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  • 1.
    Aljabery, Firas
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindblom, Gunnar
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Skoog, Susann
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Shabo, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Center South East Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    PET/CT versus conventional CT for detection of lymph node metastases in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer.2015In: BMC urology, ISSN 1471-2490, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 87-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We studied patients treated with radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer to compare the results of both preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and conventional CT with the findings of postoperative histopathological evaluation of lymph nodes.

    METHODS: Patients who had bladder cancer and were candidates for cystectomy underwent preoperative PET/CT using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and conventional CT. The results regarding lymph node involvement were independently evaluated by two experienced radiologists and were subsequently compared with histopathology results, the latter of which were reassessed by an experienced uropathologist (HO).

    RESULTS: There were 54 evaluable patients (mean age 68 years, 47 [85 %] males and 7 [15 %] females) with pT and pN status as follows: < pT2-14 (26 %), pT2-10 (18 %), and > pT2-30 (56 %); pN0 37 (69 %) and pN+ 17 (31 %). PET/CT showed positive lymph nodes in 12 patients (22 %), and 7 of those cases were confirmed by histopathology; the corresponding results for conventional CT were 11 (20 %) and 7 patients (13 %), respectively. PET/CT had 41 % sensitivity, 86 % specificity, 58 % PPV, and 76 % NPV, whereas the corresponding figures for conventional CT were 41 %, 89 %, 64 %, and 77 %. Additional analyses of the right and left side of the body or in specified anatomical regions gave similar results.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this study, PET/CT and conventional CT had similar low sensitivity in detecting and localizing regional lymph node metastasis in bladder cancer.

  • 2.
    Aljabery, Firas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Shabo, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna Stockholm, Sweden .
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology.
    Radio-guided sentinel lymph node detection and lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer: a prospective clinical study.2017In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possibility of detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) in patients with urinary bladder cancer (BCa) intra-operatively and whether the histopathological status of the identified SNs reflected that of the lymphatic field.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 103 patients with BCa pathological stage T1-T4 who were treated with cystectomy and pelvic lymph node (LN) dissection during 2005-2011 at the Department of Urology, Linköping University Hospital. Radioactive tracer Nanocoll 70 MBq and blue dye were injected into the bladder wall around the primary tumour before surgery. SNs were detected ex vivo during the operation with a handheld Geiger probe (Gamma Detection System; Neoprobe Corp., Dublin, OH, USA). All LNs were formalin-fixed, sectioned three times, mounted on slides and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. An experienced uropathologist evaluated the slides.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 69 years, and 80 (77%) were male. Pathological staging was T1-12 (12%), T2-20 (19%), T3-48 (47%) and T4-23 (22%). A mean (range) number of 31 (7-68) nodes per patient were examined, totalling 3 253 nodes. LN metastases were found in 41 patients (40%). SNs were detected in 83 of the 103 patients (80%). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastatic disease by SN biopsy (SNB) varied between LN stations, with average values of 67% and 90%, respectively. LN metastatic density (LNMD) had a significant prognostic impact; a value of ≥8% was significantly related to shorter survival. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) occurred in 65% of patients (n = 67) and was significantly associated with shorter cancer-specific survival (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that SNB is not a reliable technique for peri-operative localization of LN metastases during cystectomy for BCa; however, LNMD has a significant prognostic value in BCa and may be useful in the clinical context and in BCa oncological and surgical research. LVI was also found to be a prognostic factor.

  • 3.
    Duchek, Milos
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg and Perioperat Sci Urol and Androl, Umea, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Umea Univ Hosp, Ctr Oncol, S-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Mestad, Oddvar
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Surg Clin, Dept Urol, Stavanger, Norway.
    Hellstrom, Pekka
    Univ Cent Hosp, Dept Urol, Oulu, Finland.
    Hellsten, Sverker
    Univ Hosp, Dept Urol, Malmo, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Dept Urol, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Is Superior to a Combination of Epirubicin and Interferon-alpha 2b in the Intravesical Treatment of Patients with Stage T1 Urinary Bladder Cancer. A Prospective, Randomized, Nordic Study2010In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is regarded as the most effective bladder-sparing treatment for patients with high-grade T1 tumours and carcinoma in situ (CIS). The major problem with this therapy is the side-effects, making maintenance therapy difficult, even impossible, in a proportion of patients. Thus, alternative schedules and drugs have been proposed. Objective: To compare BCG to the combination of epirubicin and interferon-alpha 2b as adjuvant therapy of T1 tumours. Design, setting, and participants: This is a Nordic multicenter, prospective, randomised trial in patients with primary T1 G2-G3 bladder cancer. Initial transurethral resection (TUR) was followed by a second-look resection. Patients were randomised to receive either regimen, given as induction for 6 wk followed by maintenance therapy for 2 yr. Measurements: The drugs were compared with respect to time to recurrence and progression. Also, side-effects were documented. Results and limitations: A total of 250 patients were randomised. At the primary end point, 62% were disease free in the combination arm as opposed to 73% in the BCG arm (p = 0.065). At 24 mo, there was a significant difference in favour of the BCG-treated patients (p = 0.012) regarding recurrence, although there was no difference regarding progression. The subgroup analysis showed that the superiority of BCG was mainly in those with concomitant CIS. In a multivariate analysis of association with recurrence/progression status, significant variables for outcome were type of drug, tumour size, multiplicity, status at second-look resection, and grade. A corresponding analysis was performed separately in the two treatment arms. Tumour size was the only significant variable for BCG-treated patients, while multiplicity, status at second-look resection, and grade were significant for patients treated with the combination. Conclusions: For prophylaxis of recurrence, BCG was more effective than the combination. There were no differences regarding progression and adverse events between the two treatments.

  • 4.
    Gardmark, T.
    et al.
    Gårdmark, T., Department of Urology, Surgical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Wahlquist, R.
    Department of Urology, Surgical Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Wijkstrom, H.
    Wijkström, H., Department of Urology, Surgical Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, P.-U.
    Malmström, P.-U., Department of Urology, Surgical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Analysis of progression and survival after 10 years of a randomized prospective study comparing mitomycin-C and bacillus Calmette-Guérin in patients with high-risk bladder cancer2007In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 817-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To report the 10-year follow-up of a study randomizing between instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and mitomycin-C (MMC) for treating high-risk and not muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer to assess progression, the need for more aggressive treatment and survival (cancer-specific and overall), as many of the published studies comparing different treatments for disease that is not muscle-invasive have a short follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1987 and 1992, 261 patients were included, they had frequently recurring Ta/T1G1-G2, T1G3 or primary Tis-dysplasia. The patients were randomized to treatment with either 40 mg of MMC or 120 mg of BCG (Danish strain 1331) given weekly for 6 weeks, then monthly up to a year and finally every third month for a further year. The 250 evaluable patients were followed using hospital files and national registers on causes of death. RESULTS: The median follow-up for survivors was 123 months. The disease progressed in 58 (23%) of the patients, 34 in the MMC group and 24 in the BCG group (P = 0.26). Of the 140 patients who died, 68 were in the BCG and 72 in the MMC group (log-rank P = 0.98), most (95, 68%) died from other causes. CONCLUSION: Based on the follow-up of the present patients it cannot be concluded that the drugs originally administered, MMC or BCG, differed in their effect on progression, need for subsequent treatment or survival. © 2007 The Authors.

  • 5.
    Gudjonsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden .
    Blackberg, Mats
    Helsingborg County Hospital, Sweden .
    Chebil, Gunilla
    Helsingborg County Hospital, Sweden .
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Olsson, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Bendahl, Par-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mansson, Wiking
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden .
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden Vaxjo County Hospital, Sweden .
    The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS)2012In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 110, no 2B, p. E41-E45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known. PATIENTS AND METHODS Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS. RESULTS The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (greater than= 2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder mucosa showed sensitivity and specificity of 46% and 89%, respectively. CONCLUSION Traditional cold-cup biopsies are unreliable for detecting CIS in bladder mucosa and negative findings must be interpreted with caution.

  • 6.
    Hemdan, Tammer
    et al.
    University Hospital Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Umeå University Hospital, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Hellström, Pekka
    University Central Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
    Tasdemir, Ilker
    Central Hospital of Rogaland, Stavanger, Norway.
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    University Hospital Uppsala, Sweden.
    5-Year Outcome of a Randomized Prospective Study Comparing bacillus Calmette-Guerin with Epirubicin and Interferon-alpha 2b in Patients with T1 Bladder Cancer2014In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 191, no 5, p. 1244-1249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a multicenter, prospectively randomized study we evaluated the 5-year outcomes of bacillus Calmette-Guerin alone compared to a combination of epirubicin and interferon-alpha 2b in the treatment of patients with T1 bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Transurethral resection was followed by a second resection and bladder mapping. Stratification was for grade and carcinoma in situ. Followup entailed regular cystoscopy and cytology during the first 5 years. The end points assessed in this analysis were recurrence-free survival, time to treatment failure and progression, cancer specific survival and prognostic factors. Results: The study recruited 250 eligible patients. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 38% in the combination arm and 59% in the bacillus Calmette-Guerin arm (p = 0.001). The corresponding rates for the other end points were not significantly different, as free of progression 78% and 77%, treatment failure 75% and 75%, and cancer specific survival 90% and 92%, respectively. The type of treatment, tumor size and tumor status at second resection were independent variables associated with recurrence. Concomitant carcinoma in situ was not predictive of failure of bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy. An independent factor for treatment failure was remaining T1 stage at second resection. Conclusions: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin was more effective than the tested combination therapy. The currently recommended management with second resection and 3-week maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin entails a low risk of cancer specific death. More aggressive treatment in patients with infiltrative tumors at second resection might improve these results. In particular, concomitant carcinoma in situ was not a predictive factor for poor outcome after bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy.

  • 7.
    Hemdan, Tammer
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Segersten, Ulrika
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Emmprin expression predicts response and survival following cisplatin containing chemotherapy for bladder cancer: A validation study2015In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 194, no 6, p. 1575-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Neoadjuvant chemotherapy before cystectomy is recommended. To our knowledge the subset of patients likely to benefit has not been identified. We validate emmprin and survivin as markers of chemotherapy response. Materials and Methods Tumor specimens were obtained before therapy from a total of 250 patients with T1-T4 bladder cancer enrolled in 2 randomized trials comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy before cystectomy with a surgery only arm. Protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Expression was categorized according to predefined cutoffs reported in the literature. Data were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox models. Patients in the chemotherapy cohort with negative emmprin expression had significantly higher down staging overall survival than those with positive expression (71% vs 38%, p <0.001). The values for cancer specific survival were 76% and 56%, respectively (p <0.027). In the cystectomy only cohort emmprin expression was not associated with overall survival (46% vs 35%, p = 0.23) or cancer specific survival (55% vs 51%, p = 0.64). Emmprin negative patients had an absolute risk reduction of 25% in overall survival (95% CI 11-40) and a number needed to treat of 4 (95% CI 2.5-9.3). Survivin expression was not useful as a biomarker in this study. Limitations were the retrospective design and heterogeneity coupled with the time difference between the trials. Conclusions Patients with emmprin negative tumors have a better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy before cystectomy than those with positive expression. © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

  • 8.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Damm, Ole
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Urology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Hellsten, Sverker
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Holmang, Sten
    Gothenburg University Hospital.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Vaxjö County Hospital.
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Mansson, Wiking
    Lund University Hospital.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Wijkstom, Hans
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Urinary diversion after cystectomy for bladder cancer: A population-based study in Sweden2010In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY AND NEPHROLOGY, ISSN 0036-5599, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate the type of urinary diversion performed after cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer in Sweden, using data from a population-based national register. Material and methods. Since 1997, the Swedish Bladder Cancer Register has included more than 90% of all patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer. The different types of urinary diversion performed in 1997-2003 were analysed, comparing non-continent diversion (ileal conduit) with continent reconstruction (bladder substitution or continent cutaneous diversion). Results. During the study period, 3463 patients were registered with clinical T2-T4 non-metastatic bladder cancer. Cystectomy was performed in 1141 patients with ileal conduit in 732 (64%) and continent reconstruction in 409 (36%). Ileal conduit was used more frequently in females than males (p = 0.019), in patients older than 75 years (p andlt; 0.00001), and in those with less favourable TNM classification. Continent reconstruction was done more often at university hospitals than at county hospitals (p andlt; 0.00001), but rarely in the northern and western healthcare regions compared with other regions (p andlt; 0.00001). Nationwide, the proportion of registered continent reconstructions decreased, although the absolute number was relatively stable (50-60 per year). Conclusions. Continent reconstruction after cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is performed more often in some healthcare regions and in patients at university hospitals than in county hospitals, indicating a substantial provider influence on the choice of urinary diversion. Over time, the proportion of these procedures has decreased, while the absolute number has remained low and stable; therefore, concentration in high-volume hospitals specialized in bladder cancer and continent reconstruction seems appropriate.

  • 9.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Damm, Ole
    University Hospital, Malmö.
    Holmang, Sten
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Växjö County Hospital.
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    Akad University Hospital.
    Mansson, Wiking
    Lund University Hospital.
    Strömberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijkstom, Hans
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    A population-based study of patterns of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer in Sweden2009In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY AND NEPHROLOGY, ISSN 0036-5599, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 271-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To analyse the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in a population-based national register, and specifically to investigate the role of curative therapy (i.e. cystectomy or radiotherapy) in relation to patient, tumour and hospital characteristics. Material and methods. The Swedish Bladder Cancer Register covers more than 90% of all patients in the country who have been diagnosed with such disease since 1997. Results from 1997-2003 were analysed regarding curative-intent treatment given within 3-6 months of diagnosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Results. In total, 3463 patients with clinical T2-T4 bladder cancer were included in the analysis. Of those patients, 1426 (41%) received curative-intent treatment in the form of radiotherapy (285, 20%) or cystectomy (1141, 80%). Male gender, age 76 years, favourable TNM category and registration at a high-volume hospital were associated with such treatment. Curative-intent treatment was given to significantly more patients registered at high-volume hospitals (1003/2227, 45%) than at low-volume hospitals (423/1235, 34%) (2=37.7, p0.00001). Cystectomy was performed more often in those registered at high-volume than at low-volume hospitals (826/2227, 37%, and 316/1235, 26%, respectively, 2=47.3, p0.00001). Conclusions. Lower rates of curative-intent treatment were found in patients registered at low-volume than at high-volume facilities, and the same was seen when comparing females with males, and patients aged 76-80 years with younger patients. Since many of these bladder cancer patients were registered at and eventually treated at hospitals handling fewer than 10 such cases annually, it seems desirable to concentrate treatment of this disease at more specialized centres.

  • 10.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Hagberg, O
    University of Lund Hospital.
    Holmang, S
    Sahlgrens University.
    Liedberg, F
    Vaxjo County Hospital.
    Ljungberg, B
    No University Hospital, Umeå.
    U Malmstrom, P
    University of Uppsala Hospital.
    Wijkstrom, H
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Mansson, W
    Skåne University Hospital.
    Higher excess mortality rate in women than in men with invasive bladder cancer in EUROPEAN UROLOGY SUPPLEMENTS, vol 11, issue 1, pp E870-U8322012In: EUROPEAN UROLOGY SUPPLEMENTS, Elsevier , 2012, Vol. 11, no 1, p. E870-U832Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 11.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Holmang, D
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Liedberg, F
    Vaxjo Central Hospital.
    Ljungberg, B
    North University Hospital, Umea.
    Malmstrom, P U
    Acad University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Mansson, W
    University Hospital, Lund.
    Wijkstom, H
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    INITIAL BCG INSTILLATION IS UNDER-USED IN T1 BLADDER CANCER in EUROPEAN UROLOGY SUPPLEMENTS, vol 10, issue 2, pp 148-1482011In: EUROPEAN UROLOGY SUPPLEMENTS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS , 2011, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 148-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 12.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Holmang, S
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Liedberg, F
    Vaxjo Central Hospital.
    Ljungberg, B
    No University Hospital, Umea.
    Malmstrom, P U
    Acad University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Mansson, W
    University Lund Hospital.
    COMPLICATIONS AFTER CYSTECTOMY AND ILEAL CONDUIT FOR BLADDER CANCER IS MORE COMMON IN SMALL VOLUME HOSPITALS in EUROPEAN UROLOGY SUPPLEMENTS, vol 10, issue 2, pp 43-432011In: EUROPEAN UROLOGY SUPPLEMENTS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS , 2011, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 43-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 13.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Hosseini Aliabad, Abolfazl
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Holmang, Sten
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Jancke, Georg
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Northern University Hospital, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Center South East Sweden. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Swedish National Registry of Urinary Bladder Cancer: No difference in relative survival over time despite more aggressive treatment2016In: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 14-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to use the Swedish National Registry of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) to investigate changes in patient and tumour characteristics, management and survival in bladder cancer cases over a period of 15 years. Materials and methods. All patients with newly detected bladder cancer reported to the SNRUBC during 1997-2011 were included in the study. The cohort was divided into three groups, each representing 5 years of the 15 year study period. Results. The study included 31,266 patients (74% men, 26% women) with a mean age of 72 years. Mean age was 71.7 years in the first subperiod (1997-2001) and 72.5 years in the last subperiod (2007-2011). Clinical T categorization changed from the first to the last subperiod: Ta from 45% to 48%, T1 from 21.6% to 22.4%, and T2-T4 from 27% to 25%. Also from the first to the last subperiod, intravesical treatment after transurethral resection for T1G2 and T1G3 tumours increased from 15% to 40% and from 30% to 50%, respectively, and cystectomy for T2-T4 tumours increased from 30% to 40%. No differences between the analysed subperiods were found regarding relative survival in patients with T1 or T2-T4 tumours, or in the whole cohort. Conclusions. This investigation based on a national bladder cancer registry showed that the age of the patients at diagnosis increased, and the proportion of muscle-invasive tumours decreased. The treatment of all tumour stages became more aggressive but relative survival showed no statistically significant change over time.

  • 14.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Sandblom, Dag
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Holmang, Sten
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    A Randomized Trial Comparing 2 Doses of Polidocanol Sclerotherapy for Hydrocele or Spermatocele2011In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 186, no 4, p. 1319-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydrocele or spermatocele combines high efficiency with low morbidity, but the optimal dose is not known. We compared the efficacy and morbidity of 2 or 4 ml polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydrocele or spermatocele. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMaterials and Methods: From 1993 to 2005 a double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted using 2 or 4 ml polidocanol (30 mg/ml) for sclerotherapy of hydrocele/spermatocele in 224 evaluable patients at 3 university hospitals. Fluid was evacuated and 2 or 4 ml polidocanol was administered by a nurse, with the amount injected concealed from others present. At 3-month followup morbidity was ascertained using a questionnaire completed by the patients. Fluid recurrence was determined clinically and generally re-treated. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: After the first treatment, cure was observed in 59% and 47% in the 4 and the 2 ml group, respectively (p = 0.04). More patients in the 4 ml group had complications (31% vs 18%, p = 0.04). Complications were mostly of low or moderate intensity and seldom required medication. After 1 to 4 treatments 200 of 224 patients (89%) were cured and another 10 (5%) had small amounts of residual fluid, with no difference between the groups. Of the patients with hydroceles/spermatoceles larger than 175 ml, 58% and 34% were cured after the first treatment in the 4 and 2 ml groups, respectively (p = 0.012), with no differences in complications between the groups. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Polidocanol sclerotherapy was effective for the treatment of hydrocele or spermatocele in our patients, with 94% satisfactory results after 1 to 4 treatments. A dose of 4 ml was superior to 2 ml, particularly for larger hydroceles/spermatoceles.

  • 15.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Wiklund, Fredrik
    Duchek, Milos
    Mestad, Oddvar
    Rintala, Erkki
    Hellsten, Sverker
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    Results of second-look resection after primary resection of T1 tumour of the urinary bladder2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 206-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To study residual tumours at second-look resection in patients resected 4-8 weeks earlier for T1 tumours of the urinary bladder. Material and methods. All patients randomized in the ongoing Nordic T1G2-G3 Bladder Sparing Study with monitored data available were included in the study. Data on residual tumours at second-look resection were compared to basic patient and tumour characteristics. Results. There were 72 patients (56%) without and 57 with residual exophytic tumours. In the former group, 20 patients (28%) had carcinoma in situ, compared to 19 (33%) in the latter group. Potentially dangerous tumours (either carcinoma in situ, T1 or Ta grade 3) were observed in 55 patients (43%). Multiple tumours at primary resection were more prone to residual tumour at second-look resection than single tumours. No other tumour or patient characteristics could predict the occurrence of a residual tumour. Conclusions. Residual tumours are frequently observed at second-look resection 4-8 weeks after primary resection of T1 tumours. The majority of residual tumours detected at this stage are potentially dangerous, therefore, early second-look resection followed by intravesical instillation therapy is mandatory in patients with T1 tumours of the urinary bladder. © 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  • 16.
    Jancke, Georg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Damm, Ole
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Risk factors for local recurrence in patients with pTa/pT1 urinary bladder cancer2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 417-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. This study evaluated risk factors for local tumour recurrence, defined as recurrence at the same location in the bladder within 18 months after primary resection in patients with newly diagnosed pTa or pT1 bladder cancer. Patients and methods. The study included 472 patients with newly diagnosed pTa/T1 bladder cancer between 1992 and 2001. The patients were followed prospectively in accordance with a control programme and possible risk factors for tumour recurrence were registered. Results. Local tumour recurrence was observed in 164 (35%) patients, another 117 (25%) patients had recurrence at other locations in the bladder (non-local recurrence) and 191 (40%) had no recurrence at all. Tumour size and multiple tumours were significantly associated with a higher risk for developing local recurrence as opposed to non-local recurrence. Tumour category was of borderline statistical significance. Gender and tumour grade were not found to be risk factors for developing local recurrence. Conclusion. Tumour size and multiplicity are risk factors for development of recurrence at the same location in the bladder as the primary tumour. Local tumour recurrence may be a result of non-radical primary transurethral resection. One may consider recommending standard re-resection within 6-8 weeks in patients with tumours >3 cm or those with multiple primary tumours. © 2008 Informa UK Ltd. (Informa Healthcare, Taylor & Francis AS).

  • 17.
    Jancke, Georg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Centre.
    Chebil, Gunilla
    County Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Bladder Wash Cytology at Diagnosis of Ta-T1 Bladder Cancer Is Predictive for Recurrence and Progression2012In: Urology, ISSN 0090-4295, E-ISSN 1527-9995, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 625-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of the bladder wash cytology finding at the primary diagnosis of Stage Ta-T1 urinary bladder cancer on recurrence and progression. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS The clinical and pathologic characteristics of all patients with primary Stage Ta-T1 urinary bladder cancer were prospectively registered. The data were divided according to the bladder wash cytology results at diagnosis. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the influence of bladder wash cytology on recurrence and progression. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS The analysis included 768 evaluable patients with a mean follow-up of 60 months. Recurrence was observed in 478 patients (62%) and progression in 71 (9%). High-grade malignant bladder wash cytology was predictive for recurrence and progression (P andlt; .001 and P = .036, respectively). Other factors affecting recurrence were missing bladder wash cytology data, tumors size 16-30 mm and andgt;30 mm, Stage T1 tumor category, and multiplicity (P = .008, P = .006, P andlt; .001, P = .002, and P andlt; .001, respectively). Progression was also associated with T1 tumor category, local recurrence, and primary concomitant carcinoma in situ (P andlt; .001, P andlt; .001, and P = .024, respectively). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSION High-grade malignant bladder wash cytology at the primary diagnosis was predictive for recurrence and progression. This could be taken into account in designing future follow-up schedules.

  • 18.
    Jancke, Georg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Center South East Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Impact of surgical experience on recurrence and progression after transurethral resection of bladder tumour in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer2014In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, ISSN 2168-1805, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 276-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: To evaluate the impact of experience in transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT) on recurrence and progression in primary Ta/T1 urinary bladder cancer.

    Methods: Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with primary Ta/T1 urinary bladder cancer were recorded prospectively from 1992 to 2007 inclusive. Data on surgeons’ experience were categorized as follows: (a) experience by training status (residents or specialists); (b) number of TUR-BTs performed by each surgeon during the registration period, with cut-off levels at > 100, > 150, > 200, > median, and > third quartile of surgical volume; (c) lifetime high-volume surgeons (> 100 TUR-BTs). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in both univariate and multivariate analysis.

    Results: The analysis included 768 evaluable patients with a median follow-up of 60 months. Recurrence was observed in 478 patients (62%) and progression in 71 (9%). Surgery was performed by residents in 100 cases and specialists in 668, with recurrence in 75 (75%) and 403 (60%) patients, and progression in 9 (9%) and 62 (9%), respectively. Surgery performed by residents was statistically associated with recurrence (HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54-0.89) but not progression (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.35-1.48). Surgical volume (b and c) was not found to have a significant impact on recurrence or progression in any of the analyses at the chosen cut-offs.

    Conclusions: Surgical experience (specialist/resident) was a predictive factor for recurrence after TUR-BT for Ta/T1 bladder cancer. However, surgeon volume was not associated with recurrence at the chosen cut-off levels. Training programs, checklist

  • 19.
    Jancke, Georg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Impact of tumour size on recurrence and progression in Ta/T1 carcinoma of the urinary bladder2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 388-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of tumour size on recurrence and progression in a population-based series of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers. Material and methods. Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with primary Ta/bladder cancer were registered. The patients tumours were categorized by size into five size groups (1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40 and andgt;40 mm) or three size groups (1-15, 16-30 and andgt;30 mm). Results. The analysis included 768 evaluable patients with a mean follow-up of 60 months. Recurrence was observed in 478 patients (62%) and progression in 71 (9%). Tumour size was associated with recurrence for tumours sized 21-30, 31-40 and andgt;40 mm (p = 0.03, p andlt; 0.001, p andlt; 0.001, respectively) in the five size group and for tumours sized 16-30 and andgt;30 mm (p = 0.003 and p andlt; 0.001) in the three size group. Other factors affecting recurrence were T1 tumour category, multiplicity and surgery performed by residents (p andlt; 0.001, p andlt; 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). Considering progression, there was no significant association with tumour size, and T1 category and local recurrence were the only significant risk factors (both p andlt; 0.001). Conclusion. Tumour size andlt;= 15 mm is associated with a lower risk of recurrence but not progression. Dividing tumour size into three size groups gives additional information compared with two size groups with cut-off at 30 mm.

  • 20.
    Jancke, Georg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Centre.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Residual tumour in the marginal resection after a complete transurethral resection is associated with local recurrence in Ta/T1 urinary bladder cancer2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 343-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. This study investigated the presence of residual tumour in the marginal resection (MR) after a complete transurethral resection (TURB) of Ta/T1 transitional urinary bladder cancer. The association between positive MR and recurrence was analysed. Material and methods. After macroscopically complete TURB, a marginal resection of 7 mm (corresponding to the diameter of the resection loop) was removed around the entire resection area. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of residual disease on recurrence. Results. In all, 94 patients with a median follow-up time of 36 months were included, and residual tumour in the MR was present in 24 (26%). The recurrence rates for all cases, for those with a tumour-positive and a tumour-free MR were 60 (64%), 20 (83%) and 40 (57%), respectively. Local recurrence was found in 14 (58%) of the patients with tumour presence in the MR compared to 13 (19%) of those with a tumour-free margin. A positive MR was significantly associated with overall recurrence (p andlt; 0.001) and local recurrence (p = 0.001). Conclusion. Incomplete transurethral resection of bladder cancer is common, as demonstrated in 26% patients with positive MR. The presence of tumour in the MR may be a risk factor for recurrence, and particularly local recurrence.

  • 21.
    Jancke, Georg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Center South East Sweden. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Tumour location adjacent to the ureteric orifice in primary Ta/T1 bladder cancer is predictive of recurrence2016In: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate tumour growth located around the ureteric orifice (LUO) at primary diagnosis of Ta/T1 urinary bladder cancer in relation to effects on recurrence and progression. Materials and methods: Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with primary Ta/T1 urinary bladder cancer from 1992 to 2007 were recorded prospectively. Location of the primary tumour and growth around the ureteric orifice (within 1 cm) were recorded and correlated with recurrence and progression during further follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The study included 768 evaluable patients with a median follow-up of 60 months. Recurrence was observed in 478 patients (62%) and progression in 71 (9%). Growth of a primary tumour adjacent to the ureteric orifice was associated with recurrence (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.07-1.54) but not progression (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.65-1.67). The most common location of the first recurrence was the posterior bladder wall (29%). Other locations in the bladder did not predict recurrence or progression. Additional factors affecting recurrence were tumour size greater than 15mm, T1 tumour category, multiplicity, malignant or missing/not representative bladder wash cytology and surgery performed by residents. Conclusions: A primary tumour located around the ureteric orifice was predictive of recurrence, which could be taken into account in future follow-up schedules.

  • 22.
    Jerlstrom, Tomas
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden .
    Gardmark, Truls
    Danderyd Hospital, Sweden .
    Carringer, Malcolm
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden .
    Holmang, Sten
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden .
    Hosseini, Abolfazl
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Norrlands University Hospital, Sweden .
    Hagberg, Oskar
    Regional Cancer Centre South, Lund, Sweden .
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Urinary bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy: Perioperative parameters and early complications prospectively registered in a national population-based database2014In: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 334-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Cystectomy combined with pelvic lymph-node dissection and urinary diversion entails high morbidity and mortality. Improvements are needed, and a first step is to collect information on the current situation. In 2011, this group took the initiative to start a population-based database in Sweden (population 9.5 million in 2011) with prospective registration of patients and complications until 90 days after cystectomy. This article reports findings from the first year of registration. Material and methods. Participation was voluntary, and data were reported by local urologists or research nurses. Perioperative parameters and early complications classified according to the modified Clavien system were registered, and selected variables of possible importance for complications were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results. During 2011, 285 (65%) of 435 cystectomies performed in Sweden were registered in the database, the majority reported by the seven academic centres. Median blood loss was 1000 ml, operating time 318 min, and length of hospital stay 15 days. Any complications were registered for 103 patients (36%). Clavien grades 1-2 and 3-5 were noted in 19% and 15%, respectively. Thirty-seven patients (13%) were reoperated on at least once. In logistic regression analysis elevated risk of complications was significantly associated with operating time exceeding 318 min in both univariate and multivariate analysis, and with age 76-89 years only in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. It was feasible to start a national population-based registry of radical cystectomies for bladder cancer. The evaluation of the first year shows an increased risk of complications in patients with longer operating time and higher age. The results agree with some previously published series but should be interpreted with caution considering the relatively low coverage, which is expected to be higher in the future.

  • 23. Liedberg, F
    et al.
    Andersson, H
    Bläckberg, M
    Chebil, G
    Davidsson, T
    Gudjonsson, S
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Månsson, W
    Prospective study of transitional cell carcinoma in the prostatic urethra and prostate in the cystoprostatectomy specimen2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 290-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To prospectively evaluate the incidence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the prostatic urethra and prostate in the cystoprostatectomy specimen, investigate characteristics of bladder tumours in relation to the risk of involvement of the prostatic urethra and prostate and examine the sensitivity of preoperative loop biopsies from the prostatic urethra. Material and methods. Preoperatively, patients were investigated with cold cup biopsies from the bladder and transurethral loop biopsies from the bladder neck to the verumontanum. The prostate and bladder neck were submitted to sagittal whole-mount pathological analysis. Results. The incidence of TCC in the prostatic urethra and prostate in the cystoprostatectomy specimen was 29% (50/175 patients). Age, previous bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment, carcinoma in situ (Cis) in the cold cup mapping biopsies and tumour grade were not associated with the risk of TCC in the prostatic urethra/prostate. Cis, multifocal Cis (≥2 locations) and tumour location in the trigone were significantly more common in cystectomy specimens with TCC in the prostatic urethra and prostate: 21/50 (42%) vs 32/125 (26%), p=0.045, 20/50 (40%) vs 27/125 (22%), p=0.023, and 20/50 (40%) vs 26/125 (21%), p=0.01, respectively. Preoperative resectional biopsies from the prostatic urethra in the 154 patients analysed identified 31/47 (66%) of patients with TCC in the prostatic urethra/prostate, with a specificity of 89%. The detection of stromal-invasive and non-stromal involvement was similar: 66% and 65%, respectively. Conclusions. The incidence of TCC in the prostatic urethra and prostate was 29% (50/175) in the cystoprostatectomy specimen. Preoperative biopsies from the prostatic urethra identified 66% of patients with such tumour growth. Our findings suggest that preoperative cold cup mapping biopsies of the bladder for detection of Cis add little extra information with regard to the risk of TCC in the prostatic urethra and prostate.

  • 24.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Oskar
    Regional Cancer Centre South, Sweden.
    Holmang, Sten
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hosseini Aliabad, Abolfazl
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Jancke, Georg
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Norrland University Hospital, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    Uppsala Akad Hospital, Sweden.
    Aberg, Hanna
    Regional Cancer Centre South, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland. Regional Cancer Centre South, Sweden.
    Local recurrence and progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in Sweden: a population-based follow-up study2015In: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 290-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate recurrence and progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in a large population-based setting. Materials and methods. Patients with bladder cancer (stage Ta, T1 or carcinoma in situ) diagnosed in 2004-2007 (n = 5839) in Sweden were investigated 5 years after diagnosis using a questionnaire. Differences in time to recurrence and progression were analysed in relation to age, gender, tumour stage and grade, intravesical treatment, healthcare region, and hospital volume of NMIBC patients (stratified in three equally large groups). Results. Local bladder recurrence and progression occurred in 50 and 9% of the patients, respectively. The rate of local recurrence was 56% in the southern healthcare region compared to 37% in the northern region. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, gender, tumour stage and grade, intravesical treatment, healthcare region and hospital volume, showed that recurrence was associated with TaG2 and T1 disease, no intravesical treatment and treatment in the southern healthcare region, but indicated a lower risk of recurrence in the northern healthcare region. Adjusting for the same factors in a multivariate analysis suggested that increased relative risk of progression correlated with older age, higher tumour stage and grade, and diagnosis in the Uppsala/Orebro healthcare region, whereas such risk was decreased by intravesical treatment (relative risk 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.93, p = 0.012). Conclusions. The incidence of NMIBC recurrence and progression was found to be high in Sweden, and important disparities in outcome related to care patterns appear to exist between different healthcare regions.

  • 25.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Vaxjo County Hospital.
    Holmberg, Erik
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Holmang, Sten
    Department Surg and Perioperat Science, Umeå.
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Akad University Hospital.
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    University of Lund Hospital.
    Mansson, Wiking
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Nunez, Leyla
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Wessman, Catrin
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Wijkstrom, Hans
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Long-term follow-up after radical cystectomy with emphasis on complications and reoperations: A Swedish population-based survey2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 14-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate outcome after radical cystectomy for primary bladder cancer in a large population-based material. Material and methods. Between 1997 and 2002 all patients treated with radical cystectomy within 3 months after diagnosis of primary bladder cancer without distant metastasis were retrieved through the Swedish Bladder Cancer Registry. A follow-up questionnaire was distributed to all units where the primary registration of patients was performed. Follow-up data on recurrence date were retrieved from the patient charts and causes of death were obtained from the Swedish Cause of Death Registry until 2003. Results. During the study period radical cystectomy was performed in 39 units in Sweden, of which only five units were considered high-volume hospitals performing 10 or more procedures annually. Mean blood loss was 2300 ml (median 2000 ml) and the 90-day mortality rate was 5.7%. Blood loss was higher in high-volume units than in hospitals with lower hospital volumes, but the 90-day mortality rates were similar. During a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 24% of the patients were submitted to a reoperation. Reoperation rates were significantly higher in patients who received a continent urinary diversion (29%) compared with an ileal conduit (22%, p andlt; 0.015). Conclusions. Radical cystectomy was associated with a reoperation rate of 24% in Sweden during the study period. The reoperation rates were higher in patients receiving a continent cutaneous diversion or bladder substitution. Blood loss was higher in high-volume units; otherwise, surgical volume did not affect mortality rates, cancer-specific survival or reoperation rates.

  • 26.
    Olsson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Fyhr, Ing-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    HER2 status in primary stage T1 urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 102-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The HER2 receptor is involved in pathways essential for cell proliferation, and is an important predictive and prognostic factor in breast cancer. HER2 probably plays a critical role in many types of cancer, including urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). Stage T1 UCB exhibits heterogeneous clinical behaviour, and the frequency of HER2 expression in such disease has not been thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to use an immunohistochemical technique to evaluate the frequency of HER2 expression in a defined population-based cohort of patients registered as having primary stage T1 UCB. Material and methods. The initial study population comprised 285 patients registered as having primary stage T1 UCB. The original histological specimens were re-evaluated with regard to T stage and World Health Organization grade. Hospital records provided information on tumour size, multiplicity, possible presence of histologically proven recurrence and progression. The patients were followed for at least 5 years or until death. In tumours still considered stage T1 after re-evaluation, HER2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded material and scored according to the guidelines used in breast cancer. Results. After histopathological re-evaluation, 201 patients were still T1 UCB and could be investigated regarding HER2 expression. HER2 overexpression was observed in 25 of those patients (12.4%). HER2 status was not significantly associated with recurrence or progression. Conclusions. HER2 was overexpressed in 12.4% of the present cohort of patients with primary stage T1 UCB. There was no significant association between tumour HER2 status and prognosis.

  • 27.
    Olsson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Monsef, Nastaran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Center South East Sweden.
    Johanson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Urology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Cell Cycle Regulators: Impact on Predicting Prognosis in Stage T1 Urinary Bladder Cancer2012In: ISRN Urology, ISSN 2090-5807, E-ISSN 2090-5815, Vol. 2012, article id 379081Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective. The cell cycle is regulated by proteins at different checkpoints, and dysregulation of this cycle plays a role in carcinogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that degrade collagen and promote tumour infiltration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of various cell cycle regulators and MMPs, and to correlate such expression with progression and recurrence in patients with stage T1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB).

    Patients and Methods. This population-based cohort study comprised 201 well-characterized patients with primary stage T1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed material to quantify expression of cell cycle regulators and two MMPs.

    Results. Normal expression of p53 and abnormal expression of MMP9 were associated with greater risk of tumour recurrence. Also, normal p16 expression was related to a lower risk of tumour progression. MMP2, p21, cyclin D1, and pRb showed no significant results that could estimate progression or recurrence.

    Conclusions. Normal p16 expression is associated with a lower risk of tumour progression, but immunohistochemistry on cell cycle regulators and MMPs has little value in predicting the prognosis in stage T1 UCB.

  • 28.
    Olsson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Center South East Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Population-based study on prognostic factors for recurrence and progression in primary stage T1 bladder tumours2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 188-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Stage T1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) exhibits heterogeneous clinical behaviour, and the treatment is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors for UCB in a defined, population-based cohort comprising patients with a first time diagnosis of primary stage T1 UCB.

    Material and methods. The study population initially consisted of 285 patients with primary stage T1 UCB reported to the regional Bladder Cancer Registry in the Southeast Healthcare Region of Sweden from 1992 to 2001. The histological specimens were re-evaluated concerning stage, substaging of T1, World Health Organization (WHO) grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), tumour volume and total resected volume. Hospital records provided data on tumour size and multiplicity, occurrence of possible relapse and/or progression, death from UCB and whether treatment was given.

    Results. After re-evaluation, the study population comprised 211 patients. The median follow-up time was 60 months. LVI was a prognostic factor for UCB progression and recurrence. Tumour size larger than 30 mm and multiplicity increased the risk of recurrence. T1 substaging, tumour volume and total resected volume were not associated with recurrence or tumour progression.

    Conclusions. LVI is significantly correlated with progression and recurrence in patients with primary stage T1 UCB. Therefore, the presence of LVI should be evaluated in every new case of T1 UCB.

  • 29.
    Olsson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Centre.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    MDM2 SNP309 promoter polymorphism and p53 mutations in urinary bladder carcinoma stage T12013In: BMC Urology, ISSN 1471-2490, E-ISSN 1471-2490, Vol. 13, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Urinary bladder carcinoma stage T1 is an unpredictable disease that in some cases has a good prognosis with only local or no recurrence, but in others can appear as a more aggressive tumor with progression to more advanced stages. The aim here was to investigate stage T1 tumors regarding MDM2 promoter SNP309 polymorphism, mutations in the p53 gene, and expression of p53 and p16 measured by immunohistochemistry, and subsequently relate these changes to tumor recurrence and progression. We examined a cohort of patients with primary stage T1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and their tumors.

    Methods: After re-evaluation of the original slides and exclusions, the study population comprised 141 patients, all with primary stage T1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The hospital records were screened for clinical parameters and information concerning presence of histologically proven recurrence and progression. The paraffin-embedded tumor material was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Any mutations found in the p53 gene were studied by single-strand conformation analysis and Sanger sequencing. The MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism was investigated by pyrosequencing. Multivariate analyses concerning association with prognosis were performed, and Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted for a combination of changes and time to progression.

    Results: Of the 141 patients, 82 had at least one MDM2 SNP309 G allele, and 53 had a mutation in the p53 gene, but neither of those anomalies was associated with a worse prognosis. A mutation in the p53 gene was associated with immunohistochemically visualized p53 protein expression at a cut-off value of 50%. In the group with p53 mutation Kaplan-Meier analysis showed higher rate of progression and shorter time to progression in patients with immunohistochemically abnormal p16 expression compared to them with normal p16 expression (p = 0.038).

    Conclusions: MDM2 SNP309 promoter polymorphism and mutations in p53 were not associated with worse prognosis in this cohort of patients with primary stage T1 urinary bladder carcinoma. However, patients with abnormal p16 expression and a mutated p53 gene had a higher rate of and a shorter time to progression, and p53 gene mutation was associated with an abnormal immunohistochemistry for p53 at a cut-off of 50%.

  • 30.
    Patschan, Oliver
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Holmang, Sten
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hosseini, Abolfazl
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Northern University Hospital, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    Akad University Hospital, Sweden.
    Rosell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Regional Cancer Center South East Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Use of bacillus Calmette-Guerin in stage T1 bladder cancer: Long-term observation of a population-based cohort2015In: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 127-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the rate of use of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) at a population-based level, and the overall mortality and bladder cancer mortality due to stage T1 bladder cancer in a national, population-based register. Materials and methods. In total, 3758 patients with primary stage T1 bladder cancer, registered in the Swedish Bladder Cancer Register between 1997 and 2006, were included. Age, gender, tumour grade and primary treatment in the first 3-6 months were registered. High-volume hospitals registered 10 or more T1 tumours per year. Date and cause of death were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare Cause of Death Register. Results. BCG was given to 896 patients (24%). The use of BCG increased from 18% between 1997 and 2000, to 24% between 2001 and 2003, and to 31% between 2004 and 2006. BCG was given more often to patients with G3 tumours, patients younger than 75 years and patients attending high-volume hospitals. BCG treatment, grade 2 tumours and patient age younger than 75 years were associated with lower mortality due to bladder cancer. Hospital volume, gender and year of diagnosis were not related to bladder cancer mortality. However, selection factors might have affected the results since comorbidity, number of tumours and tumour size were unknown. Conclusions. Intravesical BCG is underused at a population-based level in stage T1 bladder cancer in Sweden, particularly in patients 75 years or older, and in those treated at low-volume hospitals. BCG should be offered more frequently to patients with stage T1 bladder cancer in Sweden.

  • 31.
    Sabir, Emad F.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Urology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmang, Sten
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden .
    Mansson, Wiking
    SUS, Sweden .
    Wijkstrom, Hans
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Impact of hospital volume on local recurrence and distant metastasis in bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy in Sweden2013In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, ISSN 2168-1805, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 483-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. This study evaluated the impact of hospital volume on local recurrence and distant metastasis in a population-based series of radical cystectomy patients in Sweden. Material and methods. All patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer in 1997-2002 in Sweden and were reported to the National Bladder Cancer Registry were included. A high-volume hospital (HVH) was defined as one with greater than= 10 cystectomies/year and a low-volume hospital (LVH) as one with less than10 cystectomies/year. Information on preoperative tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) classification, operative procedure, postoperative course and follow-up was obtained from medical records. Results. Of the 1126 patients, 827 (74%) were males. The mean age was 66 years and median follow-up 47 months. Of the 610 (54%) HVH patients, 68 (11%) were pT0, 123 (20%) less thanpT2, 177 (29%) pT2, 242 (40%) greater thanpT2 and 69 (11%) were microscopic non-radical. Corresponding figures for the 516 (46%) LVH patients were 35 (7%), 68 (13%), 191 (37%), 222 (43%) and 96 (19%). Local recurrence was observed in 245 patients (22%): 113 (19%) at HVHs and 132 (26%) at LVHs. Distant metastasis was found in 363 (32%): 203 (33%) at HVHs and 160 (31%) at LVHs. Perioperative chemotherapy was given to 193 (17%). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that local recurrence was associated with LVHs and non-organ-confined disease, whereas distant metastasis was correlated with non-organ-confined disease and lymph-node metastases. Conclusions. In this retrospective analysis, local tumour recurrence after cystectomy was common, particularly in patients with non-organ-confined disease. Furthermore, local recurrence was more frequent at LVHs than HVHs, and overall survival was better at HVHs. These findings suggest that concentrating cystectomies in HVHs may improve outcomes such as local recurrence and overall survival.

  • 32.
    Thorstenson, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, Capio St Göran’s Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Oskar
    Regional Cancer Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden;.
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Department of Urology, SUS, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jancke, Georg
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Holmäng, Sten
    Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    Department of Urology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hosseini, Abolfazl
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Gender-related differences in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a population-based study from the Swedish National Registry of Urinary Bladder Cancer2016In: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 292-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractObjective: The aim of this investigation was to describe tumour characteristics, treatments and survival in patients with urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in a national population-based cohort, with special reference to gender-related differences. Material and methods: All primary UBC patients with urothelial pathology reported to the Swedish National Registry of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) from 1997 to 2011 were included in the study. Groups were compared regarding tumour, node, metastasis classification, primary treatment and survival. Results: In total, 30,310 patients (74.9% male, 25.1% female) with UBC were analysed. A larger proportion of women than men had stage T2?T4 (p?<?0.001), and women also had more G1 tumours (p?<?0.001). However, compared to women, a larger proportion of men with carcinoma in situ or T1G3 received intravesical treatment with bacillus Calmette?Guérin or intravesical chemotherapy, and a larger proportion of men with stage T2?T4 underwent radical cystectomy (38% men vs 33% women, p?<?0.0001). The cancer-specific survival at 5 years was 77% for men and 72% for women (p?<?0.001), and the relative survival at 5 years was 72% for men and 69% for women (p?<?0.001). Conclusions: In this population-based cohort comprising virtually all patients diagnosed with UBC in Sweden between 1997 and 2011, female gender was associated with inferior cancer-specific and relative survival. Although women had a higher rate of aggressive tumours, a smaller proportion of women than men received optimal treatment.

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