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  • 1.
    Almroth, Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Internmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Ekermo, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Månsson, Ann-Sofie
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Widell, Anders
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Monitoring hepatitis C infection in a major Swedish nephrology unit and molecular resolution of a new case of nosocomial transmission.2010Inngår i: Journal of medical virology, ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 249-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a frequent problem in hemodialysis units. The prevalence and incidence of HCV infection over a decade were studied in a nephrology unit affected by previous nosocomial HCV transmission. The HCV non-structural 5B protein gene was sequenced to achieve phylogenetic analysis of a new (incident) case of infection. Proportions of patients who were and were not infected with HCV remained similar over the period, as did the inflow and outflow of patients infected previously. In 1997, 12/157 (8%) of patients at the unit (treatment: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplant recipients) were positive in HCV RNA, whereas in 2007 the overall number was 9/239 (4%). One patient acquired an HCV infection, and the NS5B sequence in that case clustered with genotype 2b sequences found in patients from an earlier outbreak. Comparing the HCV from the incident patient with several stored longitudinal samples and cloned PCR products from the most likely source patient revealed close phylogenetic relationship with an HCV quasispecies member from the possible source. The source patient and the incident newly infected patient were not scheduled on the same dialysis shift, although the records showed that simultaneous treatment occurred on two occasions during the months preceding transmission. In conclusion, over the 10-year period, the proportion of HCV-infected patients at the unit was unchanged. Only one new infection occurred, which originated from a fellow patient's quasispecies. This establishes phylogenetic analysis as a valuable tool for tracing patient sources of HCV transmission.

  • 2.
    Cardell, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Widell, A
    Department of Medical Microbiology Lund University.
    Frydén, Aril
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Månsson, A-S
    Department of Medical Microbiology Lund University.
    FranzÉn, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Thoraxkirurgi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Lymer, U-B
    Department of Natural Sciences and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences Jönköping University.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Nosocomial hepatitis C in a thoracic surgery unit, retrospective findings generating a prospective study2008Inngår i: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 322-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to two patients from a thoracic surgeon who was unaware of his hepatitis C infection. By partial sequencing of the non-structural 5B gene and phylogenetic analysis, the viruses from both patients were found to be closely related to genotype 1a strain from the surgeon. Two further hepatitis C cases were found in relation to the thoracic clinic. Their HCV sequences were related to each other but were of genotype 2b and the source of infection was never revealed. To elucidate the magnitude of the problem, we conducted a prospective study for a period of 17 months in which patients who were about to undergo thoracic surgery were asked to participate. Blood samples were drawn prior to surgery and at least four months later. The postoperative samples were then screened for anti-HCV and, if positive, the initial sample was also analysed. The only two patients (0.4%) identified were confirmed anti-HCV positive before surgery, and none out of 456 evaluable cases seroconverted to anti-HCV during the observation period. Despite the retrospectively identified cases, nosocomial hepatitis C is rare in our thoracic unit. The study points out the risk of transmission of hepatitis C from infected personnel and reiterates the need for universal precautions. © 2008 The Hospital Infection Society.

  • 3.
    Cardell, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Sällberg, Matti
    Division of Clinical Virology, Karolinska Institute at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Frydén, Aril
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Infektionskliniken US.
    Excellent response rate to a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in previous nonresponders to hepatitis B vaccine2008Inngår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 198, nr 3, s. 299-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine has been shown to be highly efficient in preventing hepatitis B. However, 5%-10% of individuals fail to develop protective levels (>or=10 mIU/mL) of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and are considered to be nonresponders.

    METHODS: A total of 48 nonresponders and 20 subjects naive to the HBV vaccine received a double dose of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The levels of anti-HBs and antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) were determined before vaccination and 1 month after each dose.

    RESULTS: Among 44 nonresponders, protective anti-HBs levels were found in 26 (59%) after the first dose and in 42 (95%) after the third dose. Among the control subjects, the corresponding figures were 10% and 100%, respectively. All subjects seroconverted to anti-HAV. The titers of both anti-HBs and anti-HAV were lower in the previously nonresponsive subjects (P< .01).

    CONCLUSION: Revaccination of nonresponders to the standard hepatitis B vaccine regimen with a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was highly effective. This is most likely explained by the increased dose, a positive bystander effect conferred by the hepatitis A vaccine, or both.

  • 4.
    Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Utvärdering och hälsoekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ekermo, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Gaines, Hans
    Lesko, Birgitta
    Akerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    The cost-effectiveness of introducing nucleic acid testing to test for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Sweden2011Inngår i: TRANSFUSION, ISSN 0041-1132, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 421-429Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using individual-donor nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) in addition to serologic tests compared with the sole use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors in Sweden. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The two strategies analyzed were serologic tests and ID-NAT plus serologic tests. A health-economic model was used to estimate the lifetime costs and effects. The effects were measured as infections avoided and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. A societal perspective was used. RESULTS: The largest number of viral transmissions occurred with serologic testing only. However, the risks for viral transmissions were very low with both strategies. The total cost was mainly influenced by the cost of the test carried out. The cost of using ID-NAT plus serologic tests compared to serologic tests alone was estimated at Swedish Krona (SEK) 101 million (USD 12.7 million) per avoided viral transmission. The cost per QALY gained was SEK 22 million (USD 2.7 million). CONCLUSION: Using ID-NAT for testing against HBV, HCV, and HIV among blood donors leads to cost-effectiveness ratios that are far beyond what is usually considered cost-effective. The main reason for this is that with current methods, the risks for virus transmission are very low in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Falkeborn, Tina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Brave, Andreas
    Swedish Institute Communicable Disease Control SMI, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Schroder, Ulf
    Eurocine Vaccines AB, Sweden.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Endocine™, N3OA and N3OASq; Three Mucosal Adjuvants That Enhance the Immune Response to Nasal Influenza Vaccination2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Annual outbreaks of seasonal influenza are controlled or prevented through vaccination in many countries. The seasonal vaccines used are either inactivated, currently administered parenterally, or live-attenuated given intranasally. In this study three mucosal adjuvants were examined for the influence on the humoral (mucosal and systemic) and cellular influenza A-specific immune responses induced by a nasally administered vaccine. We investigated in detail how the anionic Endocine™ and the cationic adjuvants N3OA and N3OASq mixed with a split inactivated influenza vaccine induced influenza A-specific immune responses as compared to the vaccine alone after intranasal immunization. The study showed that nasal administration of a split virus vaccine together with Endocine™ or N3OA induced significantly higher humoral and cell-mediated immune responses than the non-adjuvanted vaccine. N3OASq only significantly increased the cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, nasal administration of the influenza vaccine in combination with any of the adjuvants; Endocine™, N3OA or N3OASq, significantly enhanced the mucosal immunity against influenza HA protein. Thus the addition of these mucosal adjuvants leads to enhanced immunity in the most relevant tissues, the upper respiratory tract and the systemic circulation. Nasal influenza vaccination with an inactivated split vaccine can therefore provide an important mucosal immune response, which is often low or absent after traditional parenteral vaccination.

  • 6.
    Flodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Paues, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling, Smittskydd Vårdhygien.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Sjögren, Bengt
    Karolinska Institutet, Arbetsmiljötoxikologi, Institutet för miljömedicin Stockholm, Sweden Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet - Arbetsmiljötoxikologi Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svetsare – en riskgrupp för septisk pneumoni [Welders - a risk group for septic pneumonia]: Vaccination mot pneumokocker kan vara motiverat för yrkesgruppen2017Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Fornander, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Arbets- och miljövetenskap.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Schön, Thomas
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Arbets- och miljövetenskap.
    Innate immunity proteins and a new truncated form of SPLUNC1 in nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection2011Inngår i: PROTEOMICS CLINICAL APPLICATIONS, ISSN 1862-8346, Vol. 5, nr 9-10, s. 513-522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants. The aim was to identify host defence components in nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from infants with RSV infection and to study the expression of the novel 25 kDa innate immunity protein SPLUNC1. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanExperimental design: NPAs from infants were analyzed with 2-DE and MS in a pilot study. The levels of SPLUNC1 were analyzed with immunoblotting in 47 NPAs, admitted for RSV diagnosis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Totally, 35 proteins were identified in NPA, including several innate immunity proteins such as group X phospholipase A(2), different S100 proteins and SPLUNC1. In addition, a new truncated 15 kDa form of SPLUNC1 was identified that was detected in about 50% of the aspirates admitted for RSV diagnosis. RSV-positive boys had significantly less 25 kDa SPLUNC1 than RSV-negative boys while there were no significant differences among girls. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions and clinical relevance: Several important innate immunity proteins were identified in NPA. Notably, a new truncated form of the newly suggested anti-bacterial protein SPLUNC1 was found. It is possible that a decrease in SPLUNC1 in the upper airways may increase the risk for severe pneumonia in boys.

  • 8.
    Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Olsson Engvall, Eva
    National Vet Institute SVA, Sweden.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Olsen, Bjorn
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Genetic diversity and host associations in Campylobacter jejuni from human cases and broilers in 2000 and 20082015Inngår i: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 178, nr 1-2, s. 94-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen, with a global distribution. It can colonize numerous host species, including both domestic and wild animals, but is particularly associated with birds (poultry and wild birds). For human campylobacteriosis, poultry products are deemed the most significant risk factor for acquiring infection. We conducted a genotyping and host attribution study of a large representative collection of C jejuni isolated from humans and broilers in Sweden in the years 2000 and 2008. In total 673 broiler and human isolates from 10 different abattoirs and 6 different hospitals were genotyped with multilocus sequence typing. Source attribution analyses confirmed the strong linkage between broiler C jejuni and domestic human cases, but also indicated a significant association to genotypes more commonly found in wild birds. Genotype distributions did not change dramatically between the two study years, suggesting a stable population of infecting bacteria. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Hydén, Dag
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Peebo, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Inner ear and facial nerve complications of acute otitis media with focus on bacteriology and virology2006Inngår i: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 126, nr 5, s. 460-466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conclusion. Among 20 patients with inner ear complications and/or peripheral facial palsy secondary to acute otitis media (AOM) a proven or probable bacteriological cause was found in 13 (65%). In seven patients (35%), a proven or probable viral cause was found. Only two of the patients (10%), with a proven bacterial AOM and a clinical picture of a purulent labyrinthitis in both, together with a facial palsy in one, had a substantial degree of dysfunction. Although the number of patients in this study is relatively low our findings show that inner ear complications and facial palsy due to AOM can be of both bacterial and viral origin. Severe sequelae were found only where a bacterial origin was proven. Objectives. Inner ear complications and/or peripheral facial palsy secondary to AOM are rare. The general understanding is that they are due to bacterial infections. However, in some of these patients there are no clinical or laboratory signs of bacterial infections and they have negative bacterial cultures. During recent years different viruses have been isolated from the middle ear or serologically proven in AOM patients and are thought to play a pathogenetic role. We suggest that in some cases of AOM complications from the inner ear and the facial nerve can be caused by viruses. The purpose of our study was to analyze infectious agents present in patients with inner ear complications and/or facial palsy arising from AOM. Patients and methods. The medical records of 20 patients who had inner ear complications and/or facial palsy following AOM (unilateral in 18, bilateral in 2) between January 1989 and March 2003 were evaluated. Bacterial cultures were carried out for all patients. Sera from 12 of the patients were stored and tested for a battery of specific viral antibodies. In three patients, investigated between November 2002 and March 2003, viral cultures were also performed on samples from the middle ear and nasopharynx. Results. Nineteen patients had inner ear symptoms. Eight of them had a unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo, three had vertigo as an isolated symptom and one, with bilateral AOM, had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Seven patients had a combination of facial palsy and inner ear symptoms (unilateral sensorineural hearing loss in three, unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo in two, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo in one, with bilateral AOM, and vertigo alone in one). One patient had an isolated facial palsy. Healing was complete in 11 of the 20 patients. In seven patients a minor defect remained at follow-up (a sensorineural hearing loss at higher frequencies in all). Only two patients had obvious defects (a pronounced hearing loss in combination with a moderate to severe facial palsy (House-Brackman grade 4) in one, distinct vestibular symptoms and a total caloric loss in combination with a high-frequency loss in the other. Eight patients had positive bacteriological cultures from middle ear contents: Streptococcus pneumoniae in two, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group A in two, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group A together with Staphylococcus aureus in one, Staph. aureus alone in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci (interpreted as pathogens) in two. In the 12 patients with negative cultures, there was a probable bacteriological cause due to the outcome in SR/CRP and leukocyte count in five. In four patients serological testing showed a concomitant viral infection that was interpreted to be the cause (varicella zoster virus in two, herpes simplex virus in one and adenovirus in one.) In three there was a probable viral cause despite negative viral antibody test due to normal outcome in SR/CRP, normal leukocyte count, serous fluid at myringotomy and a relatively short pre-complication antibiotic treatment period. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 10.
    Kindberg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär virologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Mickiene, Aukse
    Department of Medicine Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Ax, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Vene, Sirkka
    5Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lindquist, Lars
    Department of Medicine Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär virologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    A deletion in the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene is associated with tickborne encephalitis2008Inngår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 197, nr 2, s. 266-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tickborne encephalitis (TBE) virus infections can be asymptomatic or cause moderate to severe injuries of the central nervous system. Why some individuals develop severe disease is unknown, but a role for host genetic factors has been suggested. To investigate whether chemokine receptor CCR5 is associated with TBE, CCR5Δ32 genotyping was performed among Lithuanian patients with TBE (n = 129) or with aseptic meningoencephalitis (n = 76) as well as among control subjects (n = 134). We found individuals homozygous for CCR5Δ32 (P = .026) only among patients with TBE and a higher allele prevalence among patients with TBE compared with the other groups studied. CCR5Δ32 allele prevalence also increased with the clinical severity of disease. © 2007 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Kindberg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär virologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Johnsen, Christina
    Department of Virology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark4;.
    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl
    Department of Microbiology, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Heltberg, Ole
    Department of Microbiology, Næstved Hospital, Næstved, Denmark.
    Larson, Göran
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Böttiger, Blenda
    Department of Virology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär virologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Host genetic resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII.4) infections in Denmark2007Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 2720-2722Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 61 individuals involved in five norovirus outbreaks in Denmark were genotyped at nucleotides 428 and 571 of the FUT2 gene, determining secretor status, i.e., the presence of ABH antigens in secretions and on mucosa. A strong correlation (P = 0.003) was found between the secretor phenotype and symptomatic disease, extending previous knowledge and confirming that nonsense mutations in the FUT2 gene provide protection against symptomatic norovirus (GGII.4) infections. Copyright © 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  • 12.
    Modin Larsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär virologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rydell, Gustaf
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Grahn, Ammi
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär virologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Hutson, Anne
    Departments of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA .
    Estes, Mary
    Departments of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Larson, Göran
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär virologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Antibody Prevalence and Titer to Norovirus (Genogroup II) Correlate with Secretor (FUT2) but Not with ABO Phenotype or Lewis (FUT3) Genotype2006Inngår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 194, nr 10, s. 1422-1427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Histo-blood group antigens and secretor status have been associated with susceptibility to Norovirus infections, which suggests that antibody prevalence and titer might correlate with these phenotypes.

    METHODS:

    Plasma samples (n = 105) from Swedish blood donors that had been genotyped for secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (Le; FUT3) genotypes and phenotyped for ABO and Le blood groups were analyzed for immunoglobulin G antibody prevalence and titers to norovirus genogroup (GG) II.4.

    RESULTS:

    The results showed that nonsecretors (se4128se428) and Lea+b- individuals not only had significantly lower antibody titers than did secretors (P < .0001) and Lea-b+ individuals (P < .0002) but were also significantly more often antibody negative (P < .05). Antibody titers in secretors were not significantly different between individuals of different Le (FUT3) genotypes or different ABO phenotypes.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Nonsecretors and Lea+b- individuals are significantly less prone to be infected with GGII noroviruses. This new information extends previous knowledge and supports the hypothesis that nonsecretors are relatively but not absolutely resistant to norovirus infections.

  • 13.
    Nayeri, Fariba
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nayeri, Tayeb
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Xu, Junyang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Almer, Sven
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in fecal samples: rapid detection by surface plasmon resonance2005Inngår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 5, nr 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The development of biosensors, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology, enables monitoring of a variety of biospecific interactions without the need for chemical-, biological- or radiological-labelled reagents.

    Method

    We utilised SPR to detect hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in reconstituted faecal samples and studied samples from patients with infectious gastroenteritis (n = 20) and normal controls (n = 10). Mouse anti-human HGF monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human HGF receptor (c-Met)/Fc chimera were immobilised in flow cells of a CM5 biosensor chip.

    Results

    We found that infectious gastroenteritis produced a higher signal response compared to controls, due to binding of HGF to monoclonal anti-HGF antibody as well as binding of HGF to c-Met receptor (p < 0.01). The SPR signal response correlated with results from ELISA (r = 72%, p > 0.001). The signal response decreased significantly (p < 0.05) when samples were diluted with dextran, because of reduction in both specific as well as unspecific binding of HGF to dextran. The decrease in the specific response might imply that the dextran- binding site for HGF overlaps with the antibody binding epitope, or that dextran binding induces a conformational change of the HGF molecule. Bands corresponding to HGF were found by gel electrophoresis of purified faeces in an affinity chromatography column immobilised by HGF ligands.

    Conclusion

    Determination of HGF by SPR might be beneficial in diagnosis of acute situations that present with symptoms of gastroenteritis and may, possibly, guide appropriate medical treatments. This is to our knowledge the first report on the use of SPR for detection of HGF in faeces samples.

  • 14.
    Nayeri, Fariba
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Almer, Sven
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Brudin, Lars
    Department of Clinical Physiology, County Hospital, Kalmar.
    Nilsson, Ingela
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, County Hospital, Kalmar.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    High hepatocyte growth factor levels in faeces during acute infectious gastroenteritis2003Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 35, nr 11-12, s. 858-862Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent mitogen of mature epithelial cells which is produced after organ injuries and acts as a trigger for regeneration in the impaired organ. The aim of the present study was to investigate local production of HGF during infectious gastroenteritis. We measured the concentration of HGF in serum and faeces in 49 patients with acute infectious gastroenteritis (bacterium=30, virus=10, amoebae=1, and probable infection=8) at the time of referral to hospital and at convalescence (n=31). The values were compared with normal healthy vaccination volunteers (n=11) as well as patients with acute non-infectious diarrhoea (n=10). The presence of HGF in faeces was confirmed by ELISA and Western immunoblot. HGF concentrations in faeces was significantly higher in the patients with infectious gastroenteritis compared to the control groups (p<0.0001). Using a cut-off concentration of 20 ng/g, the overall sensitivity of faeces HGF to distinguish infectious gastroenteritis (bacterial, viral, probable infection) was 98% with a specificity of 100%. At convalescence all patients had normal values. There was no significant correlation between HGF concentrations in faeces and serum. Determination of faeces HGF may identify cases of transmittable diarrhoea requiring isolation at an early stage.

  • 15.
    Rondahl, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gruber, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Joelsson, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sundqvist, Martin
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centrum för hälso- och vårdutveckling, Vårdhygien. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Cardell, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Lindh, Magnus
    Göteborg University .
    Serrander, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    The risk of HCV RNA contamination in serology screening instruments with a fixed needle for sample transfer.2014Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Virology, ISSN 1386-6532, E-ISSN 1873-5967, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 172-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C diagnostics involve antibody screening and confirmation of current infection by detection of HCV RNA positivity. In screening instruments with fixed pipetting needle, there is a risk of sample carry-over contamination.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of such contamination in a proposed clinical setting.

    STUDY DESIGN: In the present study, known HCV RNA positive (n=149) and negative (n=149) samples were analysed by anti-HCV Abbott in an Architect instrument in an alternating fashion in order to test for contamination.

    RESULTS: In subsequent retesting of the previously HCV RNA-negative samples, six samples (4%) were positive by the Cobas Taqman assay with a maximum level of 33IU/mL. The results show that there is a risk for transfer of HCV in the Architect instrument but they also show that the levels of HCV RNA observed are low.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that complementary HCV RNA testing on samples identified as anti-HCV positive by screening can be recommended because the complementary results are reliable in the majority of cases when either HCV RNA is negative or HCV RNA is positive with a level >1000IU/mL. In a minority of cases, with low HCV RNA after anti-HCV antibody screening, cross-contamination should be suspected and a new sample requested for HCV RNA testing. This strategy would reduce the need for obtaining a new sample from the vast majority of patients with a newly discovered HCV antibody positivity.

  • 16.
    Sundén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Falkeborn, Tina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Paues, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Lindh, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ydrenius, Liselotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Serrander, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Real-time PCR detection of Human Herpesvirus 1-5 in patients lacking clinical signs of a viral CNS infection2011Inngår i: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 11, nr 220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) with herpes- or enterovirus can be self-limiting and benign, but occasionally result in severe and fatal disease. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the diagnostics of viral pathogens, and by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) prior to real-time PCR the sensitivity might be further enhanced. The aim of this study was to investigate if herpes- or enterovirus can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients without symptoms.

    METHODS:

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 373 patients lacking typical symptoms of viral CNS infection were analysed by real-time PCR targeting herpesviruses or enteroviruses with or without prior MDA.

    RESULTS:

    In total, virus was detected in 17 patients (4%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was most commonly detected, in general from patients with other conditions (e.g. infections, cerebral hemorrhage). MDA satisfactorily amplified viral DNA in the absence of human nucleic acids, but showed poor amplification capacity for viral DNA in CSF samples, and did not increase the sensitivity for herpes virus-detection with our methodology.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Viral pathogens are rarely detected in CSF from patients without signs of CNS infection, supporting the view that real-time PCR is a highly specific method to detect symptomatic CNS-infection caused by these viruses. However, EBV may be subclinically reactivated due to other pathological conditions in the CNS.

1 - 16 of 16
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