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  • 1.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    E-consumers’ role in greening distribution2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to address the knowledge gap regarding e-consumers’ role in greening distribution by investigating the exchange of distribution related information between consumers, e-tailers and logistics service providers (LSPs). The 40 largest Swedish e-tailers' homepages were visited, and three e-tailers and four LSPs were interviewed. Consumers appear to have limited ability to affect the greening of distribution. Only a few e-tailers offered green distribution on the online purchase. Lack of communication between LSPs and e-tailers, regarding content, direction and frequency was one reason behind the slow development towards greening distribution.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    From city logistics problems to solution - a multiple stakeholder perspective2014Inngår i: The 26th International NOFOMA conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains2012Inngår i: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 29-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In response to increasing demands on improved environmental performance, companies need to develop their capabilities in assessing the environmental performance of their operations. Knowledge among practitioners as well as solid research results in this area lacks. This paper aims to present a framework of dimensions important to consider regarding environmental measurement in supply chain management. The paper also aims to present a practical example on how environmental performance measurements can be a success by applying these dimensions.

    Design/methodology/approach: Literature regarding logistics management and performance measurement is coupled with theories regarding environmental logistics and green supply chain management. A framework is developed. A case study based on four actors in a reverse supply chain is used to illustrate the framework.

    Findings: The paper outlines important aspects to consider in the design of environmental performance measurements in supply chain management and identifies shortcomings in existing research. The case presents successful examples of how environmental performance measurements can be applied across managerial levels as well as company borders in a supply chain.

    Practical implications: The literature review shows shortcomings in the measuring tools applied today. The case provides examples of how these shortcomings can be addressed.

    Originality/value: This paper addresses the intersection between environmental logistics and performance measurements. The case shows how environmental performance measurements can be applied over a single company’s borders by including four different actors in the supply chain.

  • 4.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The role of systems description in city logistics2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th annual logistics research conference: Go for gold - Winning the supply chain triathlon: Creating social, economic and environmental value / [ed] Richard Wilding, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Haag, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Operational capabilities for facilitating the internationalisation of retailers - A multiple case study of three Swedish retail companies2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Haag, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Supply chain capabilities for facilitating the internationalisation of retailers: a multiple case study of three Swedish retail companies2019Inngår i: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 321-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Market-oriented aspects of retail internationalisation have received a lot of research attention since the 1990s. However, beyond these aspects lies also supply-chain oriented capabilities that are necessary for retailers to successfully internationalise into foreign sales markets. By using a perspective based on resource-based theories, this paper explores supply-chain oriented capabilities that facilitate retail internationalisation. The research is based on a multiple case study of three Swedish retailers. Through the perspective of research based theories, specifically capabilities, the empirical data is studied in a single-case as well as a cross-case analysis. Findings reveal three supply chain-oriented capability categories (leadership capability, integration capability and learning capability) of importance for retail internationalisation. Resources necessary for the capabilities are to be found internally at the retailer, but also externally at other firms. This research adds to the market-oriented knowledge on retail internationalisation by adding a supply-chain oriented perspective. Further, it provides an understanding of the early phases of retail internationalisation.

  • 7.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Maack, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Back from the Future: Report on Sustainable Logistics Systems 20202009Inngår i: Proceedings from the 14th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Volatile and Fragile Supply Chains, Cardiff, Wales: Cardiff Business School , 2009, s. 117-123Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Due to the alarming reports on climate change probably caused by industrial and human activities, the awareness that “we need to do something” is growing in society. And there is not much time – in 2050 CO2-emissions need to be reduced by 80%, compared to the levels some decade ago. In this a huge challenge is to pinpoint where we want to arrive, and what an improved future forecast may look like. Gazing as far as to 2050 would be accurate, however taking such a large leap can be considered as such a large effort that it paralyses rather than encourages action. As there is a need to start acting immediately to be able to alter the development, we have chosen to, as a first step, take a look at what should and can be accomplished during a shorter period of time, and start by gazing towards 2020. The paper aims at the logistics- and transport domain.

    The purpose of the paper is to describe and discuss desirable scenarios regarding sustainable transport- and logistics systems by 2020.

    Research approach

    The basis for this paper is a series of focused group meetings in a “Think-tank” setting, where actors representing shippers, logistics- and transport providers and authorities were gathered into group discussions. The task given to the participants was to discuss what goals they perceived as both necessary to reach, and realistic to have reached, by 2020. Scenarios were built based on notes from four researchers acting “flies-on the-wall” in the Think-tank.

    Findings and Originality

    The findings of this paper are presented as a scenario, or a “report from the future”, of the situation for transport and logistics in 2020 when the development has become more sustainable. The data gathering and scenario building was initially focused on CO2-emissions, however an aspect that emerged as perhaps even more relevant was the more general discussion on resources and energy. The scenarios include innovations in product development and delivery, elaborations on the global centralisation trends, new views on delivery service aspects and collaborative initiatives.

    Research impact

    The paper takes mainly a corporate approach to transport and logistics. It provides insight into what can be realistic goals in a close future, and which changes are needed to reach these goals.

     

    Practical impact

    The paper can provide a basis for further discussions among practitioners on where to direct future actions.

  • 8.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Martinsen Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Sustainable Logistics Service Providers: A strategic perspective on green logistics service provision2015Inngår i: Proceedings from the 20th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Resource Efficiency and Sustainability in Logistics and Supply Chain Management / [ed] Lim, M., Jones, C., Day, J. and Smith, S., Derby: The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport & Derby University , 2015, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Environmental sustainability is of increasing importance. The Logistics Service Industry is of specific interest: its impact from mainly transports is still increasing. However, the sustainability of any company also includes a long-term prosperous business. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a hauler, as an example of a logistics service provider (LSP), through approaching environmental sustainability from an overall strategic business perspective, can succeed long-term.

    Research Approach: The paper builds on an in-depth case study of a medium sized privately held LSP. The case was selected as it stands out compared to its competitors with respect to environmental engagement and long-term commitment to sustainability related issues. Starting from a framework based on RBT (Resource Based Theory), the case is analysed regarding how various types of resources and dynamic capabilities can contribute to sustainable competitive advantage.

    Findings and Originality: The case study illustrates how an LSP can put various resources to work and how resources can be combined. It is demonstrated that these combinations of resources are valuable, rare and perfectly inimitable, and that they to a high extent are well established in the company, and hence not rely in certain individuals. The cases study further demonstrates how an LSP can sense possibilities, seize opportunities and, when needed, reshape its business accordingly, and hence possess critical dynamic capabilities. This research contributes by analysing an LSP that, in contrast to most of its competitors, has succeeded in making its sustainable development a strategic asset. This asset reaches beyond the commonly acknowledged efficiency gains, and is an interesting example of how an LSP through its dynamic capabilities can gain a unique position.

    Research Impact: The strategic perspective through an RBT lens has previously been applied to LSPs mainly in survey based research. The results of this paper are rare, as they build on a real-case situation of a successful and sustainable LSP, while the extant research of success among LSPs going greener mostly suggest future development to become successful. This paper suggests how sustainable development can become a strategic asset for an LSP, and how dynamic capabilities can support that. Theories on dynamic capabilities have previously only been applied to a very limited extent on the analysis of LSPs aiming for going greener

    Practical Impact: Based on this case, other LSPs may get inspiration to how they can develop their business to become more sustainable. The analysis points to that greening efforts cannot be seen in isolation, rather it is the combination of efforts, uniquely orchestrated for each case, that can make a difference. Therefore, the results point to relationships between various efforts, as well as how the different greening efforts fit the context of the LSP.

  • 9.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    De-greening of logistics through provider-shipper interaction2013Inngår i: The 29th Annual IMP Conference: Building and Managing Relationships in a Global Network: Challenges and Necessary Capabilities / [ed] Johnston, Weslsy, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the paper

    In contrast to the general perception of logistics service providers, recent research suggests that logistics service providers can be considered as more open to developing green services than their customers are to require them. The purpose of this paper is to explain how green efforts and ambitions are transformed when logistics service providers co-operate with their customers.

    Research method

    The paper is based on a multiple case study of two networks, symmetrically composed of two relationships each with an LSP as the common actor. The networks are analysed first on a dyad level, which is the basis for a network analysis of the cases. The two cases are finally compared in order to identify patterns between the cases.

    Research findings

    The findings suggest that even though the logistics service providers display a certain level of greenness in their own appearance, the level of greenness decreases to different extent in the interaction with the shippers. The attitude among the shippers is an important reason to how the green efforts are transformed in the relationships, as they are in overall control of the relationships. In addition, even if the shipper is positive and contributes to a positive development the shipper’s customers can constitute a barrier in the LSP-shipper interaction. On the other hand, a mutually positive attitude may impose synergetic effects in the dyad.

    Contribution

    The paper applies the concept of network paradoxes to greening logistics in LSP-shipper dyads, and increases the understanding of why the green efforts among logistics service providers are not directly transferred to the surrounding network of shippers/customers. This contributes to the small but emerging body of literature on the greening of industrial networks, but also to a further understanding of the role of inter-organisational relationships in literature on green supply chain management and green logistics. 

  • 10.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsosn, Matts
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    The Slowness of Greening Transports in Supply Chains: Barriers and Enablers when Introducing Green Activities2014Inngår i: Competitiveness through Supply Chain Management and Global Logistics: Proceedings form the 26th Conference of the Nordic Logistics Research Network / [ed] Gammelgard, B. et al., 2014, s. 962-964Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Isaksson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental value co-creation between logistics service providers and customers: from a logistics service provider’s perspective2011Inngår i: The 23rd Annual NOFOMA Conference 9-10 June, Harstad, Norway: Logistics & Supply Chain Management in a High North Perspective / [ed] Trond Hammervoll, 2011, s. 605-620Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper

    As logistics services increase in both scope and complexity, Logistics Service Providers (LSPs) face increasing challenges in their attempts to improve service performance to customers. One challenge encountered by LSPs comprehends how they should approach environmental issues and also what it is worth for their customers. One way for LSPs to achieve this is to focus on value co-creation between them and their customers. This paper will examine the adequacy of a Service Dominant (S-D) logic perspective in order to better understand value co-creation between LSPs and customers, with a specific focus on environmental aspects as value.

    Design/methodology/approach

    With the starting-point in S-D logic applied to a logistics context, empirical data from case studies with an environmental focus is analysed in order to illustrate LSPs’ situation today.

    Findings

    A range of key elements that can help LSPs to increase value co-creation is proposed. The findings indicate that an S-D logic perspective on environmental co-creation is useful in order to increase the understanding of the value co-creation process between LSPs and their customer.

    Research limitations/implications

    The empirical data focuses on environmental aspects of value co-creation within logistics and further research is needed in order to verify the findings on a more general level of value co-creation.

    Practical implications

    The results of this paper can inspire LSPs to shift from traditional thinking and working approaches towards a more S-D inspired approach, thereby increasing value co-creation.

    What is original/value of paper

    This paper provides a novel approach when it comes to how to view value co-creation in the relationship between LSPs and their customers. Perspectives and approaches from the S-D logic literature are studied, where LSPs previously are noticed to a very limited extent. 

  • 12.
    Maack, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Den hållbara logistikkunskapen tar oss framåt2009Inngår i: PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2009: Effektiva och lönsamma försörjningskedjor, Stockholm: Logistikföreningen PLAN , 2009, s. 113-124Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framtida miljö- och energiproblem kommer att beröra oss alla. En sektor som är särskilt berörd är logistik- och transportsektorn. För att på ett effektivt sätt ta sig an de utmaningar som bland annat klimatproblematiken medför, behövs initiativ från såväl myndigheter, politiska beslutsfattare, företagsvärlden som forskningen. Det finns idag kunskap inom vissa områden, men det saknas förmåga att implementera den. Inom andra områden är det bristen på kunskap som utgör problemet. Syftet med artikeln är att kartlägga kunskaps-, kompetens och forskningsbehovet inom miljölogistik ur olika perspektiv.

    Kunskaps, kompetens- och forskningsbehovet har kartlagts och analyserats utifrån såväl forskares som praktikers syn på framtida behov. Artikeln bygger på resultat från fokusgruppsseminarier och en enkätundersökning. I seminarierna deltog representanter från varuägande företag, logistikföretag och samhällsaktörer. Resultatet från kartläggningen visar på ett stort behov av ny kunskap, såsom mätning och fördelning av miljöeffekter miljömätning och kopplingen mellan logistiksystemets miljöeffekter och affärsnyttan för såväl varuägare som logistikföretag. Samhällsaktörerna är den grupp som av samtliga aktörsgrupper, inklusive sig själva, beskrivs som den aktören med störst behov av kunskap kring miljölogistik. Forskningen spelar en viktig roll både för framtagning av ny kunskap och för spridning av ny och befintlig kunskap mellan olika aktörer.

  • 13.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Study of Environmental and Other Sustainable Activities in supply Chain Relationships at Clas Ohlson2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a case study conducted at the Swedish retail company Clas Ohlson. The study has been conducted as one step in the PhD process of the author of this report and is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten). In this first chapter, some background information to the case study is given: the aim of the study, the rationale behind choosing Clas Ohlson as the case company and data collection methods. Finally, the structure of the remaining parts of the report is presented.

    The aim of this case study is to illustrate how environmental work can be conducted in different types of supply chain relationships, seen from the perspective of one focal shipper in a supply chain. The relationships include both upstream (such as suppliers and inbound logistics service providers) and downstream (such as outbound logistics service providers and stores in a city logistics context) parts of the supply chain. As these examples illustrate, the supply chain relationships can include shippers as well as logistics service providers (LSPs).

  • 14.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Case report - A study of environmental and other sustainable acitivies in supply chain relationships at Clas Ohlson2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Case report: Environmental work in relationships between logistics service providers and shippers2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Coordination of environmental measures in logistics service privider-shipper relationships2013Inngår i: Digital proceedings of the 25th NOFOMA Conference, 2013, s. 1-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Despite increasing research into logistics service providers’ (LSPs’) environmental measures, limited attention has been given to LSP-shipper relationships. This is surprising considering the fact that there is increasing pressure on supply chains to become greener and LSPs are important actors in these supply chains. The aim of this paper is to suggest how environmental measures can be coordinated in LSP-shipper relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Four dyadic case studies, consisting of one LSP and one shipper each, provide the empirical basis for this paper. Literature on interorganisational coordination mechanisms is applied to the case findings in order to analyse how environmental measures are coordinated in the dyads. 

    Findings

    This paper identifies a number of coordination mechanisms applicable for different types of environmental measures in LSP-shipper relationships. Moreover, it is suggested that some environmental measures that can be taken in LSP-shipper relationships can be coordinated through different types of coordination mechanisms.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    Although the four cases presented in this paper give suggestions of coordination of environmental measures, studies into additional dyads could give further understanding with regards to environmental coordination in LSP-shipper relationships.

    Practical implications (if applicable)

    The results of this paper can help both LSPs and shippers understand how to work with environmental measures by the use of the appropriate coordination mechanisms.

    Original/value

    Contrary to previous research, which mainly takes one party's perspective, this paper takes a dyadic approach and thereby adds valuable knowledge to the interorganisational aspects of LSPs’ environmental work.

  • 17.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental Work in Relationships between Logistics Service providers and Shippers2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report comprises a description of a case study which includes four dyadic relationships between logistics service providers (LSPs) and shippers. The case study has been conducted during the Vinnova‐financed research project “Competitive Business Models to meet Future Demands on Sustainable Logistics Systems” and focus in the report is on environmental (or green) work in relationships between LSPs and shippers. More specifically, the purpose of the report is to increase the understanding of such work in relationships between LSPs and shippers. Before the cases are described, the process of selecting the cases as well as collecting the data will be elaborated on.

  • 18.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Green Supply and Demand on the Logistics Market2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-known concept, both in practice and in literature is the logistics market. This market is a place where shippers’ demand for logistics services meets Logistics Service Providers’ (LSPs’) supply of such services. Although this market has been given much attention in previous research, focus has been on shippers, while the LSP perspective has to a large extent been neglected. Several logistics related trends indicate that there is an increasing need for strong relationships between LSPs and supply chains, and one such trend is the “greening” of companies and supply chains. Although it is widely recognised that transports and  logistics are a major cause of greenhouse gas emissions, environmental logistics literature has only focused on the interaction between LSPs and their customers to a very limited extent. This is despite the fact that LSPs could include so-called green categories in their offerings, just as shippers could include green categories in their demands and that this interaction could in turn contribute to a decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the extent to which green categories are taken into account in the logistics market and suggest explanations. This includes identifying those green categories that are relevant for the logistics market, as well as a description of matches and mismatches with regard to these green categories. The matches and mismatches are studied from both a general market perspective and a relationship perspective. Initial explanations for the matches and mismatches in the relationship perspective contribute to the final part of the purpose.

    There are two basic theoretical starting-points in this thesis. Firstly, it is recognised that the logistics market is important to the purpose and different ways to view this market are therefore discussed. Secondly, general environmental logistics literature provides a basis for the research into green categories that can be offered or demanded on the logistics market. In the exploratoryresearch conducted for the thesis, the insights from literature are combined with empirical datafrom a survey, a homepage scan and four case studies of buyer-supplier relationships.

    One main contribution of this thesis is the large number of green categories that are identified as relevant for LSPs and shippers on the logistics market. These green categories range from environmental management systems, vehicle technologies and CO2 reports, to reviews of sustainability reports, relationship specific green projects and general desires among shippers to decrease CO2 emissions.

    A comparison of the supply of and demand for the green categories indicates that from a general market perspective, there appear to be clear mismatches between green supply and green demand. The same comparison made from a relationship perspective also indicates severalmismatches between green supply and green demand, but the buyer-supplier relationships studied show matches between green offerings and green demands to a greater extent than the market perspective does. Interestingly, the LSPs seem to include more in their offerings than the shippers appear to include in their demands for almost all mismatches in both the market perspective and the relationship perspective.

    Seven propositions are made to account for the matches and mismatches between green categories in buyer-supplier relationships. Three of these propositions are related to the characteristics of those green categories that are found in the relationships. It is suggested that the tangibility level of green categories influences the occurrence of matches and mismatches in the relationships and the more tangible a green category is, the higher is the likelihood of a match between supply and demand in that relationship. The opposite is also suggested, as well as the idea that the more relationship specific green categories are, the fewer the mismatches that appear in that relationship.

    The remaining four propositions relate to the potential connection between the type of relationship between LSPs and shippers and green matches and mismatches in their relationships. It is suggested that the closer a business relationship is, 1) the greater the number of green categories it has 2) the better green categories are communicated 3) the greater the number of matches compared to mismatches of green categories and 4) the higher the level of green category collaboration is.

    Delarbeid
    1. Greening the offerings of logistics service providers
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Greening the offerings of logistics service providers
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual NOFOMA Conference: Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy / [ed] Arlbjørn Stentoft, Kolding, 2010, s. 969-984Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The importance of green aspects for companies is increasing. Therefore logistics service providers have a possibility to compete by being greener than their competitors. One possibility is to offer services that include different green aspects. The purpose of this paper is to develop a description of possible green categories of a logistics offering, based on a combination of customer and logistics service provider perspectives.

    Design/methodology/approach: A structured literature review showed what has been published on offerings and requirements regarding green logistics. Empirical data was collected in two steps. A survey was sent out to both shippers and logistics service providers and selected company homepages were scanned.

    Findings: The paper identifies a range of green categories as well as more specific aspects that can be a part of logistics service providers’ offerings. The findings consist of views from shippers as well as logistics service providers.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The paper is mainly based on Swedish companies only and thereby provides a possibility to extend the research into other countries as well. Specific research on logistics companies’ green offerings is still scarce and a multidisciplinary approach is recommended for future research.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The paper provides insight into which green aspects logistics service providers can include in their offerings, as well as what customers could demand from logistics service providers.

    What is original/value of paper: This paper illustrates both theoretically and empirically which green aspects that can be included in offerings and thereby providing logistics service providers with increased competitiveness alongside increased sustainability.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Kolding: , 2010
    Emneord
    Logistics service provider, green logistics, offering, customer demands, survey
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62708 (URN)978-87-92471-05-5 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    The 22nd Annual NOFOMA Conference, June 10-11, Kolding, Denmark
    Prosjekter
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-12-02 Laget: 2010-12-02 Sist oppdatert: 2016-11-30
    2. Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 562-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The management of interfaces is central in supply chain management (SCM) and logistics. An important part of SCM is coordination and collaboration with different partners such as suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers and customers (CSCMP, 2010). Collaboration between parties in the supply chain is generally believed to decrease costs and increase efficiency as well as service. Moreover, the success of a firm is dependent on its managerial ability to integrate and coordinate the business relationships among the supply chain members (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). The supply chain linkage ought to be so tight that separate organizational units share the same purpose and suppliers and customers help each other to achieve mutually beneficial objectives (Seth et al., 2006).

    In the SCM literature interfaces seldom include the logistics service provider (hereafter labelled LSP). Instead, most interfaces discussed are those between a shipper and the receiver of the goods (Skjoett-Larsen et al., 2003; Stefanson, 2006). One reason for this could be that logistics firms are the least integrated link in supply chains (Lemoine and Skjoett-larsen, 2004) or that, as noted by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009), LSPs seem to be the forgotten actors of supply chain integration. Furthermore, LSPs are often merely seen as actors that supports other members of the supply chain, providing resources, knowledge, utilities or assets for the primary members (Spens and Bask, 2002). Several logistics related trends, such as the shift towards outsourcing and increased globalisation, increase the need for strong relationships between LSPs and supplychains (Seth et al., 2006).

    Most of the research conducted on LSPs applies either a shipper or an LSP perspective, instead of a dyad perspective. Literature in the context of service quality in supply chains also commonly considers only one directional view (Seth et al., 2006). Knemeyer and Murphy (2005) mean that there is a need to simultaneously consider both shipper and LSP perspectives in order to decrease the risk of key perceptual differences (gaps) that can negatively influence the logistics service quality.

    Shippers and LSPs face an emerging and considerable challenge because of the large negative impact transports have on the natural environment and, as stated by for example the EEA (2007) and Roth and Kåberger (2002), the environmental performance of the transport sector is an increasing problem. Because of growing freight transport it is not surprising that both shippers and LSPs are pressured from different stakeholders, such as governments and customers, to lower their environmental impact from transports (McKinnon, 2003; McKinnon and Piecyk, 2009; Wolf and Seuring, 2010). This creates an opportunity for LSPs to be proactive and meet these demands by considering environmental issues in their business models and as a value adding service offering.

    The correspondence between customer needs and the service offerings is essential in order to succeed with the service concept (Edvardsson, 1997). However, that does not necessarily mean that supply and demand always match. For example, Wolf and Seuring (2010) found that the LSPs seem to be ahead of their customers when it comes to environmental issues, but state this with caution and call for further research in this area. With the aim to learn more about the interface between LSPs and shippers and how environmental issues are taken into account, the purpose of this paper is:

    To develop and apply a tool for the identification of matches and gaps in the interface between LSPs’ green offerings and shippers’ green demands.

    There are many ways to label the actor responsible for the supply of logistics services. In this paper, the term logistics service providers (LSPs) is applied and, inspired by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009) and Forslund (2010), includes actors such as carriers, forwarding companies, transport(ation) companies, third party logistics providers/partners and logistics service companies/providers/suppliers.

    This paper is divided into five main parts. After the introduction, a literature section on the greening of the LSP-Shipper interface will be presented. This is followed by a gap section, ending with the developed gap model. Next, the survey study is explained, after which findings from the application of the model are presented. The paper ends with conclusions and future research suggestions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald, 2012
    Emneord
    Sweden, Logistics management, Environmental management, Logistics service provider, Shippers, Interface, Green logistics, Gap analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68838 (URN)10.1108/09600031211250596 (DOI)000314562000004 ()
    Prosjekter
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-06-08 Laget: 2011-06-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-09
    3. Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 29-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In response to increasing demands on improved environmental performance, companies need to develop their capabilities in assessing the environmental performance of their operations. Knowledge among practitioners as well as solid research results in this area lacks. This paper aims to present a framework of dimensions important to consider regarding environmental measurement in supply chain management. The paper also aims to present a practical example on how environmental performance measurements can be a success by applying these dimensions.

    Design/methodology/approach: Literature regarding logistics management and performance measurement is coupled with theories regarding environmental logistics and green supply chain management. A framework is developed. A case study based on four actors in a reverse supply chain is used to illustrate the framework.

    Findings: The paper outlines important aspects to consider in the design of environmental performance measurements in supply chain management and identifies shortcomings in existing research. The case presents successful examples of how environmental performance measurements can be applied across managerial levels as well as company borders in a supply chain.

    Practical implications: The literature review shows shortcomings in the measuring tools applied today. The case provides examples of how these shortcomings can be addressed.

    Originality/value: This paper addresses the intersection between environmental logistics and performance measurements. The case shows how environmental performance measurements can be applied over a single company’s borders by including four different actors in the supply chain.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Emneord
    Environmental logistics, Logistics measurement and performance, Green performance measurement, Supply chain management.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68842 (URN)10.1108/13598541211212186 (DOI)000301694700004 ()
    Prosjekter
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-06-08 Laget: 2011-06-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-09
  • 19.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Learning to be greener: A longitudinal perspective of retailers’ relationships with logistics providers2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljöåtgärder i logistiken: en fråga om maktobalanser?2014Inngår i: Supply chain effect, ISSN 2000-8457, nr 2, s. 27-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The inclusion of green dimensions in the logistics market: A relationship approach2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Despite the fact that cooperation is commonly mentioned as important in the greening of supply chains, interaction between logistics service providers and shippers are rarely investigated in green logistics literature. Moreover, the knowledge of how green factors are taken into consideration in relationships on the logistics market appears to be very limited. The purpose of this paper is therefore to analyse how green factors are taken into account in relationships between logistics service providers and shippers.

    Research approach:

    This paper is based on a multiple case study, where four dyads between logistics service providers and shippers are researched. Logistics service providers as well as shippers are selected based on their environmental ambitions in logistics as well as in a more general sense. Both a single-case analysis and a cross-case analysis are conducted, based on evidence primarily from interviews with employees that are involved in the specific studied relationships. Relationship dimensions are investigated in order to analyse similarities and differences in matches and gaps of various green categories in the relationships.

    Findings and Originality:

    Contrary to previous research, this paper sheds light on how green factors can be taken into account in specific relationships between logistics service providers and shippers. Matches and gaps between green offerings and green demands are identified and explained by relationship characteristics that appear in these specific company interactions. Four propositions are developed and it is suggested that the closeness of a business relationship has an impact on the inclusion of green factors in that relationship.

    Research impact:

    This research provides a first indication that relational factors are of importance for the success of “green relationships”. It would be fruitful to extend the research to cover a longer period of time to understand how the inclusion of green factors in logistics market relationship changes over time. Moreover, given that the case studies provide a description of relationships on a national logistics market, it would be beneficial to study other countries’ logistics market as well.

    Practical impact:

    The findings of this paper apply to both logistics service providers and shippers who have an ambition to green their logistics operations. Both actors can benefit from knowledge about which relationship dimensions that may be of importance in order to succeed with the greening of logistics service provider-shipper relationships.

  • 22.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards greener supply chains: Inclusion of environmental activities in relationships between logistics service providers and shippers2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-recognised that companies are under pressure to take responsibility for the environmental impact of their operations. Logistics service providers (LSPs), who through their transport and logistics operations have a large negative impact on the environment, are one type of supply chain actor that is under such pressure. However, in order for LSPs to be able to lower their environmental impact sufficiently, their customers, the shippers, also need to take responsibility. This thesis takes its starting point in the relationships between LSPs and shippers and argues that in order for LSPs’ environmental activities to reach their full potential, the shippers must be included in the activities.

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and explain how supply chain actors, with a specific focus on logistics service providers and shippers, can include environmental activities in their relationships with each other. This comprises identifying those environmental activities that are relevant for relationships between LSPs and shippers, as well as describing the extent to which environmental activities are included in such relationships. By means of the theoretical perspective of power between supply chain actors, the thesis also sets out to further understand how power balances between LSPs and shippers can influence the extent to which they include environmental activities in their relationships with each other. Finally, the use of the theoretical perspective of coordination aims, through the analysis of coordination mechanisms, to shed light on how environmental activities are included in LSP-shipper relationships.

    The research in this thesis has mainly descriptive and explanatory aims, although due to the novelty of research into LSPshipper relationships in an environmental context, the research process as such is mainly exploratory. Following an abductive approach, the insights from literature are combined with empirical data from two cases studies, a homepage scan, a survey and a study of city logistics projects. Most of the applied research methods take a dual perspective of relationships between supply chain actors and thus include both LSPs and shippers.

    One conclusion from the research conducted for this thesis comprises the identification of environmental activities as well as a suggestion for a classification based on the activities’ role in the business between LSPs and shippers. With a starting point in the identified activities, a comparison of a market perspective and a relationship perspective of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships indicates that LSPs are able to fulfil the requirements set by shippers and that shippers’ requirement thus are met. The research does, however, point to a passiveness among LSPs in their relationships with shippers, who in turn would like the LSPs to be more proactive.

    Further, based on an analysis of power balances in LSP-shipper relationships, it is suggested that in an LSP-shipper relationship in which the shipper has a power advantage, the shipper’s environmental ambitions for logistics sets the agenda for the environmental activities in that relationship.

    An analysis of coordination of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships indicates that the mechanisms of direct supervision, which is when one actor tells the other actor in the relationship what to do, and mutual adjustment can be chosen to be used in order to include environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships. While direct supervision is suggested to be a coordination mechanism that is easy for shippers to apply, mutual adjustment appears to hold greater potential for the development of environmental activities.

    Finally, these findings in combination are suggested to have implications for the coordination of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships. More specifically, this thesis offers a categorisation of different types of LSP-shipper relationships and the involved actors’ environmental ambition. Depending on whether the environmental ambition of the LSP and shipper in a specific relationship is high or low appears to have implications for the possibility to work towards greener supply chains for each type of relationship.

    Delarbeid
    1. Towards unearthing environmental activities in the interface between logistics service providers and shippers
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards unearthing environmental activities in the interface between logistics service providers and shippers
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The importance of environmental consideration for companies is mounting. This applies particularly well to logistics service providers (LSPs) who will have a possibility to compete by being greener than their competitors by offering services that include different environmental activities. As their customers play a vital role with regard to the extent to which LSPs can include environmental activities in their business, the interface between these actors is of interest. The purpose of this article is to describe how environmental logistics activities are offered and required on the logistics market, and how the green logistics exchange that becomes part of a business deal can relate to the scope of activities.

    Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review of what has been published on environmental activities as parts of offerings and requirements was complemented by a wider literature review. Empirical data was collected through a homepage scan and a case study of four LSPshipper dyads. The analysis was performed stepwise, where the empirical data sets complemented and refined the initial findings from the literature review.

    Findings: The paper identifies a range of environmental activities that can be included as parts of offerings of LSPs or requirements of shippers, as well as parts of the green exchange in business deals between these two types of actors. Further, a classification of environmental activities is proposed based on their role in the business between LSPs and shippers.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The article is mainly based on companies’ activities in Sweden and thereby provides a possibility to extend the research into other countries as well. By taking two perspectives, the findings from this research can have implications both for purchasing and marketing of logistic services.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The paper suggests which environmental activities that LSPs and shippers can include in different stages of their business relationships.

    What is original/value of paper: The dual perspective of LSPs and shippers taken in this paper offers novel insight into how various environmental activities can be included at different stages of LSP-shipper relationships.

    Emneord
    Logistics service provider, green logistics, offering, environmental activity, data triangulation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102560 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-12-13 Laget: 2013-12-13 Sist oppdatert: 2016-11-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 29-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In response to increasing demands on improved environmental performance, companies need to develop their capabilities in assessing the environmental performance of their operations. Knowledge among practitioners as well as solid research results in this area lacks. This paper aims to present a framework of dimensions important to consider regarding environmental measurement in supply chain management. The paper also aims to present a practical example on how environmental performance measurements can be a success by applying these dimensions.

    Design/methodology/approach: Literature regarding logistics management and performance measurement is coupled with theories regarding environmental logistics and green supply chain management. A framework is developed. A case study based on four actors in a reverse supply chain is used to illustrate the framework.

    Findings: The paper outlines important aspects to consider in the design of environmental performance measurements in supply chain management and identifies shortcomings in existing research. The case presents successful examples of how environmental performance measurements can be applied across managerial levels as well as company borders in a supply chain.

    Practical implications: The literature review shows shortcomings in the measuring tools applied today. The case provides examples of how these shortcomings can be addressed.

    Originality/value: This paper addresses the intersection between environmental logistics and performance measurements. The case shows how environmental performance measurements can be applied over a single company’s borders by including four different actors in the supply chain.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Emneord
    Environmental logistics, Logistics measurement and performance, Green performance measurement, Supply chain management.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68842 (URN)10.1108/13598541211212186 (DOI)000301694700004 ()
    Prosjekter
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-06-08 Laget: 2011-06-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-09
    3. The importance of stakeholder relationships in city logistics projects
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The importance of stakeholder relationships in city logistics projects
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: NoFoMa Conference, Book of proceedings / [ed] Juuso Töyli, Laura Johansson, Harri Lorentz, Lauri Ojala and Sini Laari, Naantali, Finland., 2012, s. 602-617Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: As a result of the negative impact of freight transport on the environment, logistics solutions in city centres have recently attracted increasing attention. In order to succeed with city logistics projects, collaboration between various stakeholders such as local authorities, logistics companies, retailers and property owners is essential, which is one reason why the interdependence among the stakeholders is a crucial aspect in relation to the projects. The purpose of this paper is to explore city logistics projects based on stakeholders’ cooperative relationships and to suggest how the nature of dependence between the stakeholders can affect the project.

    Design/methodology/approach: A wide range of documented city logistics projects is narrowed down in an iterative process, and three projects where relationships are described are analysed, supported by literature on interorganisational relationships. The analysis is based on the official documentation of city logistics projects.

    Findings: This paper illustrates how dependence between stakeholders in city logistics solutions can affect the project. The local authorities’ dependence on the commercial stakeholders is a common pattern, while the residents/consumers are those most often neglected. Although local authorities apply different strategies to involve various stakeholder groups, the poor documentation of stakeholder relationships suggests that this issue has been given limited attention in city logistics projects.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): Because of the impact of stakeholder relationships on city logistics projects, it is suggested that future projects would benefit from increased attention being paid to such relationships.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The notion of how various dependencies between actors may affect the projects can be beneficial for local authorities as it leads to a better understanding of their dependence on other stakeholders.

    Originality/value: With support from literature on inter-organisational relationships, this research addresses the often omitted aspects of stakeholder collaboration and, specifically, the impact of stakeholder dependence in city logistics projects.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Naantali, Finland.: , 2012
    Emneord
    City logistics, stakeholders, inter-organisational relationships, stakeholder dependence
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79645 (URN)978-952-249-204-3 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    NoFoMa Conference 2012, 24th NOFOMA Conference, 7-8 June, Turku, Finland
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-08-13 Laget: 2012-08-13 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-09bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 562-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The management of interfaces is central in supply chain management (SCM) and logistics. An important part of SCM is coordination and collaboration with different partners such as suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers and customers (CSCMP, 2010). Collaboration between parties in the supply chain is generally believed to decrease costs and increase efficiency as well as service. Moreover, the success of a firm is dependent on its managerial ability to integrate and coordinate the business relationships among the supply chain members (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). The supply chain linkage ought to be so tight that separate organizational units share the same purpose and suppliers and customers help each other to achieve mutually beneficial objectives (Seth et al., 2006).

    In the SCM literature interfaces seldom include the logistics service provider (hereafter labelled LSP). Instead, most interfaces discussed are those between a shipper and the receiver of the goods (Skjoett-Larsen et al., 2003; Stefanson, 2006). One reason for this could be that logistics firms are the least integrated link in supply chains (Lemoine and Skjoett-larsen, 2004) or that, as noted by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009), LSPs seem to be the forgotten actors of supply chain integration. Furthermore, LSPs are often merely seen as actors that supports other members of the supply chain, providing resources, knowledge, utilities or assets for the primary members (Spens and Bask, 2002). Several logistics related trends, such as the shift towards outsourcing and increased globalisation, increase the need for strong relationships between LSPs and supplychains (Seth et al., 2006).

    Most of the research conducted on LSPs applies either a shipper or an LSP perspective, instead of a dyad perspective. Literature in the context of service quality in supply chains also commonly considers only one directional view (Seth et al., 2006). Knemeyer and Murphy (2005) mean that there is a need to simultaneously consider both shipper and LSP perspectives in order to decrease the risk of key perceptual differences (gaps) that can negatively influence the logistics service quality.

    Shippers and LSPs face an emerging and considerable challenge because of the large negative impact transports have on the natural environment and, as stated by for example the EEA (2007) and Roth and Kåberger (2002), the environmental performance of the transport sector is an increasing problem. Because of growing freight transport it is not surprising that both shippers and LSPs are pressured from different stakeholders, such as governments and customers, to lower their environmental impact from transports (McKinnon, 2003; McKinnon and Piecyk, 2009; Wolf and Seuring, 2010). This creates an opportunity for LSPs to be proactive and meet these demands by considering environmental issues in their business models and as a value adding service offering.

    The correspondence between customer needs and the service offerings is essential in order to succeed with the service concept (Edvardsson, 1997). However, that does not necessarily mean that supply and demand always match. For example, Wolf and Seuring (2010) found that the LSPs seem to be ahead of their customers when it comes to environmental issues, but state this with caution and call for further research in this area. With the aim to learn more about the interface between LSPs and shippers and how environmental issues are taken into account, the purpose of this paper is:

    To develop and apply a tool for the identification of matches and gaps in the interface between LSPs’ green offerings and shippers’ green demands.

    There are many ways to label the actor responsible for the supply of logistics services. In this paper, the term logistics service providers (LSPs) is applied and, inspired by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009) and Forslund (2010), includes actors such as carriers, forwarding companies, transport(ation) companies, third party logistics providers/partners and logistics service companies/providers/suppliers.

    This paper is divided into five main parts. After the introduction, a literature section on the greening of the LSP-Shipper interface will be presented. This is followed by a gap section, ending with the developed gap model. Next, the survey study is explained, after which findings from the application of the model are presented. The paper ends with conclusions and future research suggestions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald, 2012
    Emneord
    Sweden, Logistics management, Environmental management, Logistics service provider, Shippers, Interface, Green logistics, Gap analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68838 (URN)10.1108/09600031211250596 (DOI)000314562000004 ()
    Prosjekter
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-06-08 Laget: 2011-06-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-09
    5. Coordination of environmental measures in logistics service privider-shipper relationships
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Coordination of environmental measures in logistics service privider-shipper relationships
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Digital proceedings of the 25th NOFOMA Conference, 2013, s. 1-16Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Despite increasing research into logistics service providers’ (LSPs’) environmental measures, limited attention has been given to LSP-shipper relationships. This is surprising considering the fact that there is increasing pressure on supply chains to become greener and LSPs are important actors in these supply chains. The aim of this paper is to suggest how environmental measures can be coordinated in LSP-shipper relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Four dyadic case studies, consisting of one LSP and one shipper each, provide the empirical basis for this paper. Literature on interorganisational coordination mechanisms is applied to the case findings in order to analyse how environmental measures are coordinated in the dyads. 

    Findings

    This paper identifies a number of coordination mechanisms applicable for different types of environmental measures in LSP-shipper relationships. Moreover, it is suggested that some environmental measures that can be taken in LSP-shipper relationships can be coordinated through different types of coordination mechanisms.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    Although the four cases presented in this paper give suggestions of coordination of environmental measures, studies into additional dyads could give further understanding with regards to environmental coordination in LSP-shipper relationships.

    Practical implications (if applicable)

    The results of this paper can help both LSPs and shippers understand how to work with environmental measures by the use of the appropriate coordination mechanisms.

    Original/value

    Contrary to previous research, which mainly takes one party's perspective, this paper takes a dyadic approach and thereby adds valuable knowledge to the interorganisational aspects of LSPs’ environmental work.

    Emneord
    Coordination mechanism, dyads, logistics service provider, green supply chains, environmental measures, interorganisational relationships
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98701 (URN)978-91-980973-3-7 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    25th NOFOMA Conference, 3-5 June 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Prosjekter
    Effektivare Citylogistik – En nödvändighet för både industri och samhälle
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-10-11 Laget: 2013-10-11 Sist oppdatert: 2016-11-30
  • 23.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Green logistics offerings and demands: matches and gaps2010Inngår i: Book of preceedings, Leeds: University of Leeds , 2010, s. 253-461Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market2012Inngår i: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 562-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of interfaces is central in supply chain management (SCM) and logistics. An important part of SCM is coordination and collaboration with different partners such as suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers and customers (CSCMP, 2010). Collaboration between parties in the supply chain is generally believed to decrease costs and increase efficiency as well as service. Moreover, the success of a firm is dependent on its managerial ability to integrate and coordinate the business relationships among the supply chain members (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). The supply chain linkage ought to be so tight that separate organizational units share the same purpose and suppliers and customers help each other to achieve mutually beneficial objectives (Seth et al., 2006).

    In the SCM literature interfaces seldom include the logistics service provider (hereafter labelled LSP). Instead, most interfaces discussed are those between a shipper and the receiver of the goods (Skjoett-Larsen et al., 2003; Stefanson, 2006). One reason for this could be that logistics firms are the least integrated link in supply chains (Lemoine and Skjoett-larsen, 2004) or that, as noted by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009), LSPs seem to be the forgotten actors of supply chain integration. Furthermore, LSPs are often merely seen as actors that supports other members of the supply chain, providing resources, knowledge, utilities or assets for the primary members (Spens and Bask, 2002). Several logistics related trends, such as the shift towards outsourcing and increased globalisation, increase the need for strong relationships between LSPs and supplychains (Seth et al., 2006).

    Most of the research conducted on LSPs applies either a shipper or an LSP perspective, instead of a dyad perspective. Literature in the context of service quality in supply chains also commonly considers only one directional view (Seth et al., 2006). Knemeyer and Murphy (2005) mean that there is a need to simultaneously consider both shipper and LSP perspectives in order to decrease the risk of key perceptual differences (gaps) that can negatively influence the logistics service quality.

    Shippers and LSPs face an emerging and considerable challenge because of the large negative impact transports have on the natural environment and, as stated by for example the EEA (2007) and Roth and Kåberger (2002), the environmental performance of the transport sector is an increasing problem. Because of growing freight transport it is not surprising that both shippers and LSPs are pressured from different stakeholders, such as governments and customers, to lower their environmental impact from transports (McKinnon, 2003; McKinnon and Piecyk, 2009; Wolf and Seuring, 2010). This creates an opportunity for LSPs to be proactive and meet these demands by considering environmental issues in their business models and as a value adding service offering.

    The correspondence between customer needs and the service offerings is essential in order to succeed with the service concept (Edvardsson, 1997). However, that does not necessarily mean that supply and demand always match. For example, Wolf and Seuring (2010) found that the LSPs seem to be ahead of their customers when it comes to environmental issues, but state this with caution and call for further research in this area. With the aim to learn more about the interface between LSPs and shippers and how environmental issues are taken into account, the purpose of this paper is:

    To develop and apply a tool for the identification of matches and gaps in the interface between LSPs’ green offerings and shippers’ green demands.

    There are many ways to label the actor responsible for the supply of logistics services. In this paper, the term logistics service providers (LSPs) is applied and, inspired by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009) and Forslund (2010), includes actors such as carriers, forwarding companies, transport(ation) companies, third party logistics providers/partners and logistics service companies/providers/suppliers.

    This paper is divided into five main parts. After the introduction, a literature section on the greening of the LSP-Shipper interface will be presented. This is followed by a gap section, ending with the developed gap model. Next, the survey study is explained, after which findings from the application of the model are presented. The paper ends with conclusions and future research suggestions.

  • 25.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental performance measurement in logistics management2009Inngår i: NoFoMa Conference, Book of proceedingsBook of Proceedings, Jönköping, 2009, s. 583-598Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The importance of stakeholder relationships in city logistics projects2012Inngår i: NoFoMa Conference, Book of proceedings / [ed] Juuso Töyli, Laura Johansson, Harri Lorentz, Lauri Ojala and Sini Laari, Naantali, Finland., 2012, s. 602-617Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: As a result of the negative impact of freight transport on the environment, logistics solutions in city centres have recently attracted increasing attention. In order to succeed with city logistics projects, collaboration between various stakeholders such as local authorities, logistics companies, retailers and property owners is essential, which is one reason why the interdependence among the stakeholders is a crucial aspect in relation to the projects. The purpose of this paper is to explore city logistics projects based on stakeholders’ cooperative relationships and to suggest how the nature of dependence between the stakeholders can affect the project.

    Design/methodology/approach: A wide range of documented city logistics projects is narrowed down in an iterative process, and three projects where relationships are described are analysed, supported by literature on interorganisational relationships. The analysis is based on the official documentation of city logistics projects.

    Findings: This paper illustrates how dependence between stakeholders in city logistics solutions can affect the project. The local authorities’ dependence on the commercial stakeholders is a common pattern, while the residents/consumers are those most often neglected. Although local authorities apply different strategies to involve various stakeholder groups, the poor documentation of stakeholder relationships suggests that this issue has been given limited attention in city logistics projects.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): Because of the impact of stakeholder relationships on city logistics projects, it is suggested that future projects would benefit from increased attention being paid to such relationships.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The notion of how various dependencies between actors may affect the projects can be beneficial for local authorities as it leads to a better understanding of their dependence on other stakeholders.

    Originality/value: With support from literature on inter-organisational relationships, this research addresses the often omitted aspects of stakeholder collaboration and, specifically, the impact of stakeholder dependence in city logistics projects.

  • 27.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental practices as offerings and requirements in the logistics market2014Inngår i: Logistics Research, ISSN 1865-0368, Vol. 7, nr 115, s. 1-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of environmental consider- ation for companies is mounting. This applies particularly well to logistics service providers (LSPs) who will have a possibility to compete by being greener than their com- petitors by offering services that include different green practices. As their customers play a vital role with regard to the extent to which LSPs can include environmental practices in their business, the interface between these actors is of interest. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain how environmental practices are reflected in offerings and requirements on the logistics market. A systematic literature review of what has been published on environmental practices as parts of offerings and requirements was complemented by a wider literature review. Empirical data were collected through a home page scan and a case study of four LSP–shipper dyads. With a starting point in stakeholder theory, the different data sets were analysed separately as well as combined, and similarities and differences were discussed. The findings point to differences in the way that LSPs and shippers offer and require environmental practices on their home pages and reasons for this are suggested to be due to their different types of stakeholders. Further, the environmental practices in relationships between LSP and shippers are often more relationship specific than practices on home pages. Based on the combined findings of the data sets, a classification of environmental practices as reflected in offerings and requirements on the logistics market is proposed. The article is mainly based on com- panies’ practices in Sweden and thereby provides a pos- sibility to extend the research into other countries as well. By taking two perspectives, the findings from this research can have implications both for purchasing and marketing of logistic services. The paper suggests which environ- mental practices that LSPs and shippers can offer or require in different stages of their business relationships. Contrary to most research within green logistics, this paper takes a business perspective on environmental practices. Further, the dual perspective of LSPs and shippers taken in this paper offers novel insight into how environmental practices can be included at different stages of LSP–shipper relationships. 

  • 28.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Exploring retailers’ learning towards greener supply chains2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    In order for retailers to decrease environmental impact from logistics, there is a need for a better understanding of what can be done from a retailer perspective in their relationships with logistics service providers (LSPs). This paper aims to explore how retailers can learn in order to become more environmentally sustainable in their relationships with LSPs.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper is based on an in-depth, single case study of a Swedish retailer. The paper relies on learning theories, which are applied to the case study that is of longitudinal nature and covers a period of six years. 

    Findings

    Findings indicate that there are different ways to learn in order to improve environmental sustainability in relationships with LSPs. Specifically, both single- and double-loop learning is of relevance. In terms of what can be learnt, the results suggest a number of different learning items that have potential to contribute to a decrease in environmental impact.

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper presents a first attempt to categorise different ways of learning for retailers who want to improve their environmental sustainability in relationships with LSPs. Deeper analysis is needed to understand if the learning items can be divided into more specific categories, such as different types of environmental practices (e.g. technological or managerial).

    Practical implications

    The results will provide retailers with a better understanding of how to take the next step in terms of greening their relationships with LSPs. Environmentally ambitious LSPs can, in turn, benefit from deeper insight into their customers’ internal work and take action based on this knowledge.

    Original/value

    Due to its longitudinal approach and the application of theory on organisational learning, this paper offers a novel perspective on retailers’ strive in increasing environmental sustainability in relationships with LSPs.

  • 29.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greening the offerings of logistics service providers2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual NOFOMA Conference: Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy / [ed] Arlbjørn Stentoft, Kolding, 2010, s. 969-984Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The importance of green aspects for companies is increasing. Therefore logistics service providers have a possibility to compete by being greener than their competitors. One possibility is to offer services that include different green aspects. The purpose of this paper is to develop a description of possible green categories of a logistics offering, based on a combination of customer and logistics service provider perspectives.

    Design/methodology/approach: A structured literature review showed what has been published on offerings and requirements regarding green logistics. Empirical data was collected in two steps. A survey was sent out to both shippers and logistics service providers and selected company homepages were scanned.

    Findings: The paper identifies a range of green categories as well as more specific aspects that can be a part of logistics service providers’ offerings. The findings consist of views from shippers as well as logistics service providers.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The paper is mainly based on Swedish companies only and thereby provides a possibility to extend the research into other countries as well. Specific research on logistics companies’ green offerings is still scarce and a multidisciplinary approach is recommended for future research.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The paper provides insight into which green aspects logistics service providers can include in their offerings, as well as what customers could demand from logistics service providers.

    What is original/value of paper: This paper illustrates both theoretically and empirically which green aspects that can be included in offerings and thereby providing logistics service providers with increased competitiveness alongside increased sustainability.

  • 30.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards unearthing environmental activities in the interface between logistics service providers and shippersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The importance of environmental consideration for companies is mounting. This applies particularly well to logistics service providers (LSPs) who will have a possibility to compete by being greener than their competitors by offering services that include different environmental activities. As their customers play a vital role with regard to the extent to which LSPs can include environmental activities in their business, the interface between these actors is of interest. The purpose of this article is to describe how environmental logistics activities are offered and required on the logistics market, and how the green logistics exchange that becomes part of a business deal can relate to the scope of activities.

    Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review of what has been published on environmental activities as parts of offerings and requirements was complemented by a wider literature review. Empirical data was collected through a homepage scan and a case study of four LSPshipper dyads. The analysis was performed stepwise, where the empirical data sets complemented and refined the initial findings from the literature review.

    Findings: The paper identifies a range of environmental activities that can be included as parts of offerings of LSPs or requirements of shippers, as well as parts of the green exchange in business deals between these two types of actors. Further, a classification of environmental activities is proposed based on their role in the business between LSPs and shippers.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The article is mainly based on companies’ activities in Sweden and thereby provides a possibility to extend the research into other countries as well. By taking two perspectives, the findings from this research can have implications both for purchasing and marketing of logistic services.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The paper suggests which environmental activities that LSPs and shippers can include in different stages of their business relationships.

    What is original/value of paper: The dual perspective of LSPs and shippers taken in this paper offers novel insight into how various environmental activities can be included at different stages of LSP-shipper relationships.

  • 31.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Maack, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Today's Challenges in Fostering Greener Logistics Systems2009Inngår i: Proceedings from the 14th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Volatile and Fragile Supply Chains, 2009, s. 925-928Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rogerson, Sara
    SSAP.
    Vendela, Sant'en
    SSAP.
    The impact of power balances and trust on modal shift possibilities2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    For logistics to become environmentally sustainable, modal shift from road to more energy-efficient alternatives, such as rail and sea, is needed. Power balances and trust between actors may drive and hinder the collaboration needed to induce change. The purpose is to increase the understanding of how power balances and trust between shippers and transport providers influence a change from road to more environmentally sustainable modes of transport.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This paper combines theoretical perspectives with preliminary interviews with both shippers and transport providers involved in modal shift. Theoretically, it builds on change management principles and two inter-organisational perspectives, namely power and trust.   

    Findings

    The results suggest that power balances and trust do indeed have an influence on the probability of modal shift possibilities, albeit they have different impact during the different phases of change.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    This paper is mainly conceptual, but draws on insights from preliminary interviews with shippers and transport providers. Case studies of companies or dyads that have changed from road to rail or sea would be fruitful to validate the findings presented in this abstract.

    Practical implications (if applicable)

    Actors, whether being transport providers or shippers, that want to initiate a change toward modal shift, can benefit from the findings. Specifically, they illuminate power bases and different forms of trust that can have a direct impact on modal shift being realised or not.

    Original/value

    Contrary to previous research, this paper offers a novel perspective of modal shift by analysing power balances and trust between transport providers and shippers.

    Keywords: Modal shift, power bases, environmentally sustainable logistics, supply chain collaboration.

     

    1. Purpose of this paper

    For logistics to become environmentally sustainable, modal shift from road to more energy-efficient alternatives, such as rail and sea, is needed (Regeringskansliet, 2018). This is a preferable choice in the direction of reducing both climate impact from transportation, as well as congestion on roads. Since de-speeding logistics is found to be a cost-effective way to decrease CO2 emissions (McKinnon, 2016), rail and sea transport should be an attractive option for companies striving towards environmental sustainability.

    In the light of this, it is somewhat discouraging to find that a shift on modes from road to rail and sea is slow. One reason for this slow progress is that decisions regarding which mode of transport to use are not taken by individual actors. On the contrary, several actors influence the decision, which makes the decision-making process more complicated. Key actors are companies sending and receiving goods (shippers) and transport providers, that arrange and execute the transport. This paper takes its starting-point in these two groups of actors: the shipper and the transport provider. Shippers are of large relevance as they are the ones with a demand of transports and with requirements linked to these. Influencing factors underlying the choice of transport are cost, transport quality, transport time and reliability (Flodén et al., 2017). Transport providers, on the other hand, respond to shippers demands, as a majority of shippers sub-contract their transport operations through a third party (Lammgård and Andersson, 2014). 

    To obtain modal shift in shippers’ supply chains to a larger extent, change is needed. Such change requires the participation of both shippers and transport providers and interaction between them is a prerequisite for success. Two critical change management principles, influencing the interaction between actors, are power and trust. Power balances between actors may both drive and hinder the collaboration necessary to induce change. At the same time, trust is likely to be of importance as an enabler for modal shift. The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of how power balances and trust between shippers and transport providers influence a change from road to more environmentally sustainable modes of transport.

    2.  Design/methodology/approach

    This paper combines theoretical perspectives with preliminary interviews with both shippers and transport providers involved in modal shift. Theoretically, it builds on change management principles and two inter-organisational perspectives, namely power and trust. Firstly, organisational change can be divided into three phases: unfreeze, change and refreeze (Fawcett et al., 2012). In this paper, two of these phases – the unfreeze and refreeze phase - are in focus, as they are the ones where power and trust are most likely to influence the potential for modal shift.

     

    Power is suggested to entail "the ability to evoke a change in another's behavior" (Gaski, 1984, p. 10). Power is relationship-specific and an actor with high power over another in one relationship, might be at a power disadvantage in another relationship. Power can be said to stem from power bases possessed by the actors in a relationship. A commonly applied framework for such bases is the one suggested by French and Raven (1959), who propose five power bases: reward, coercive, expert, referent and legitimate power. Reward power means an ability to mediate rewards to a target actor; coercive instead includes punishment to that target; expert power means a skill or knowledge desired by the target; referent power occurs when the target values identification with the source, and; legitimate power entails a belief by the target that the source has a natural right to influence. In addition to these five power bases, supply chain position is suggested to be of relevance and not covered by French and Raven (1959). According to Kähkönen and Lintukangas (2010), customers often have power over suppliers.

     

    Trust can be defined as “an expectation held by an agent that its trading partner will behave in a mutually acceptable manner” (Sako and Helper, 1998, p. 388). According to Sako (1992), there are three different types of trust: contractual, competence and goodwill. Contractual trust means a belief that collaborating actors will stay true to the contract, while competence trust entails a belief that a collaborating actor has the ability to conduct specific tasks. Finally, goodwill trust occurs when actors are willing to exceed the expected contractual agreements. The three types of trust can be said to be levels of trust, where contractual trust is the lowest level, but as relationships develop, trust also can develop and turn into competence trust or goodwill trust.

     

    Empirically, the paper relies on preliminary findings from interviews with shippers and transport providers. The interviews have focused on actor collaboration for modal shift to take place and have identified both possibilities and difficulties in the different stages of change that modal shift entails.

    3.  Findings 

    The results suggest that power balances and trust do indeed have an influence on the probability of modal shift possibilities, albeit they have different impact during the different phases of change. In the unfreeze phase, the initiating actor needs to have power advantage over the other actor, as this appears to be necessary for change to take place. In other words, modal shift does not appear to happen by itself, and therefore some degree of power advantage is needed. The power advantage appears to derive mainly from expert power, coercive power or supply chain position. Interestingly, these power bases can be of different relevance depending on whether the initiating actor is the transport provider or the shipper in a relationship between the two actors. Further, some level of trust between the transport provider and the shipper is needed, but especially in the case of new relationships, this trust is not likely to be more than in the form of contract trust.

     

    As change has been done and the next step is the refreeze phase, the challenge lies in maintaining the model shift. Here, trust becomes of higher importance than power. If competence trust or even goodwill trust have developed, there is high likelihood of a long-term change. However, if trust has not developed and sufficiently, there might instead be a high likelihood of the change to sustain.

    4.  Research limitations/implications

    This paper is mainly conceptual, but draws on insights from preliminary interviews with shippers and transport providers. Case studies of companies or dyads that have changed from road to rail or sea would be fruitful to validate the findings presented in this abstract. 

    5.  Practical implications

    Actors, whether being transport providers or shippers, that want to initiate a change toward modal shift, can benefit from the findings. Specifically, they illuminate power bases and different forms of trust that can have a direct impact on modal shift being realised or not.

    6.   Originality/value  Contrary to previous research, this paper offers a novel perspective of modal shift by analysing power balances and trust between transport providers and shippers.

  • 33.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg Sweden.
    Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Internal coordination to enable high load factor2017Inngår i: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, E-ISSN 1758-6550, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 1142-1167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify how activities may be coordinated within shippers’ organisations to enable high load factor (a key aspect of transport efficiency).

     

    Design/methodology/approach – A multiple-case study involving three shippers was conducted, in which the logistics or transport managers of each company were interviewed. The cases were analysed according to (1) which activities were coordinated to achieve high load factor, (2) interdependencies between the activities, and (3) the coordination mechanisms that shippers adopted.

     

    Findings – A matrix is developed to show the differences in applying various coordination mechanisms in eight categories, according to (1) intrafunctional or interfunctional coordination, (2) sequential or reciprocal interdependencies, and (3) the number of activities (dyadic or multiple). For example, coordination mechanisms aimed at exerting control are more suitable for intrafunctional than interfunctional interaction; interfunctional coordination relies more on mechanisms that aim to increase the understanding of transport-related issues among non-logistics activities.

     

    Research limitations/implications – The study is based on data from three Swedish companies.

     

    Practical implications – Managers are provided with suggestions for coordinating activities when their goal is to improve load factor. These findings are of interest for reducing costs and emissions.

     

    Social implications

     

    Originality/value – In response to suggestions in the earlier literature that shippers could improve their internal coordination to improve their load factor, this paper articulates several mechanisms for performing such coordination in eight situations.

  • 34.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI).
    Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Markant ökad fyllnadsgrad med intern koordinering2016Inngår i: Supply chain effect, nr 4, s. 23-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Förvånansvärt ofta pratas det om att det inte är ekonomisk hållbart att satsa på miljöförbättrande åtgärder inom logistiken, både bland varuägare och bland logistikföretag. Exempelvis har vi i tidigare forskning sett att varuägare inte är beredda att betala extra för att få miljöanpassade tjänster från logistikföretagen. Vi kommer i denna artikel att behandla fyllnadsgrad, vilken kan ses som en åtgärd som både varuägare och logistikföretag kan jobba med för att minska sin miljlöpåverkan.

  • 35.
    Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Coordination to manage dependencies between logistics service providers and shippers: An environmental perspective2016Inngår i: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, ISSN 0960-0035, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 316-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Although it has been suggested that shippers’ demands regarding environmental practices appear to have an impact on the environmental work of LSPs, limited attention has been given to environmental practices in the relationships between LSPs and shippers. The purpose of this paper is to explore how dependencies between LSPs and shippers can influence the way in which environmental practices are coordinated in the relationships between them.

    Design/methodology/approach: Four dyadic case studies, each consisting of one LSP and one shipper, provide the empirical basis for this paper.

    Findings: Two types of dependencies are suggested as having an influence over the coordination of environmental practices in LSP-shipper relationships: dependence between LSPs and shippers as such; and dependence with regard to specific environmental practices. In addition, the environmental ambition of the actors is found to be of relevance when LSPs and shippers coordinate environmental practices between them. Based on these parameters, different coordination mechanisms for environmental practices in LSP-shipper relationships are discussed.

    Research limitations/implications: The research is limited to four cases in a Swedish context. Additional cases might provide other insights into LSP-shipper relationships and thereby lead to modifications of the proposed conceptual framework.

    Practical implications: The results can help both LSPs and shippers improve their work with environmental practices through the use of the appropriate coordination mechanisms in their inter-organisational relationships.

    Originality/value: Contrary to previous research, which mainly takes one party’s perspective, this paper takes a dyadic approach and thereby adds valuable knowledge to the inter-organisational aspects of LSPs’ environmental work.

  • 36.
    Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greening logistics through relationships between logistics service providers and shippers2017Inngår i: Greening logistics / [ed] Maria Björklund, Maria Huge-Brodin, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2017, 1, s. 123-136Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Sallnäs, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    De-greening of logistics?: Why environmental practices flourish and fade in provider-shipper relationships and networks2018Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 74, s. 276-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the challenge of making transports and logistics greener, logistics service providers (LSPs) play a central role as the operators of freight transport. Their customers, the shippers, also play an important role in environmental development. Research has identified discrepancies between LSPs and shippers in their environmental practices. This paper takes a relational approach addressing these discrepancies, and the purpose is to develop the understanding of why environmental practices can both flourish and fade in provider-shipper relationships and networks. Paradoxes provide a theoretical lens, while an in-depth case study of two networks provides the empirical basis for the paper. The networks include relationships between LSPs and shippers. Findings show that paradoxes help to raise contextual awareness in the greening of these relationships. Paradoxes in many instances cause environmental practices to fade. One example is when an LSP's environmental ambition gives opportunities for environmental practices, but is limited by the financial goals of the shippers. Findings also indicate that if there are possibilities to relax the paradoxes, environmental practices may instead flourish in the relationships. One example of such a relaxation is environmental competence sustained and cultivated by an LSP, since such competence can increase the power position of the LSP.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-07-11 14:36
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