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  • 1.
    Aili Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Insulin signaling in primary adipocytes in insulin sensitive and insulin resistant states2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing numbers of people world-wide develops the disease type 2 diabetes. Development of type 2 diabetes is characterized by a shift from an insulin sensitive state to an insulin resistant state in peripheral insulin responding organs, which originates from the development of insulin resistance in the adipose tissue. Insulin resistance in combination with reduced pancreatic insulin secretion lead to overt type 2 diabetes.

    In this thesis, the insulin signaling network in primary adipocytes was analyzed. Key proteins and mechanisms were studied to gain deeper knowledge of signaling both in the insulin sensitive state and in the insulin resistant state produced by rapid weight gain as well as in type 2 diabetes.

    The surface of the adipocyte is dotted with invaginations in the cell membrane called caveolae that act as important metabolic and signaling platforms in adipocytes, and also harbor the insulin receptor. In paper I we show that insulin stimulation of primary adipocytes results in a rapid phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and caveolin-1, and that internalization of the proteins is mediated by endocytosis of caveolae.

    Weight gain due to overfeeding and obesity has been associated with the development of insulin resistance in insulin sensitive tissues such as the adipose tissue. In paper II we show that short-term overfeeding for one month of lean subjects results in an insulin resistant state. At the end of the study, the subjects had developed a mild systemic insulin resistance. Moreover, in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes we found several alterations of the insulin signaling pathway that mimicked alterations found in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes from subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    In paper III we present a first dynamic mathematical model of the insulin signaling network in human adipocytes that are based on experimental data acquired in a consistent fashion. The model takes account of insulin signaling in both the healthy, insulin sensitive state and in the insulin resistant state of type 2 diabetes. We show that attenuated mTORC1-mediated positive feedback to control of phosphorylation of IRS1 at Ser307 is an essential component of the insulin resistant state of type 2 diabetes. A future application of the model is the identification and evaluation of drug targets for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    In paper IV we examine the protein kinase that catalyzes the insulin stimulated mTORC1- mediated feedback to IRS1. We find that the phosphorylation of IRS1 at Ser307 is not likely to be catalyzed by the kinases S6K1, mTOR or PKB. However, a catalyzing protein kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of IRS1 at Ser307 was found to be associated with the complex mTORC1.

    In conclusion, this thesis provide new insights and characterize mechanisms of the intrinsically complex insulin signaling network of primary adipocytes, both in insulin sensitive and insulin resistant states.

    Delarbeid
    1. Rapid insulin-dependent endocytosis of the insulin receptor by caveolae in primary adipocytes
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Rapid insulin-dependent endocytosis of the insulin receptor by caveolae in primary adipocytes
    Vise andre…
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. e5985-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The insulin receptor is localized in caveolae and is dependent on caveolae or cholesterol for signaling in adipocytes. When stimulated with insulin, the receptor is internalized. Methodology/Principal Findings: We examined primary rat adipocytes by subcellular fractionation to examine if the insulin receptor was internalized in a caveolae-mediated process. Insulin induced a rapid, t1/2 less than3 min, endocytosis of the insulin receptor in parallel with receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation. Concomitantly, caveolin-1 was phosphorylated at tyrosine(14) and endocytosed. Vanadate increased the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 without affecting insulin receptor phosphorylation or endocytosis. Immunocapture of endosomal vesicles with antibodies against the insulin receptor co-captured caveolin-1 and immunocapture with antibodies against tyrosine(14)-phosphorylated caveolin-1 co-captured the insulin receptor, demonstrating that the insulin receptor was endocytosed together with tyrosine(14)-phosphorylated caveolin-1. By immunogold electron microscopy the insulin receptor and caveolin-1 were colocalized in endosome vesicles that resembled caveosomes. Clathrin was not endocytosed with the insulin receptor and the inhibitor of clathrin-coated pit-mediated endocytosis, chlorpromazine, did not inhibit internalization of the insulin receptor, while transferrin receptor internalization was inhibited. Conclusion: It is concluded that in response to insulin stimulation the autophosphorylated insulin receptor in primary adipocytes is rapidly endocytosed in a caveolae-mediated process, involving tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21319 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0005985 (DOI)
    Merknad
    Original Publication: Siri Fagerholm, Unn Örtegren Kugelberg, M. Karlsson, I. Ruishalme and Peter Strålfors, Rapid insulin-dependent endocytosis of the insulin receptor by caveolae in primary adipocytes, 2009, PLoS ONE, (4), 6, e5985. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005985 Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-09-30 Laget: 2009-09-30 Sist oppdatert: 2013-07-08
    2. Short-Term Overeating Induces Insulin Resistance in Fat Cells in Lean Human Subjects
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Short-Term Overeating Induces Insulin Resistance in Fat Cells in Lean Human Subjects
    Vise andre…
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass. Print), ISSN 1076-1551, E-ISSN 1528-3658, Vol. 15, nr 7-8, s. 228-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are closely linked to obesity. Numerous prospective studies have reported on weight gain, insulin resistance, and insulin signaling in experimental animals, but not in humans. We examined insulin signaling in adipocytes from lean volunteers, before and at the end of a 4-wk period of consuming a fast-food, high-calorie diet that led to weight gain. We also examined adipocytes from patients with T2D. During the high-calorie diet, subjects gained 10% body weight and 19% total body fat, but stayed lean (body mass index = 24.3 kg/m2) and developed moderate systemic insulin resistance. Similarly to the situation in T2D subjects, in subjects on the high-calorie diet, the amount of insulin receptors was reduced and phosphorylation of IRS1 at tyrosine and at serine-307 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine-302) were impaired. The amount of insulin receptor substrate protein-1 (IRS1) and the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine-312 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine-307) were unaffected by the diet. Unlike the T2D subjects, in subjects on the high-calorie diet, likely owing to the ongoing weight-gain, phosphorylation of MAP-kinases ERK1/2 became hyperresponsive to insulin. To our knowledge this study is the first to investigate insulin signaling during overeating in humans, and it demonstrates that T2D effects on intracellular insulin signaling already occur after 4 wks of a high-calorie diet and that the effects in humans differ from those in laboratory animals.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20893 (URN)10.2119/molmed.2009.00037 (DOI)000276043800004 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-09-24 Laget: 2009-09-24 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28
    3. Insulin Signaling in Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Modeling Analyses Reveal Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Human Adipocytes
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Insulin Signaling in Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Modeling Analyses Reveal Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Human Adipocytes
    Vise andre…
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 288, nr 14, s. 9867-9880Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes originates in an expanding adipose tissue that for unknown reasons becomes insulin resistant. Insulin resistance reflects impairments in insulin signaling, but mechanisms involved are unclear because current research is fragmented. We report a systems-level mechanistic understanding of insulin resistance in humans. We developed a dynamic mathematical model of insulin signaling – normally and in diabetes – based on quantitative steady-state and dynamic time-course data on signaling intermediaries in human mature adipocytes. At the core of insulin resistance is attenuation of a positive feedback from mammalian target of rapamycin in complex with raptor (mTORC1) to the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), which explains reduced sensitivity and signal strength throughout the signaling network. We demonstrate the potential of the model for identification of drug targets, e.g. increasing the feedback restores insulin signaling. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in an expanded adipose tissue results from cell growth restriction to prevent cell necrosis.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84999 (URN)10.1074/jbc.M112.432062 (DOI)000317114000027 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-10-30 Laget: 2012-10-30 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Phosphorylation of IRS1 at Serine 307 in Response to Insulin in Human Adipocytes Is Not Likely to be Catalyzed by p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Phosphorylation of IRS1 at Serine 307 in Response to Insulin in Human Adipocytes Is Not Likely to be Catalyzed by p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase
    Vise andre…
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is phosphorylated on serine 307 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine 302) in response to insulin as part of a feedback loop that controls IRS1 phosphorylation on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor. This in turn directly affects downstream signaling and is in human adipocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The phosphorylation is inhibited by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in complex with raptor (mTORC1). The mTORC1-downstream p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), which is activated by insulin, can phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in vitro and is considered the physiological protein kinase. Because the IRS1 serine 307-kinase catalyzes a critical step in the control of insulin signaling and constitutes a potential target for treatment of insulin resistance, it is important to know whether S6K1 is the physiological serine 307-kinase or not. We report that, by several criteria, S6K1 does not phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in response to insulin in intact human primary adipocytes: (i) The time-courses for phosphorylation of S6K1 and its phosphorylation of S6 are not compatible with the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (ii) A dominant-negative construct of S6K1 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (iii) The specific inhibitor of S6K1 PF-4708671 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307. mTOR-immunoprecipitates from insulin-stimulated adipocytes contains an unidentified protein kinase specific for phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307, but it is not mTOR or S6K1.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Public Library of Science, 2013
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93257 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0059725 (DOI)000317717300032 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Diabetes Fund||Novo Nordic Foundation||University of Linkoping||Swedish Research Council||

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-05-28 Laget: 2013-05-28 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-28
  • 2.
    Brännmark, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nyman, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bergenholm, Linnéa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Insulin Signaling in Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Modeling Analyses Reveal Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Human Adipocytes2013Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 288, nr 14, s. 9867-9880Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes originates in an expanding adipose tissue that for unknown reasons becomes insulin resistant. Insulin resistance reflects impairments in insulin signaling, but mechanisms involved are unclear because current research is fragmented. We report a systems-level mechanistic understanding of insulin resistance in humans. We developed a dynamic mathematical model of insulin signaling – normally and in diabetes – based on quantitative steady-state and dynamic time-course data on signaling intermediaries in human mature adipocytes. At the core of insulin resistance is attenuation of a positive feedback from mammalian target of rapamycin in complex with raptor (mTORC1) to the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), which explains reduced sensitivity and signal strength throughout the signaling network. We demonstrate the potential of the model for identification of drug targets, e.g. increasing the feedback restores insulin signaling. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in an expanded adipose tissue results from cell growth restriction to prevent cell necrosis.

  • 3.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Öst, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Franck, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Kardiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Short-Term Overeating Induces Insulin Resistance in Fat Cells in Lean Human Subjects2009Inngår i: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass. Print), ISSN 1076-1551, E-ISSN 1528-3658, Vol. 15, nr 7-8, s. 228-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are closely linked to obesity. Numerous prospective studies have reported on weight gain, insulin resistance, and insulin signaling in experimental animals, but not in humans. We examined insulin signaling in adipocytes from lean volunteers, before and at the end of a 4-wk period of consuming a fast-food, high-calorie diet that led to weight gain. We also examined adipocytes from patients with T2D. During the high-calorie diet, subjects gained 10% body weight and 19% total body fat, but stayed lean (body mass index = 24.3 kg/m2) and developed moderate systemic insulin resistance. Similarly to the situation in T2D subjects, in subjects on the high-calorie diet, the amount of insulin receptors was reduced and phosphorylation of IRS1 at tyrosine and at serine-307 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine-302) were impaired. The amount of insulin receptor substrate protein-1 (IRS1) and the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine-312 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine-307) were unaffected by the diet. Unlike the T2D subjects, in subjects on the high-calorie diet, likely owing to the ongoing weight-gain, phosphorylation of MAP-kinases ERK1/2 became hyperresponsive to insulin. To our knowledge this study is the first to investigate insulin signaling during overeating in humans, and it demonstrates that T2D effects on intracellular insulin signaling already occur after 4 wks of a high-calorie diet and that the effects in humans differ from those in laboratory animals.

  • 4.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Örtegren Kugelberg, Unn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Karlsson, M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ruishalme, I.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rapid insulin-dependent endocytosis of the insulin receptor by caveolae in primary adipocytes2009Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. e5985-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The insulin receptor is localized in caveolae and is dependent on caveolae or cholesterol for signaling in adipocytes. When stimulated with insulin, the receptor is internalized. Methodology/Principal Findings: We examined primary rat adipocytes by subcellular fractionation to examine if the insulin receptor was internalized in a caveolae-mediated process. Insulin induced a rapid, t1/2 less than3 min, endocytosis of the insulin receptor in parallel with receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation. Concomitantly, caveolin-1 was phosphorylated at tyrosine(14) and endocytosed. Vanadate increased the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 without affecting insulin receptor phosphorylation or endocytosis. Immunocapture of endosomal vesicles with antibodies against the insulin receptor co-captured caveolin-1 and immunocapture with antibodies against tyrosine(14)-phosphorylated caveolin-1 co-captured the insulin receptor, demonstrating that the insulin receptor was endocytosed together with tyrosine(14)-phosphorylated caveolin-1. By immunogold electron microscopy the insulin receptor and caveolin-1 were colocalized in endosome vesicles that resembled caveosomes. Clathrin was not endocytosed with the insulin receptor and the inhibitor of clathrin-coated pit-mediated endocytosis, chlorpromazine, did not inhibit internalization of the insulin receptor, while transferrin receptor internalization was inhibited. Conclusion: It is concluded that in response to insulin stimulation the autophosphorylated insulin receptor in primary adipocytes is rapidly endocytosed in a caveolae-mediated process, involving tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1.

  • 5.
    Nyman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jullesson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Mechanistic explanations for counter-intuitive phosphorylation dynamics of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 in response to insulin in murine adipocytes2012Inngår i: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 279, nr 6, s. 987-999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin signaling through insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is important for insulin control of target cells. We have previously demonstrated a rapid and simultaneous overshoot behavior in the phosphorylation dynamics of IR and IRS1 in human adipocytes. Herein, we demonstrate that in murine adipocytes a similar overshoot behavior is not simultaneous for IR and IRS1. The peak of IRS1 phosphorylation, which is a direct consequence of the phosphorylation and the activation of IR, occurs earlier than the peak of IR phosphorylation. We used a conclusive modeling framework to unravel the mechanisms behind this counter-intuitive order of phosphorylation. Through a number of rejections, we demonstrate that two fundamentally different mechanisms may create the reversed order of peaks: (i) two pools of phosphorylated IR, where a large pool of internalized IR peaks late, but phosphorylation of IRS1 is governed by a small plasma membrane-localized pool of IR with an early peak, or (ii) inhibition of the IR-catalyzed phosphorylation of IRS1 by negative feedback. Although (i) may explain the reversed order, this two-pool hypothesis alone requires extensive internalization of IR, which is not supported by experimental data. However, with the additional assumption of limiting concentrations of IRS1, (i) can explain all data. Also, (ii) can explain all available data. Our findings illustrate how modeling can potentiate reasoning, to help draw nontrivial conclusions regarding competing mechanisms in signaling networks. Our work also reveals new differences between human and murine insulin signaling.

  • 6.
    Nyman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rohini Rajan, Meenu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Brännmark, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    A Single Mechanism Can Explain Network-wide Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes from Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes2014Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 289, nr 48, s. 33215-33230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The response to insulin is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Much information is available about insulin signaling, but understanding of the cellular mechanisms causing impaired signaling and insulin resistance is hampered by fragmented data, mainly obtained from different cell lines and animals. We have collected quantitative and systems-wide dynamic data on insulin signaling in primary adipocytes and compared cells isolated from healthy and diabetic individuals. Mathematical modeling and experimental verification identified mechanisms of insulin control of the MAPKs ERK1/2. We found that in human adipocytes, insulin stimulates phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 and hence protein synthesis about equally via ERK1/2 and mTORC1. Using mathematical modeling, we examined the signaling network as a whole and show that a single mechanism can explain the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes throughout the network, involving signaling both through IRS1, PKB, and mTOR and via ERK1/2 to the nuclear transcription factor Elk1. The most important part of the insulin resistance mechanism is an attenuated feedback from the protein kinase mTORC1 to IRS1, which spreads signal attenuation to all parts of the insulin signaling network. Experimental inhibition of mTORC1 using rapamycin in adipocytes from non-diabetic individuals induced and thus confirmed the predicted network-wide insulin resistance.

  • 7.
    Nyman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rohini Rajan, Meenu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Brännmark, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    The insulin-signaling network in human adipocytes, normally and in diabetes: role of signaling through ERK1/22014Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin acutely controls metabolism in adipocytes, but also nuclear transcription through the “mitogenic” signaling pathway mediated by Map-kinases ERK1/2 (ERK). The cellular metabolic response to insulin is attenuated in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but whether this involves also signaling through ERK is unclear. Based on experimental data from primary mature human adipocytes from diabetic and nondiabetic individuals, we demonstrate a network-wide, model-based analysis of insulin signaling through ERK to phosphorylation of transcription factor Elk1 integrated with signaling for “metabolic” control. We use minimal modeling to analyze the idiosyncratic phosphorylation dynamics of ERK, i.e. a slow phosphorylation response that returns to basal in response to insulin, and conclude that sequestration of ERK is the simplest explanation to data. We also demonstrate a significant cross-talk between ERK and mTORC1 signaling to ribosomal protein S6 for control of protein synthesis. A reduced sensitivity and reduced maximal phosphorylation of ERK in response to insulin in the diabetic state can be explained by the same mechanisms that generate insulin resistance in the control of metabolism.

  • 8.
    Rohini Rajan, Meenu
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jonsson, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Turkina, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Phosphorylation of IRS1 at Serine 307 in Response to Insulin in Human Adipocytes Is Not Likely to be Catalyzed by p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is phosphorylated on serine 307 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine 302) in response to insulin as part of a feedback loop that controls IRS1 phosphorylation on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor. This in turn directly affects downstream signaling and is in human adipocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The phosphorylation is inhibited by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in complex with raptor (mTORC1). The mTORC1-downstream p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), which is activated by insulin, can phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in vitro and is considered the physiological protein kinase. Because the IRS1 serine 307-kinase catalyzes a critical step in the control of insulin signaling and constitutes a potential target for treatment of insulin resistance, it is important to know whether S6K1 is the physiological serine 307-kinase or not. We report that, by several criteria, S6K1 does not phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in response to insulin in intact human primary adipocytes: (i) The time-courses for phosphorylation of S6K1 and its phosphorylation of S6 are not compatible with the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (ii) A dominant-negative construct of S6K1 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (iii) The specific inhibitor of S6K1 PF-4708671 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307. mTOR-immunoprecipitates from insulin-stimulated adipocytes contains an unidentified protein kinase specific for phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307, but it is not mTOR or S6K1.

  • 9.
    ul Hasan, Kamran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Asif, Muhammad H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandberg, Mats O.
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Graphene-based Biosensor for Intracellular Glucose MeasurementsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report a novel graphene-based glucose micro sensor for measuring intracellular glucose. A borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 um diameter) is coated first with a graphene ink and then with a graphene-enzyme conjugate. The functional groups, presumably on the edge plane of graphene, assist binding with the free amine terminals of the glucose oxidase enzyme to result in a better immobilization. The as-prepared graphene biosensor exhibits a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode. The potential difference is linear over the concentration range of interest (10–1000μM). The measured glucose concentration in human adipocytes by using our graphene based sensor is consistent with reported values of glucose concentration. This device demonstrates a simple technique to measure intracellular glucose concentration.

  • 10.
    ul Hasan, Kamran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. CESAT, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Asif, Muhammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. COMSATS Institute Informat Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Umair Hassan, Muhammad
    COMSATS Institute Informat Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Sandberg, Mats O.
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fagerholm, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    A Miniature Graphene-based Biosensor for Intracellular Glucose Measurements2015Inngår i: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 174, s. 574-580Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a small and simple graphene-based potentiometric sensor for the measurement of intracellular glucose concentration. A fine borosilicate glass capillary coated with graphene and subsequently immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme is inserted into the intracellular environment of a single human cell. The functional groups on the edge plane of graphene assist the attachment with the free amine terminals of GOD enzyme, resulting in a better immobilization. The sensor exhibits a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential against an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode which is linear across the whole concentration range of interest (10 - 1000 mu M). Glucose concentration in human fat cell measured by our graphene-based sensor is in good agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

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