it would be possible to extract about 7 million t of ferrous metals and 2 million t of nonferrous metals, enough to meet the demand of Swedish industry for ferrous and nonferrous metals for three and eight years, respectively. This study further shows that landfill mining could potentially lead to the equivalent of a one-time reduction of about 50 million t of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon-dioxide equivalents), corresponding to 75% of Swedens annual emissions.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cruz, Igor
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Technologies for production of liquefied biogas for heavy transports: Energy, environmental, and economic analysis2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heavy transport sector is facing a growth within technology and infrastructure for use of natural gas. This opens an opportunity for the biogas market to grow as well, especially in the form of liquefied biogas (LBG). This study presents an investigation of the energy balance, environmental impact and economic aspects of current technologies for production of LBG: mixed refrigerant cycle, nitrogen cycle, pressure reduction and cryogenic liquefaction. Calculations are based on a review of recent literature and data from the biogas industry. The results show that mixed refrigerant cycle is the most economic and energy efficient technology for liquefaction of upgraded biogas, followed by nitrogen cycle. The lowest electricity use and environmental impact is achieved if the liquefaction process is preceded by amine scrubber upgrading. Pressure reduction liquefaction is inexpensive and can be an alternative in areas connected to a high-pressure gas grid, but as a method for liquefaction it is not very efficient as only about 10% of the incoming gas is liquefied and the rest remains in its gaseous form. Moreover, addition of propane for distribution in the natural gas grid increases the environmental impact compared to other distribution pathways. The cryogenic technology has a higher energy use than other liquefaction technologies but compensates by also including CO₂ separation, which could make it suitable if there is no existing upgrading facility in place. However, there are technical difficulties to overcome and it is not widely implemented.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy performance indicators as policy support for public bus transport: The case of Sweden2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 65, p. 697-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The share of renewable fuels in Swedish public transport is steadily increasing, in line with European energy and climate goals as well as a national goal of a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. However, the progression towards this goal is quite different among the Swedish regions, and efforts have been made on a national level to compare the public bus transport systems and provide a foundation for policymaking. This paper investigates different ways of assessing and presenting the energy performance of public bus transport systems. The analysis includes use of renewable and fossil fuels as well as energy efficiency and its underlying factors. Various energy performance indicators are presented and discussed with regards to practical implications and applicability for policy support.

    A life cycle perspective on fuels (“well-to-wheel”) is found to have clear advantages when it comes to global reductions of fossil energy use and emissions. This requires detailed information about the fuel use, which is not always the case with the existing reporting system. Setting the energy use in relation to number of passengers transported rather than just the distance covered would better reflect the function of the transport system, but is also more uncertain with the current data available.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-24 12:11
  • 11.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blumenthal, Alyssa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

  • 12.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery2019In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

  • 13.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Environmental Strategies Research, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) & Sweden and Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Urban mining - Prospecting for metals in the invisible city2010In: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In theory, ‘urban mining’ has a huge potential for enabling more efficient resource use and offering new business opportunities for the cleantech and recycling industries. This concept involves recovering technospheric stocks of previously employed natural resources that have been taken out of use without being collected for waste management. Such hibernating material stocks can be found in old water supply, sewage and power distribution networks – urban structures rich in for example iron and copper. This paper aims to analyze the potential for urban mining of the metals copper and aluminum from hibernating power and communication cables in Sweden. Emphasis is on the economic feasibility of two different approaches for realizing such initiatives. The results indicate that separate extraction of obsolete cables situated below ground in a city is not yet likely to be economically justified for power grid managers. Even in case of integrated recovery during other maintenance work on the grids, additional project costs often exceed potential revenues for the cables. In rural areas, however, both separate and integrated recovery of hibernating cables seem straightforwardly profitable, especially for obsolete copper cables belonging to the regional communication network. It is concluded however that the viability of urban mining is not only a matter of economics. Research aiming to analyze technical, economic, environmental and other institutional conditions for realization of urban mining is therefore strongly encouraged.

  • 14.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Annica
    The Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden.
    Urban mining: hibernating copper stocks in local power grids2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 9-10, p. 1052-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply systems, power gridsor communication networks, are rich in accumulated metals. Over time, parts of these systems have beentaken out of use without the system infrastructure being removed from its original location. Such metalstocks in hibernation thus constitute potential resource reservoirs accessible for recovery. In this paper,obsolete stocks of copper situated in the local power grids of two Swedish cities are quantified. Emphasisis also on economic conditions for extracting such “hibernating” cables. The results show that on a percustomer basis, the two power grids contain similar amounts of copper, i.e. 0.04e0.05 tonnes persubscriber. However, the share of the copper stock that is in hibernation differs between the grids. In thelarger grid of Gothenburg, almost 20% of the copper accumulated in the grid is no longer in use, while theobsolete share does not exceed 5% in the city of Linköping. For managers of local power grids, recovery ofhibernating cables could be beneficial if integrated with other maintenance work on the grid. At thepresent price of copper, however, separate recovery of obsolete cables is not economically justified.

  • 15.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental and economic conditions for landfill mining2009In: 2009 ISIE Conference: 5th International Conference on Industrial Ecology: Transition Towards Sustainability, 2009, p. 189-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "At the conference we would like to present selected results from an ongoing research project

    aiming to address the environmental and economic potentials of landfill mining (LFM) in Sweden. LFM means the excavation processing treatment or recycling of waste that over the years have been dumped in waste deposits. In the first part of the presentation the environmental potential of LFM on the national scale of Sweden will be quantified in terms of selected impact categories (global warming potential material and energy resource flows etc.). Preliminary results show that this overall potential is huge and could for instance lead to avoided climate gas emissions corresponding to 4–5 times the annual Swedish emissions. Critical factors (efficiency of waste technology transportation distances etc.) determining to what extent such potentials can be realised in practice i.e. in specific LFM–projects will then be discussed. The second and final part of the presentation will solely focus on conditions for realisation. Here we will discuss under what circumstances LFM is profitable and contributes to economic growth. Our ongoing research show that only the raw material value of Swedish waste deposits is beyond 10 billion Euros (€). However no matter how large the economic potential appears on the national scale the realisation of LFM will always be done by actors on the project level. For these individual companies benefits must simply outweigh the costs. There are however many factors that may influence the profitability of specific projects such as revenues for recovered materials efficiency of technology environmental taxes and waste disposal fees labour regulatory compliance expenses and so on. We will categorise such factors into a few critical drivers enablers and barriers for implementation of LFM and discuss them in terms of technology legislation and market interactions."

  • 16.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research2012In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 513-520Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is nowa well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions,local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has beensuggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing,treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill miningcovering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research paperspublished during the period 1988–2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily beenseen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space andlocal pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources,mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically,simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstratingmoderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recentresearch findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resourceextraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementationinvolves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying theconditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmentalperformance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination ofapplied and theoretical research is required.

  • 17.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Potential and conditions for landfill mining in Sweden2008In: Gordon Research Conference Industrial Ecology,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landfill mining: a review of three decades of research2010In: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-established fact however that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such resource and pollution problems and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering an analysis of trends, objectives and research topics in 39 papers published during the period 1988–2008. The results show that so far landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional waste management issues such as lack of landfill space or facilitation of final closure and remediation of waste deposits. Although most initiatives also have involved some effort to recover deposited resources (primarily cover soil material), such constituents have been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings however indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as future reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears gigantic, it is argued that facilitating implementation also involves a number of challenges in terms of technology innovation, concepts for realization and frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance.

  • 19.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Potential metal resources in waste incineration ash deposits2012In: SUM 2012 Symposium on Urban Mining, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration of waste has always been connected to large metal flows, and it has long been a concern from an environmental point of view, with special focus given to high metal concentrations in the flue gas. However, these metal flows could have also been seen as a potential resource stock available for extraction. This study aims to assess the potential of Swedish waste incineration ash deposits as sources for metal extraction. A second, and equally important aim, is to contribute knowledge for priority-setting of future research on metal extraction methods from such residues.

     

    The results from this study indicate that the metal flows are still considerable. The total amounts of scrap metal in these deposits are significant, and nearly amount to the annual collection of both ferrous and non-ferrous scrap in Sweden. Furthermore, for some of the metals studied the annual flows in Sweden seem to be higher than the metal flows in slag from the copper and steel industries. The main research regarding the extraction of metals from MSWI ash has focused on fly ash. However, by looking at the total potential amounts in different deposits, the results in this study suggest that, from an environmental and economic point of view, the highest potential seems to be for metal stocks in the bottom ash. One metal that has not been high on the research agenda is Titanium, which, due to a high raw material value combined with large amounts in deposits, is ranked at the top from both the economic and environmental perspectives. The results also show that there currently seems to be less incentive to extract the scarcer metals both from an economic and an environmental point of view.

    The article gives suggestions for future research. For example, how much of the metals in the deposits are in a chemical form, making them suitable for extraction? Which challenges arise if the focus of extraction is turned towards the bottom ashes, with their lower concentrations but higher total amounts? Furthermore, research is needed on how accessible different types of deposits are, and what type of institutional and technological challenges and possibilities would arise in a real-world extraction activity.

  • 20.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Department of Engineering Management, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    How to evaluate (enhanced) landfill mining: A critical review of recent environmental and economic assessments2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining / [ed] [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium, KU Leuven , 2018, p. 317-332Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urban infrastructure mines: on the economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from subsurface power grids2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 353-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface power grids constitute one of the largest copper stocks in many industrialized cities. Over time, parts and zones of these systems have been continuously disconnected and abandoned, resulting in the emergence of urban infrastructure ores. This study aims to assess how current conditions and practices influence economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from such power grids. By applying an infrastructure managers perspective and evaluating 16 scenarios involving different extraction technologies and procedures, surface materials, urban locations and types of cables, we identify key areas where solutions or changes to increase incentives for cable recovery are needed. The assessed scenarios display significantly different cable extraction costs, where excavation in city centers with asphalt or cobblestone pavements generates the highest costs while greenbelts offer the best conditions. In most cases, cable revenues are not even close to outweighing the extraction costs. This is especially true for paper-coated cables or cables with aluminum conductors, for which the revenues are much lower than for plastic-insulated copper cables. Although economic conditions could be improved by integrating cable recovery to regular system upgrade projects or by applying non-digging technologies, clear incentives rely on the cable in question being especially valuable. Most of the cable recovery scenarios display environmental motives in terms of net savings in GHG emissions due to metal recycling. In contrast to the economic results, recycling of aluminum power cables is here more awarding than that of corresponding copper cables. We conclude that under current conditions urban mining does not make economic sense to infrastructure managers unless it is integrated as an added value to system upgrade projects. Apart from such re-arrangements in infrastructure provision, several other practice-related changes to cut cable extraction costs are possibly within reach for the managers. Still, an economically motivated practice relies on several external performance drivers such as market diffusion of non-digging technologies, improved cable recycling processes, and increased scrap metal prices. Our conclusion that the arguments for urban mining are currently more environmental than financial, points towards changed perspectives where such activities are seen as a way for infrastructure managers to contribute to societal goals such as climate change mitigation and reduced mineral resource dependence. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Laner, David
    et al.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Cencic, Oliver
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 13, p. 6882-6891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO(2)e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Life cycle assessment of floor care: A comparative study of the Twister™ method and floor care methods using polish and wax2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Today’s society there are a wide variety of floor and floor materials. An extensive range of products and methods are also used to ensure that these floors remain functional. All floor types and products create environmental impact of various kinds and magnitudes.

    This study was initiated by the authors in order to evaluate the Twister™- method’s environmental pros and cons in relation to other traditional floor care methods. This has been ascertained through a Life Cycle Assessment which was conducted within the study. The study has been in co-operation with HTC Sweden AB, the developer of the Twister™- method.

    A Life Cycle Assessment helps to identify and quantify the environmental impact of a product or a service, from a holistic perspective, which incorporates extraction of materials, their manufacture, use and waste management. The software application SimaPRo 7.0 has been used in this study, from which the Eco-indicator 99 method has been selected.

    In the study, the Twister™ method is compared with other floor care methods using polish and wax. The analysis also includes a breakdown of the Twister™ method, as well as a breakdown of the Twister™ pad manufactured by HTC Sweden AB.

    The results show that the elements of the Twister™ method with the greatest environmental impact are the scrubbing machine that is used and the energy consumption that the Twister™ method requires. The results also show that the Twister™ method has a significantly lower environmental impact than floor care methods using polish or wax. The parts of the Twister™ pad that have the greatest environmental impact are the industrial diamonds and the  material that makes up the pad.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Livscykelanalys av golvvård: En jämförande studie av Twister™-metoden och golvvårdsmetoder med polish och vax2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle finns det en stor variation på golv och golvmaterial. Till dessa finns det en stor variation av de produkter och metoder som används för att hålla dessa golv funktionsdugliga. Samtliga golv och produkter ger upphov till miljöpåverkan av olika storlek och sort.

    Denna studie är initierad av författarna för att utvärdera hur Twister™- metoden står sig miljömässigt, jämfört med andra traditionella golvvårdsmetoder. Detta sker genom en livscykelanalys. Arbetet har skett i samarbete med företaget HTC Sweden AB som har utvecklat Twister™-metoden.

    En livscykelanalys ställer en produkt eller tjänst miljöpåverkan utifrån helhetsperspektiv innefattande materialframställning, tillverkning, användning och resthantering. Som hjälp i denna studie har programvaran SimaPro 7.0 använts vari metoden Eco-indikator 99 valts.

    I studien ställs Twister™-metoden mot golvvårdsmetoder innefattande polish och vax. I analysen sker även en nedbrytning av Twister™-metoden likväl en nedbrytning av den Twister™-rondell som HTC Sweden AB tillverkar.

    Resultatet visar att den del av Twister™-metoden som har störst miljöpåverkan är den skurmaskin som används och den energianvändning som Twister™-metoden kräver. Resultatet visar även att Twister™-metoden har signifikant lägre miljöpåverkan än golvvårdsmetoderna polish och vax. De delar av Twister™-rondellen som har störst miljöpåverkan är de industridiamanter och den rondell, som Twister™-rondellen består av.

  • 25.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial cleaning with Qlean Water: a case study of printed circuit boards2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 47, p. 19-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are looking for ways to substitute environmentally problematic cleaning methods for surface treatments with more environmentally friendly ones. In this paper, one potential solution is described. The Qlean method, based on cleaning with highly pure water (in this paper defined as Qlean Water), is a novel cleaning method. This method, now utilized at one plant at a leading major international electronic company, has substituted previous chemical-based methods for cleaning printed circuit boards prior to lacquering. This paper presents, based on that company's primary data, a comparative study using environmental analysis and economic life cycle cost review between cleaning with Qlean Water and conventional cleaning. The focus is on the environmental and economic performance of the two alternatives. The conclusion is that Qlean Water offers both a significant economic and environmental cost reduction and a better product. This is the case even though all identified economic benefits derived from using Qlean Water, e.g. that the quality and technical lifetime have been extended for the printed circuit boards with the Qlean Water cleaning method, are not considered in the economic analysis.

  • 26.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Funktionsupphandling av järnvägsinfrastruktur2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid byggnation och underhåll av infrastruktur för järnväg används stora mängder av olika material, vilket medför stor miljöpåverkan från de tidiga produktionsstegen, till exempel råvaruutvinning. Hittills har Trafikverket inte haft något uttalad livscykeltänkande i sitt arbete med upphandlingar. Trafikverket behöver arbeta med miljöledning av nya produkter och välja de mest resurssnåla produkterna i ett livscykelperspektiv. En bättre planerad och förebyggande verksamhet för drift och underhåll skulle möjliggöra förlängd livslängd för järnvägsprodukter.

    Integrerade produkt‐ och tjänsteerbjudanden (till exempel funktions‐ eller resultatorienterade kontrakt) är en affärsmodell som används av allt fler företag. Affärsmodelltypen benämns ofta även som funktionsförsäljning och kan beskrivas som ett livscykelkontrakt med funktionsåtagande. Tidigare forskning har visat att denna typ av affärsmodell, ofta ökar drivkrafterna för förändring och därmed ökad kosteffektivitet och kvalitet ur ett livscykelperspektiv.

    Det övergripande syftet med det här projektet är att;

    ta fram metoder, som stödjer Trafikverket, att utveckla sina sätt att utformaupphandlingsspecifikationer.

    Mer specifikt så har det undersöks om integrerade produkt‐ och tjänsteerbjudande kan förbättra förvaltningen av järnvägsinfrastruktur, och vad skulle i sådant fall en implementering innebära för riskfaktorer samt hur kan kontrakten utvärderas ekonomiskt‐ och miljömässigt?

  • 27.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure2011In: Functional Thinking for Value Creation. Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th-6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselback & Christoph Herrmann, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 291-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity development for rail and road infrastructure has been weak a long time; and explanation can be found in the traditional contracts used, with little room for incentives for innovation. This literature study investigates the use of the few realized PSS contracts within the rail and road infrastructure. The descriptions and the scientific reports are on a synoptic level and a majority of the reports are funded by the involved actors, showing that there is an interest for PSS contracts in the industry and indicating significant potential for further research in the area.

  • 28.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Scenarios for Resource Efficient Rail Infrastructure: Applying Integrated Product Service Offerings2014In: PRODUCT SERVICES SYSTEMS AND VALUE CREATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 16, p. 13-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rail infrastructure in Sweden, with its long lifetime, large amounts of materials used and traditional procurement, has escalating maintenance costs. What would occur if the infrastructure is instead procured as an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO)? This paper discusses scenarios for increased resource efficiency and more value for the money spent by applying an IPSO perspective to rail infrastructure. The best option depends on the conditions at the construction site as well as how much the availability of the tracks is valued.

  • 29.
    Martin, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies: Application in the Biofuels IndustryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the current literature available in the field of industrial symbiosis aims at providing a review of the symbiotic intensity, institutional and environmental contexts and assessments of the activities involved in a synoptic manner. However, literature regarding classification methods for individual material and energy exchanges is limited. In order to obtain better resolution of the characteristics of exchanges and interactions, i.e. synergies, a classification method is produced and tested in this paper. The classification method maps the interactions between different industries as well as the flows of products and utilities through origindestination classifications. Synergies between a core industry and external industries are examined in this paper, with the core industry represented by the biofuels industry, and without geographical boundaries. The classification method can be employed in other research projects and it is hoped that it will provide the background for further studies into conditions necessary for synergy implementation. Furthermore the classification method will provide subsequent details for research into economic and environmental benefits provided by synergies between industries.

  • 30.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biofuel Synergy Development: Classification and Identification of Synergies Using Industrial Symbiosis2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many critics argue that biofuel production worldwide account for huge losses in energy and materials. Moreover, a large portion of studies around biofuel production are concentrated on stand-alone plants, particularly ethanol production. However, by including by-products and making use of excess energy and material streams, industrial symbiosis methods can be applied to biofuel industries to improve both environmental and economical performance. The following report outlines an approach to apply industrial symbiosis to several biofuel industry actors through synergy development. Synergies were produced during a brainstorming session in order to bring forward innovative and technically feasible ideas toward partnership. From those synergies developed, the report outlines a method to classify synergies and cooperation between biofuel and external industries in order to ease implementation and understanding of possible symbiosis options for industry and academia.

  • 31.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies:: Application in the Biofuels Industry2009In: Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-Industrial Parks, Aalborg: GIN 2009 , 2009, p. 2394-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transportation, i.e. biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, a vast range of unique resource flows, surpluses and by-products exist in each respective process. The current research project aims to find synergies, demands and surplus material and energy flows which will thereafter be applied to the biofuel industry and external industries in a collaborative effort to increase energy efficiencies and environmental performance through the use of synergies and industrial symbiosis. This is being conducted in order to determine conditions for implementation, why some processes and synergies exist, how the processes can be made better and to identify new material flows between industries.

    During an investigation of synergies apparent in the regional biofuel industries, many synergies were discussed during a brainstorming session with industrial actors and researchers. These synergies were recorded and classified in terms of their interaction with other biofuel and external industries. Using the theories of industrial symbiosis, a classification method was developed based upon these interactions as well as the origin and destination of their resources. Previous terms from the theories of synergies research were used as background material. Thereafter symbols and classifications were based on the interactions of the synergy, i.e. between biofuel industries and external synergies. Furthermore the origins/destinations were also classified as either a product/process or as a utility but with expanded and refined boundaries.

    Example: 2UP (A synergy of Class 2, i.e. biofuel to external industry synergy, which originates as a utility and is destined as a product/process for the external industry.)

    Thus far the project has produced a classification scheme for biofuel synergy projects and research. Using the classification method, synergies produced at future brainstorming sessions and discussions with industry will alleviate the reproduction, recording and organization of synergies for upcoming interaction with biofuel industries worldwide.

  • 32.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who gets the benefits? An approach for assessing the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis networks are generally assumed to provide economic and environmental benefits for all firms involved, though few quantifications have been produced in the literature, and the methods for these quantifications have varied. This paper provides an approach to quantify the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis networks using guidance from the literature of life cycle assessment. Additionally, an approach to distribute credits due to exchanges for firms in the industrial symbiosis network is outlined. From the approach, influential methodological considerations used for the quantifications are discussed, including e.g. the production of reference systems, allocation methods, system boundaries and functional unit. The implications of such an approach may be beneficial for the industrial symbiosis community and provide information crucial for taxes, subsidies, business relations, expansion possibilities for the network, marketing and other issues related to the environmental performance of firms in the industrial symbiosis network.

  • 33.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production:: Quantifying Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about many issues, including the energy output versus input and the competition with food, has been raised andthe sustainability of biofuels in recent years has been constantly debated. However, the current biofuel systems may be optimized to increase the energy efficiency and environmentalperformance. By using concepts from industrial symbiosis, the material and energy exchangesmay be optimized to result in these performance improvements. This paper offers aquantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuelindustry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach.Results show that although increasing integration between the biogas and ethanol plants isassumed to produce environmental benefits, not all impact categories have achieved this andthe results depend upon the allocation methods chosen. Thus the increasing integration alsobrings about increased complexity for the system.

  • 35.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantifying the environmental performance of integrated bioethanol and biogas production2014In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 6, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels have the possibility to be optimized in order to improve the environmental performance. This could be accomplished through the use of concepts from industrial symbiosis. This paper provides a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods, energy system and assumptions chosen.

  • 36.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who gets the benefits?: An approach for assessing the environmentalperformance of industrial symbiosis2012In: Greening of Industry Network: Support your future today! Turning environmental challenges into business opportunities, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally assumed that industrial symbiosis creates economic and environmental benefits for all firmsinvolved, though only a few quantifications have been produced in the literature. An approach to quantifyenvironmental performance of industrial symbiosis using life cycle assessment has been provided,outlining the choice of functional unit, system boundaries, impact assessment and allocation as well as thedistribution of benefits among firms in the symbiotic activity. The implications of such an approach maybe beneficial for the industrial symbiosis and life cycle assessment communities and provide informationcrucial for taxes, subsidies, business relations, marketing and other issues related to the environmentalperformance of firms in the industrial symbiosis network.

  • 37.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Innovation Potentials of Using Solvent-free Industrial Cleaning in Swedish Manufacturing Industry2008In: Proceedings of Sustainable Innovation 08 - Future products, technologies and industries: 13th International Conference part of the ‘Towards Sustainable Product Design’ series of conferences, 27-28 October 2008, Malmö, Sweden, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research collaboration project between SMEs and academia a new way of cleaning machine parts have been developed. The cleaning company Servicestaden and researchers at Linköping University have discovered new ways of cleaning without the use of solvents. In the research project called ‘Solvent-Free Industrial Cleaning’ (SOFIQ) it has been found that cleaning with the SOFIQ-technology is more environmentally sound than with traditional cleaning techniques. However, there is a major challenge to keep up the pace of cleaning within manufacturing since it often have high demands of short lead times. This is a challenge that will be constraining the use of the method.

  • 38.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarstedt, Petra
    Qlean Scandinavia AB.
    Solvent-free Industrial Cleaning of Printed Circuit Boards2009In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009, Sapporo, Japan, 2009, p. 823-828Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry today uses different kinds of chemicals in its cleaning processes. The industrial cleaners often contain some sort of degreasing chemical to clean parts and components before for instance sur-face treatment processes. These types of cleaning meth-ods imply expensive and dangerous handling of chemi-cals in the manufacturing process, as well as in the transportation of hazardous waste. Furthermore, the cleaning processes also use a substantial amount of en-ergy for cleaning.The aim of this paper is to explore the potential of how ultra-clean water cleaning can be used in the manufac-turing industry. In order to meet the aim, a case study was conducted at a electronic manufacturer. The data for this research was collected mainly through interviews, but also by industrial study visits.The results from this research show that using solvent-free industrial cleaning with ultra-clean water is benefi-cial from the perspectives of quality, environment and business. The quality improvement is the most important benefit that the electronic manufacturer can see by using solvent-free industrial cleaning for their printed circuit boards.

  • 39.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    McLaren, J
    Jackson, T
    A Dynamic Life Cycle Energy Model of the UK Paper and Pulp Sector1998In: Con Account Workshop: Ecologizing Societal Metabolism - Designing Scenarios for Sustainable Materials Management, CML report 148,1998, 1998, p. 135-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 40.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Life-Cycle Considerations for Environmental Management of the Swedish Railway Infrastructure2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis has been to develop an approach for the scoping of environmental aspects regarding material use in the Swedish railway infrastructure in order to contribute to strategic environmental management. This is done through the development of a method based on the concepts of embodied energy and material flows, which is then tested for its robustness. Furthermore, a study has been made on which preconditions for life-cycle considerations there are for the manager of the Swedish railway infrastructure and how this relates to the actual environmental pressures from the product. The study has used the Swedish National Rail Authority, Banverket, as a case.

    First the environmental context was studied by an analysis of how the environmental pressure from material use compares to the operations phase and to other transport systems. Secondly, a scoping method for environmental pressure from material use in a large organization was developed and tests performed on its use and its robustness. Special focus was on the importance of materials transports and the environmental relevance of the energy indicator used. Finally, an organizational context was presented which showed the possibilities and hindrances to implementing life-cycle considerations in the environmental management of the Swedish railway infrastructure.

    It seems difficult to incorporate life-cycle considerations in an organization whose history is characterized by its work on solving specific local environmental issues. In addition, there seem to be limited pressures either from outside or inside the organization to adopt life-cycle environmental management. There is a need for clearer and more specific policy instruments governing many of the global environmental issues pertaining to upstream environmental pressures in order to make it easier for organizations to translate these into something useful in their environmental management. The departments with the most capacity to influence the environmental pressures from material use are demanding support and more knowledge about life-cycle considerations in order to set more relevant environmental requirements on the products.

    The perceived environmental advantage of the rail transport sector over road transports should not be taken for granted. The importance of the indirect environmental pressures for the rail infrastructure decreases this advantage, since its material-related energy use is almost entirely from non-renewable sources. Thus the rail transport sector needs to start decreasing the use of energy for production of railway infrastructure products or its reliance on nonrenewable energy sources for production.

    In order to start working with the environmental management of the railway products there is a need to adopt and introduce new perspectives. The approach developed in this thesis can be used to introduce these new perspectives, such as upstream environmental pressures, to the organization’s environmental management. It can also be employed to identify hot spots in the organization’s material use. Consequently, this new knowledge can be used in the design of new products, to set environmental demands in purchasing, and to focus further environmental analyses of the hot spots. It can also be used to broaden the perspectives in, for instance, environmental impact assessments, strategic environmental assessments and environmental reviews. The relative ease with which this indicator is collected and calculated can make it possible for the organization to include new environmental dimensions in their environmental management, which could otherwise be outside their expertise, budget or time frame.

    The scoping of environmental pressures, by using the approach presented in the thesis, pointed to three important railway infrastructure products. These are the products that Banverket needs to focus on first. One of the most important tasks in incorporating life-cycle considerations for products is to set environmental requirements when introducing new products to the material supply process. The requirements should already be present in the design phase of the products. Thus it is essential that the product developers get the support needed in finding relevant environmental criteria for the new product. One way to accomplish this is to employ an environmental coordinator with sufficient knowledge in the technical departments to work together with the design teams as an integral part of the design process.

    The overall environmental pressures from the railway transport system depend substantially on the upstream environmental pressures generated by the production of the infrastructure products. These pressures are totally dominated by three products. There is a large improvement potential in focusing the environmental management on these products by posing environmental requirements on their suppliers, in order to decrease the overall environmental pressures generated by the railway transport system.

    List of papers
    1. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
    2006 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect environmental pressures from the material use of the transport infrastructure are often excluded in analysis of the transport sector. In this paper we analyze the energy and CO2 emissions from the rail and road transport sectors from both the traffic and the infrastructure. The analysis uses a cradle-to-gate methodology to calculate the environmental pressures and allocate them to different rail and road vehicles. The railway infrastructure is more energy intensive. Passenger buses use the least amount of energy among the passenger vehicles, but since the electrified trains in Sweden mostly use hydropower for electricity production, the latter has less CO2 emissions. Electrified freight trains are both more energy efficient and emit less CO2 compared to long-distance trucks. It is also interesting to note what would happen if the traffic in the road transport system were fuelled by renewable energy carriers instead of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide emissions from road transport would thereby decrease, making it reasonable to question the environmental advantage of the railway.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14491 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management
    2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 248-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to be used in environmental reviews as an initial tool for estimating upstream environmental pressures from material use in organisations dealing mostly with construction materials. Upstream environmental pressures are often omitted in environmental reviews from organisations and instead tend to be site specific, with a limited life-cycle perspective. This paper uses the Swedish National Rail Authority as a case to present the approach. An energy indicator is used to estimate the environmental pressure of material use.

    In the studied building project, a small set of products contribute to a major part of the material use and the material-related energy use. The energy use is almost exclusively of nonrenewable energy carriers. The three most important products are all homogenous and non-complex, which makes the energy indicator well suited for the analysis. The organisation can use the results to focus on the most important products and also to see which parts of the organisation contribute to the material-related energy use. Rail traffic in Sweden is almost exclusively from non-fossil-based energy carriers. This highlights the importance of the infrastructure to the overall environmental pressure of the railway. Consequently, if road transport were to shift away from fossil fuels, railways earlier environmental advantages would diminish, since research suggests that railway infrastructure is more energy intensive than road infrastructure.

    Keywords
    Railway, Infrastructure, Material use, Environmental pressure, Screening
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14492 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.006 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use as a single indicator or in a set of few indicators is often used in applied research in the building, transportation and energy sectors. However, the environmental relevance of energy indicators is seldom questioned. The relation between environmental relevance and energy indicators might seem obvious. Nevertheless, how this is obvious has not been thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental relevance of the energy indicator and discuss implications for its use. The approach is to express environmental pressure in different environmental impact categories and determine the contribution to these from energy use. Because not all impact categories are closely linked to energy indicators, the aim and context in which it is used must be apparent.

    Keywords
    Energy indicator; Environmental pressure; Environmental assessment; Energy system; Environmental management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14493 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.01.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    4. The environmental importance of materials transports in developing infrastructure: Case of the Swedish Railway System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The environmental importance of materials transports in developing infrastructure: Case of the Swedish Railway System
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14494 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    5. Life-cycle considerations for environmental management of an infrastructure manager
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-cycle considerations for environmental management of an infrastructure manager
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14495 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 41.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Scoping environmental pressure from material use for strategic environmental management : case of the Swedish National Rail Authority2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aim is to develop an approach for scoping of environmental aspects regarding the material use in a large organisation in order to contribute to a strategic environmental management. The study object is the Swedish National Rail Authority.

    The transport sector is closely linked to the environmental pressures caused by our society, consequently a lot of studies have been made regarding the contribution from different transport sectors. However, the bulk of these studies concerns only the transports and thus omits the environmental pressures from the material use needed to support these sectors, i.e. building and maintaining the infrastructure. The rail transport sector is generally conceived to be the most environmentally adapted land transport mode. However, this notion commonly only includes environmental pressures from the traffic phase.

    The method uses "material related energy use" and CO2-emissions as a proxy to environmental pressures from material use. Furthermore, the robustness of the method is tested by the use of scenarios and sensitivity analysis. In particular, the environmental relevance of the energy indicator is studied.

    The approach developed in this thesis can be used to introduce new perspectives, such as upstream environmental pressures, to an organisation's environmental management. It can be employed to identify hot spots in an organisation's material use. Consequently, this new knowledge can be used to influence the design of new products, to set environmental demands for purchasing and to focus further environmental analyses of the hot spots. The approach can also be used to broaden the perspectives in for instance environmental impact assessments, strategic environmental assessment and environmental reviews.

    In the studied rail building project, 3 products constituted 99.5 weight-% of the total material use. These products were steel rails, concrete ties and ballast materials. They share the common characteristics of being noncomplex, non-toxic and made out of very few materials.

    List of papers
    1. Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management
    2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 248-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to be used in environmental reviews as an initial tool for estimating upstream environmental pressures from material use in organisations dealing mostly with construction materials. Upstream environmental pressures are often omitted in environmental reviews from organisations and instead tend to be site specific, with a limited life-cycle perspective. This paper uses the Swedish National Rail Authority as a case to present the approach. An energy indicator is used to estimate the environmental pressure of material use.

    In the studied building project, a small set of products contribute to a major part of the material use and the material-related energy use. The energy use is almost exclusively of nonrenewable energy carriers. The three most important products are all homogenous and non-complex, which makes the energy indicator well suited for the analysis. The organisation can use the results to focus on the most important products and also to see which parts of the organisation contribute to the material-related energy use. Rail traffic in Sweden is almost exclusively from non-fossil-based energy carriers. This highlights the importance of the infrastructure to the overall environmental pressure of the railway. Consequently, if road transport were to shift away from fossil fuels, railways earlier environmental advantages would diminish, since research suggests that railway infrastructure is more energy intensive than road infrastructure.

    Keywords
    Railway, Infrastructure, Material use, Environmental pressure, Screening
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14492 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.006 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
    2006 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect environmental pressures from the material use of the transport infrastructure are often excluded in analysis of the transport sector. In this paper we analyze the energy and CO2 emissions from the rail and road transport sectors from both the traffic and the infrastructure. The analysis uses a cradle-to-gate methodology to calculate the environmental pressures and allocate them to different rail and road vehicles. The railway infrastructure is more energy intensive. Passenger buses use the least amount of energy among the passenger vehicles, but since the electrified trains in Sweden mostly use hydropower for electricity production, the latter has less CO2 emissions. Electrified freight trains are both more energy efficient and emit less CO2 compared to long-distance trucks. It is also interesting to note what would happen if the traffic in the road transport system were fuelled by renewable energy carriers instead of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide emissions from road transport would thereby decrease, making it reasonable to question the environmental advantage of the railway.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14491 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use as a single indicator or in a set of few indicators is often used in applied research in the building, transportation and energy sectors. However, the environmental relevance of energy indicators is seldom questioned. The relation between environmental relevance and energy indicators might seem obvious. Nevertheless, how this is obvious has not been thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental relevance of the energy indicator and discuss implications for its use. The approach is to express environmental pressure in different environmental impact categories and determine the contribution to these from energy use. Because not all impact categories are closely linked to energy indicators, the aim and context in which it is used must be apparent.

    Keywords
    Energy indicator; Environmental pressure; Environmental assessment; Energy system; Environmental management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14493 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.01.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 42.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Almgren, Tomas
    Collin, Per
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure2006Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect environmental pressures from the material use of the transport infrastructure are often excluded in analysis of the transport sector. In this paper we analyze the energy and CO2 emissions from the rail and road transport sectors from both the traffic and the infrastructure. The analysis uses a cradle-to-gate methodology to calculate the environmental pressures and allocate them to different rail and road vehicles. The railway infrastructure is more energy intensive. Passenger buses use the least amount of energy among the passenger vehicles, but since the electrified trains in Sweden mostly use hydropower for electricity production, the latter has less CO2 emissions. Electrified freight trains are both more energy efficient and emit less CO2 compared to long-distance trucks. It is also interesting to note what would happen if the traffic in the road transport system were fuelled by renewable energy carriers instead of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide emissions from road transport would thereby decrease, making it reasonable to question the environmental advantage of the railway.

  • 43.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Life-cycle considerations for environmental management of an infrastructure manager2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Materials inventory and environmental analysis of the Swedish railway infrastructure2000In: Towards Sustainability in teh Built Environment,2000, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management2007In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 248-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to be used in environmental reviews as an initial tool for estimating upstream environmental pressures from material use in organisations dealing mostly with construction materials. Upstream environmental pressures are often omitted in environmental reviews from organisations and instead tend to be site specific, with a limited life-cycle perspective. This paper uses the Swedish National Rail Authority as a case to present the approach. An energy indicator is used to estimate the environmental pressure of material use.

    In the studied building project, a small set of products contribute to a major part of the material use and the material-related energy use. The energy use is almost exclusively of nonrenewable energy carriers. The three most important products are all homogenous and non-complex, which makes the energy indicator well suited for the analysis. The organisation can use the results to focus on the most important products and also to see which parts of the organisation contribute to the material-related energy use. Rail traffic in Sweden is almost exclusively from non-fossil-based energy carriers. This highlights the importance of the infrastructure to the overall environmental pressure of the railway. Consequently, if road transport were to shift away from fossil fuels, railways earlier environmental advantages would diminish, since research suggests that railway infrastructure is more energy intensive than road infrastructure.

  • 46.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svärdh, Karin
    The environmental importance of materials transports in developing infrastructure: Case of the Swedish Railway System2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Introducing an approach to assess environmental pressures from integrated remediation and landfill mining2010In: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to introduce an approach for evaluating integrated remediation and landfill mining scenarios. Since completed projects with similar scope and goals mostly have been pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction, there is very little real case data to access. Thus, scenarios for three different routes have been established: Remediation only; Remediation combined with resource extraction using a mobile separation plant; and finally Remediation combined with resource extraction using a large stationary separation plant. Furthermore, the approach uses Monte Carlo simulations to address the uncertainties attached to each of the different steps of the scenarios, such as separation efficiencies, transport distances and recycling benefits. The approach can be used to assess the probability of results for the different scenarios, as well to study the influences of major parameters. In the future, the approach will be broadened to include economic parameters, and a large effort will be put on validating and analyzing the model parameters and assumptions. For instance, there is a need to study the dependency between different parameters to see if they are positively correlated; otherwise, the uncertainty could be overestimated. Furthermore, scenario uncertainties need to be added and studied.

  • 48.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utvärdering av Norrköpings Klimatinvesteringsprogram, 2004-20082009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potential of increased sorting efficiency for combustiblesin Sweden- Environmental and economic implications2009In: 2009 ISIE Conference: 5th International Conference on Industrial Ecology: Transition Towards Sustainability, 2009, p. 326-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "In Sweden a large share of municipal solid waste goes to incineration with electricity production

    and heat recovery. However many scientific studies suggest that some of the materials which are combusted could be recycled or reused instead. Most of these studies have focused on the waste from bins and bags collected from the households while little attention has been on the significant amount of bulky wastes which are collected at recycling centres in the Swedish municipalities.

    An analysis of the combustibles fraction from recycling centres in a Swedish municipality has

    been performed. Fractions which should or could be recycled reused or needs special treatment such as hazardous waste was collected from 15.4 tonnes of combustible waste collected at 3 different recycling centres. These results are then extrapolated together with known material fractions in municipal solid waste from bins and bags to study the environmental and economic potential of a better sorting of combustibles in Sweden. An analysis of the positive and negative effects of increased sorting for the incineration process is performed. These effects include lower ash quantities less stress on the filter systems a more homogenous fuel but also a decreased amount of combustibles. These effects together with a higher material recovery rate are used in the environmental and economic analyses which are based on a life cycle perspective."

  • 50.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Roth, Liselott
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use as a single indicator or in a set of few indicators is often used in applied research in the building, transportation and energy sectors. However, the environmental relevance of energy indicators is seldom questioned. The relation between environmental relevance and energy indicators might seem obvious. Nevertheless, how this is obvious has not been thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental relevance of the energy indicator and discuss implications for its use. The approach is to express environmental pressure in different environmental impact categories and determine the contribution to these from energy use. Because not all impact categories are closely linked to energy indicators, the aim and context in which it is used must be apparent.

12 1 - 50 of 54
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