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  • 1.
    Cockburn, A.
    et al.
    Computer Science, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Alexander, J.
    Computer Science, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Zhai, S.
    IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, NWE-B2, San Jose, CA 95120, United States.
    Hard lessons: Effort-inducing interfaces benefit spatial learning2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interface designers normally strive for a design that minimises the user's effort. However, when the design's objective is to train users to interact with interfaces that are highly dependent on spatial properties (e.g. keypad layout or gesture shapes) we contend that designers should consider explicitly increasing the mental effort of interaction. To test the hypothesis that effort aids spatial memory, we designed a "frost-brushing" interface that forces the user to mentally retrieve spatial information, or to physically brush away the frost to obtain visual guidance. We report results from two experiments using virtual keypad interfaces - the first concerns spatial location learning of buttons on the keypad, and the second concerns both location and trajectory learning of gesture shape. The results support our hypothesis, showing that the frost-brushing design improved spatial learning. The participants' subjective responses emphasised the connections between effort, engagement, boredom, frustration, and enjoyment, suggesting that effort requires careful parameterisation to maximise its effectiveness. Copyright 2007 ACM.

  • 2.
    Kristensson, Per Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Discrete and Continuous Shape Writing for Text Entry and Control2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile devices gain increasing computational power and storage capabilities, and there are already mobile phones that can show movies, act as digital music players and offer full-scale web browsing. The bottleneck for information flow is however limited by the inefficient communication channel between the user and the small device. The small mobile phone form factor has proven to be surprisingly difficult to overcome and limited text entry capabilities are in effect crippling mobile devices’ use experience. The desktop keyboard is too large for mobile phones, and the keypad too limited. In recent years, advanced mobile phones have come equipped with touch-screens that enable new text entry solutions. This dissertation explores how software keyboards on touch-screens can be improved to provide an efficient and practical text and command entry experience on mobile devices. The central hypothesis is that it is possible to combine three elements: software keyboard, language redundancy and pattern recognition, and create new effective interfaces for text entry and control. These are collectively called “shape writing” interfaces. Words form shapes on the software keyboard layout. Users write words by articulating the shapes for words on the software keyboard. Two classes of shape writing interfaces are developed and analyzed: discrete and continuous shape writing. The former recognizes users’ pen or finger tapping motion as discrete patterns on the touch-screen. The latter recognizes users’ continuous motion patterns. Experimental results show that novice users can write text with an average entry rate of 25 wpm and an error rate of 1% after 35 minutes of practice. An accelerated novice learning experiment shows that users can exactly copy a single well-practiced phrase with an average entry rate of 46.5 wpm, with individual phrase entry rate measurements up to 99 wpm. When used as a control interface, users can send commands to applications 1.6 times faster than using de-facto standard linear pull-down menus. Visual command preview leads to significantly less errors and shorter gestures for unpracticed commands. Taken together, the quantitative results show that shape writing is among the fastest mobile interfaces for text entry and control, both initially and after practice, that are currently known.

  • 3.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Breaking the Laws of Action in the User Interface2005In: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems,2005, New York: ACM Press , 2005, p. 1120-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing on Stylus Keyboard2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel text entry method for pen-based computers. We view the trace obtained by connecting the letter keys comprising a word on a stylus keyboard as a pattern. This pattern can be matched against a user-s pen trace, invariant of scale and translation. Hence the patterns become an efficient form of shorthand gestures, allowing users to use eyes-free openloop motor actions to perform the gestures. This can result in higher text entry speed than optimized stylus keyboards, the fastest known text entry technique for pen-computers as of today. The approach supports a gradual and seamless skill transition from novices tracing the letter keys to experts articulating the shorthand gestures. Hence the ratio between the learning effort and efficiency in using the system can be said to be optimized at any given point in time in the user-s experience with the technique. This thesis describes the rationale, architecture and lgorithms behind a stylus keyboard augmented with a high-capacity gesture recognition engine. We also report results from an Expanding Rehearsal Interval (ERI) experiment which indicates that users can acquire about 15 shorthand gestures per 45 minute training session. Empirical expert speed estimates of the technique indicate text entry speeds much higher than any prior known pen-based text entry system for mobile computers.  

    List of papers
    1. Shorthand writing on stylus keyboard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shorthand writing on stylus keyboard
    2003 (English)In: Proceeding CHI '03 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Press , 2003, p. 97-104Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method for computer-based speed writing, SHARK (shorthand aided rapid keyboarding), which augments stylus keyboarding with shorthand gesturing. SHARK defines a shorthand symbol for each word according to its movement pattern on an optimized stylus keyboard. The key principles for the SHARK design include high efficiency stemmed from layout optimization, duality of gesturing and stylus tapping, scale and location independent writing, Zipf's law, and skill transfer from tapping to shorthand writing due to pattern consistency. We developed a SHARK system based on a classic handwriting recognition algorithm. A user study demonstrated the feasibility of the SHARK method.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Press, 2003
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24317 (URN)3940 (Local ID)3940 (Archive number)3940 (OAI)
    Conference
    CHI 2003, April 5–10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA
    Note

    Also in ACM CHI Letters Volume 5 Issue 1

    DOI does not work: 1-58113-630-7

    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-03-13
    2. In search of effective text input interfaces for off the desktop computing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In search of effective text input interfaces for off the desktop computing
    2005 (English)In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 229-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally recognized that today's frontier of HCI research lies beyond the traditional desktop computers whose GUI interfaces were built on the foundation of display—pointing device—full keyboard. Many interface challenges arise without such a physical UI foundation. Text writing—ranging from entering URLs and search queries, filling forms, typing commands, to taking notes and writing emails and chat messages—is one of the hard problems awaiting for solutions in off-desktop computing. This paper summarizes and synthesizes a research program on this topic at the IBM Almaden Research Center. It analyzes various dimensions that constitute a good text input interface; briefly reviews related literature; discusses the evaluation methodology issues of text input; presents the major ideas and results of two systems, ATOMIK and SHARK; and points out current and future directions in the area from our current vantage point.

    Keywords
    Text input; Pervasive; Mobile; Off-desktop computing; Shorthand; Gesture; Stylus; Virtual keyboard
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102012 (URN)10.1016/j.intcom.2003.12.007 (DOI)000229414800001 ()
    Available from: 2013-11-26 Created: 2013-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    3. SHARK2: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-based Computers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>SHARK2: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-based Computers
    2004 (English)In: UIST '04 Proceedings of the 17th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, New York: ACM Press , 2004, p. 43-52Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zhai and Kristensson (2003) presented a method of speed-writing for pen-based computing which utilizes gesturing on a stylus keyboard for familiar words and tapping for others. In SHARK2:, we eliminated the necessity to alternate between the two modes of writing, allowing any word in a large vocabulary (e.g. 10,000-20,000 words) to be entered as a shorthand gesture. This new paradigm supports a gradual and seamless transition from visually guided tracing to recall-based gesturing. Based on the use characteristics and human performance observations, we designed and implemented the architecture, algorithms and interfaces of a high-capacity multi-channel pen-gesture recognition system. The system's key components and performance are also reported.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Press, 2004
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24318 (URN)10.1145/1029632.1029640 (DOI)3941 (Local ID)1-58113-957-8 (ISBN)3941 (Archive number)3941 (OAI)
    Conference
    UIST 2004, the Seventeenth Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. Santa Fe, New Mexico. October 24–27, 2004.
    Note

    Also in ACM CHI Letters Volume 6 Issue 2

    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    4. Pattern Matching on Stylus Keyboards: A Powerful Approach to Faster and Easier Pen-based Text Entry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pattern Matching on Stylus Keyboards: A Powerful Approach to Faster and Easier Pen-based Text Entry
    2004 (English)In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 2004), New York: ACM Press , 2004, p. 59-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much work has been done in developing alternative methods of writing for pen-based computers, including handwriting recognition, optimization of keyboard layouts, and specialized writing systems. Generally there is a trade- off between writing speed and the effort required by the user to write the text. My doctoral dissertation is about developing text entry systems maximizing the writing speed but minimizing users' effort by taking advantage of the redundancy of the human languages and viewing the legitimate input strings in the language as patterns mapped on a keyboard layout. I present my work on using pattern matching algorithms to take advantage of these constraints to develop a shorthand writing system combined with a stylus keyboard, allowing fast text entry without the need to learn any custom alphabet or a specialized writing system. I also present some of the feedback and output interfaces I believe can greatly enhance the user experience when using pattern matching text entry systems. I conclude by discussing performance evaluation and planned future work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Press, 2004
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24320 (URN)3943 (Local ID)3943 (Archive number)3943 (OAI)
    Conference
    UIST ’04, October 24–27, 2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA
    Note

    Conference Companion

    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
  • 5.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pattern Matching on Stylus Keyboards: A Powerful Approach to Faster and Easier Pen-based Text Entry2004In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 2004), New York: ACM Press , 2004, p. 59-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much work has been done in developing alternative methods of writing for pen-based computers, including handwriting recognition, optimization of keyboard layouts, and specialized writing systems. Generally there is a trade- off between writing speed and the effort required by the user to write the text. My doctoral dissertation is about developing text entry systems maximizing the writing speed but minimizing users' effort by taking advantage of the redundancy of the human languages and viewing the legitimate input strings in the language as patterns mapped on a keyboard layout. I present my work on using pattern matching algorithms to take advantage of these constraints to develop a shorthand writing system combined with a stylus keyboard, allowing fast text entry without the need to learn any custom alphabet or a specialized writing system. I also present some of the feedback and output interfaces I believe can greatly enhance the user experience when using pattern matching text entry systems. I conclude by discussing performance evaluation and planned future work.

  • 6.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Zhai, Shumin
    IBM Almaden Research Center.
    Relaxing Stylus Typing Precision by Geometric Pattern Matching2005In: ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces,2005, New York: ACM Press , 2005, p. 151-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Zhai, Shumin
    IBM Almaden Research Center.
    SHARK: Fast High-Accuracy Text Entry and Command Input on Pen-based Computers2005In: The Annual Swedish Artificial Intelligence and Learning Systems Event,2005, Mälardalen: Mälardalen University , 2005, p. 95-100Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhai, Shumin
    IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, USA.
    SHARK2: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-based Computers2004In: UIST '04 Proceedings of the 17th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, New York: ACM Press , 2004, p. 43-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zhai and Kristensson (2003) presented a method of speed-writing for pen-based computing which utilizes gesturing on a stylus keyboard for familiar words and tapping for others. In SHARK2:, we eliminated the necessity to alternate between the two modes of writing, allowing any word in a large vocabulary (e.g. 10,000-20,000 words) to be entered as a shorthand gesture. This new paradigm supports a gradual and seamless transition from visually guided tracing to recall-based gesturing. Based on the use characteristics and human performance observations, we designed and implemented the architecture, algorithms and interfaces of a high-capacity multi-channel pen-gesture recognition system. The system's key components and performance are also reported.

  • 9.
    Zhai, Shumin
    et al.
    IBM Research, Almaden Center, San Jose, CA.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shorthand writing on stylus keyboard2003In: Proceeding CHI '03 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Press , 2003, p. 97-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method for computer-based speed writing, SHARK (shorthand aided rapid keyboarding), which augments stylus keyboarding with shorthand gesturing. SHARK defines a shorthand symbol for each word according to its movement pattern on an optimized stylus keyboard. The key principles for the SHARK design include high efficiency stemmed from layout optimization, duality of gesturing and stylus tapping, scale and location independent writing, Zipf's law, and skill transfer from tapping to shorthand writing due to pattern consistency. We developed a SHARK system based on a classic handwriting recognition algorithm. A user study demonstrated the feasibility of the SHARK method.

  • 10.
    Zhai, Shumin
    et al.
    IBM Almaden Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Smith, Barton
    IBM Almaden Research Center.
    In search of effective text input interfaces for off the desktop computing2004In: Human Computer Interaction Consortium Winter Workshop,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Zhai, Shumin
    et al.
    IBM Almaden Research Cente, San Jose, USA.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    IBM Almaden Research Cente, San Jose, USA.
    Smith, Barton A.
    IBM Almaden Research Cente, San Jose, USA.
    In search of effective text input interfaces for off the desktop computing2005In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 229-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally recognized that today's frontier of HCI research lies beyond the traditional desktop computers whose GUI interfaces were built on the foundation of display—pointing device—full keyboard. Many interface challenges arise without such a physical UI foundation. Text writing—ranging from entering URLs and search queries, filling forms, typing commands, to taking notes and writing emails and chat messages—is one of the hard problems awaiting for solutions in off-desktop computing. This paper summarizes and synthesizes a research program on this topic at the IBM Almaden Research Center. It analyzes various dimensions that constitute a good text input interface; briefly reviews related literature; discusses the evaluation methodology issues of text input; presents the major ideas and results of two systems, ATOMIK and SHARK; and points out current and future directions in the area from our current vantage point.

1 - 11 of 11
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
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