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  • 1.
    Gårdestig, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Helmrot, Ebba
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Medical Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Jönköping County Hospital.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson Althén, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bahar Gogani, Jalil
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan BL
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Estimations of effective dose in X-ray examinations derived from information stored in PACS2005In: Radiological Protection in Transition: Proceedings of the XIV Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS, Stockholm: Statens Strålskyddsinstitut , 2005, p. 175-178Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about each X-ray examination, in a modern digitized X-ray department is generated and stored in a PACS. Appropriate conversion factors, e.g. E/DAP, can be applied to separate projections and summed to the total effective dose for each examination. The objectives of the work were (i) to investigate the accuracy and precision in the calculated effective dose (ii) to identify data for registration of (1) patient dose, (2) exposure data, and (3) patient information (iii) to make it possible to derive dose statistics on patient level for documentation of diagnostic standard doses, optimizations, constancy checks, and future epidemiological studies. The effective doses were calculated using Monte Carlo based computer programs or by using tabulations. Conversion factors were calculated for different levels of information and the individual effective dose was compared to the most precise estimation. The results suggest that the accuracy in the estimations of effective dose increases by added information about the patient (gender, size) and how the examination was performed.

  • 2.
    Helmrot, Ebba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson Althen, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Estimation of the dose to the unborn child at diagnostic X-ray examinations based on data registrerad in RIS/PACS2007In: European Radiology, ISSN 0938-7994, E-ISSN 1432-1084, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 205-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to determine mean absorbed doses to the unborn child in common conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations and to find an approach for estimating foetal dose based on data registered in the Radiological Information System/Picture Archive and Communication System (RIS/PACS). The kerma-area product (KAP) and CT dose index (CTDIvol) in common examinations were registered using a human-shaped female dosimetry phantom. Foetal doses, Df, were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed inside the phantom and compared with calculated values. Measured foetal doses were given in relation to the KAP and the CTDIvol values, respectively. Conversion factor Df/KAP varies between 0.01 and 3.8 mGy/Gycm2, depending on primary beam position, foetus age and beam quality (tube voltage and filtration). Conversion factors Df/CTDIvol are in the range 0.02 – 1.2 mGy/mGy, in which the foetus is outside or within the primary beam. We conclude that dose conversion factors based on KAP or CTDIvol values automatically generated by the RIS/PACS system can be used for rapid estimations of foetal dose for common examination techniques.

  • 3.
    Kataria, Bharti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Nilsson Althen, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics.
    Smedby, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Sökjer, Hannibal
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics.
    Image quality and pathology assessment in CT Urography: when is the low-dose seriessufficient?2019In: BMC Medical Imaging, ISSN 1471-2342, E-ISSN 1471-2342, Vol. 19, article id 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Our aim was to compare CT images from native, nephrographic and excretory phases using image quality criteria as well as the detection of positive pathological findings in CT Urography, to explore if the radiation burden to the younger group of patients or patients with negative outcomes can be reduced.

    Methods

    This is a retrospective study of 40 patients who underwent a CT Urography examination on a 192-slice dual source scanner. Image quality was assessed for four specific renal image criteria from the European guidelines, together with pathological assessment in three categories: renal, other abdominal, and incidental findings without clinical significance. Each phase was assessed individually by three radiologists with varying experience using a graded scale. Certainty scores were derived based on the graded assessments. Statistical analysis was performed using visual grading regression (VGR). The limit for significance was set at p = 0.05.

    Results

    For visual reproduction of the renal parenchyma and renal arteries, the image quality was judged better for the nephrogram phase (p < 0.001), whereas renal pelvis/calyces and proximal ureters were better reproduced in the excretory phase compared to the native phase (p < 0.001). Similarly, significantly higher certainty scores were obtained in the nephrogram phase for renal parenchyma and renal arteries, but in the excretory phase for renal pelvis/calyxes and proximal ureters. Assessment of pathology in the three categories showed no statistically significant differences between the three phases. Certainty scores for assessment of pathology, however, showed a significantly higher certainty for renal pathology when comparing the native phase to nephrogram and excretory phase and a significantly higher score for nephrographic phase but only for incidental findings.

    Conclusion

    Visualisation of renal anatomy was as expected with each post-contrast phase showing favourable scores compared to the native phase. No statistically significant differences in the assessment of pathology were found between the three phases. The low-dose CT (LDCT) seems to be sufficient in differentiating between normal and pathological examinations. To reduce the radiation burden in certain patient groups, the LDCT could be considered a suitable alternative as a first line imaging method. However, radiologists should be aware of its limitations.

  • 4.
    Kataria, Bharti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Nilsson Althen, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences.
    IMPLICATIONS OF PATIENT CENTRING ON ORGAN DOSE IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY2016In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 169, no 1-4, p. 130-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) in computed tomography (CT) facilitates optimisation of dose absorbed by the patient. The use of AEC requires appropriate ‘patient centring’ within the gantry, since positioning the patient off-centre may affect both image quality and absorbed dose. The aim of this experimental study was to measure the variation in organ and abdominal surface dose during CTexaminations of the head, neck/thorax and abdomen. The dose was compared at the isocenter with two off-centre positions—ventral and dorsal to the isocenter. Measurements were made with an anthropomorphic adult phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters. Organs and surfaces for ventral regions received lesser dose (5.6–39.0 %) than the isocenter when the phantom was positioned 13 cm off-centre. Similarly, organ and surface doses for dorsal regions were reduced by 5.0–21.0 % at 25 cm off-centre. Therefore, correct vertical positioning of the patient at the gantry isocenter is important to maintain optimal imaging conditions.

  • 5.
    Nilsson Althén, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Automatic tube-current modulation in CT-A comparison between different solutions2005In: Optimisation Strategies in medical x-ray imaging,2004, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2005, p. 308-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Nilsson Althén, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    VERIFICATION OF INDICATED SKIN ENTRANCE AIR KERMA FORCARDIAC X-RAY-GUIDED INTERVENTION USING GAFCHROMIC FILM2016In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 169, no 1-4, p. 245-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to verify the indicated maximum entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) using a GE Innova IGS 520 imaging system during cardiac interventional procedures. Gafchromic XR RV3 films were used for the patient measurements to monitor the maximum ESAK. The films were scanned and calibrated to measure maximum ESAK. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the backscatter factor from an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. The measured backscatter factor, 1.53, was in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations but higher than the one used by the imaging system, 1.20. The median of the ratio between indicated maximum ESAK and measured maximum ESAKwas 0.68. In this work, the indicated maximum ESAK by the imaging system’s dose map model underestimates the measured maximum ESAK by 32 %. The threshold ESAK for follow-up procedures for patient with skin dose in excess of 2 Gy will be reduced to 1.4 Gy.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatic tube-current modulation in CT - A comparison between different solutions2005In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 114, no 1-3, p. 308-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, tube-current modulation systems on two different CT equipments have been evaluated: Care Dose from Siemens and Auto mA from GE Medical Systems. Care Dose modulates the tube current in the xy-plane during rotation whereas Auto mA modulates the tube current in the z-direction. xy-Plane modulation was investigated by using an elliptic Poly-methylmethacrylate phantom and a CTDI-ion chamber. To investigate modulation in the z-direction, an anthropomorphic dosimetry phantom (Atom) was used. Tests performed with and without tube-current modulation were compared with respect to absorbed dose and image quality. In the anthropomorphic phantom measurements, the dose savings were 15% using Care Dose and the photon starvation artefacts were negligible. Using Auto mA the absorbed dose depends on the chosen noise level. Image noise becomes more constant throughout the patient but photon starvation artefacts remain. We conclude that the two tube-current modulation techniques show different dose advantages and image quality artefacts. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Lund, Anders
    The effects of UV-irradiation on the ESR-dosimetry of tooth enamel2001In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tooth enamel has been shown to be an excellent dosimeter material for retrospective dosimetry. A complication is that it is sensitive to ultraviolet light (UV), creating a signal that interferes with the dosimetric signal. Irradiation of tooth enamel by UV-light induces a mixture of stable and unstable free radicals. The unstable radicals disappear in about three weeks. Stable radicals are created both at the dosimetric peak and at the same g-value as the native peak. The stable peak coinciding with the native peak shows saturation behavior both for UVA/B- and UVC-light. The signal intensity from the sun is roughly estimated to induce a signal comparable to 15 mGy/h from 60 kV X-rays. The blue lamps used by dentists when hardening plastic repairs contain a narrow tail in the UVA/B-region, and it is shown here that these lamps also contribute to the stable peak coincident with the native peak. The contribution to the dosimetry peak, though negligible, at least for the irradiation times is used in this work. Most of the problems with UVA/B-induced signal contributions can probably be avoided by not using front teeth and teeth close to plastic repairs. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.Tooth enamel has been shown to be an excellent dosimeter material for retrospective dosimetry. A complication is that it is sensitive to ultraviolet light (UV), creating a signal that interferes with the dosimetric signal. Irradiation of tooth enamel by UV-light induces a mixture of stable and unstable free radicals. The unstable radicals disappear in about three weeks. Stable radicals are created both at the dosimetric peak and at the same g-value as the native peak. The stable peak coinciding with the native peak shows saturation behavior both for UVA/B- and UVC-light. The signal intensity from the sun is roughly estimated to induce a signal comparable to 15 mGy/h from 60 kV X-rays. The blue lamps used by dentists when hardening plastic repairs contain a narrow tail in the UVA/B-region, and it is shown here that these lamps also contribute to the stable peak coincident with the native peak. The contribution to the dosimetry peak, though negligible, at least for the irradiation times is used in this work. Most of the problems with UVA/B-induced signal contributions can probably be avoided by not using front teeth and teeth close to plastic repairs.

  • 9.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Helmrot, Ebba
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Olsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics.
    Cederlund, Torsten
    Prenatal radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: mathods to identify exposed pregnant patients2002In: European IRPA Congress 2002, FlorensISBN 88-88648-09-7,2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Sandborg, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Nilsson Althen, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Gustafsson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    EFFICIENT QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAMS IN RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE IN ÖSTERGÖTLAND, SWEDEN2010In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 139, no 1-3, p. 410-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owners of imaging modalities using ionising radiation should have a documented quality assurance (QA) program, as well as methods to justify new radiological procedures to ensure safe operation and adequate clinical image quality. This includes having a system for correcting divergences, written imaging protocols, assessment of patient and staff absorbed doses and a documented education and training program. In this work, how some aspects on QA have been implemented in the County of Östergötland in Sweden, and efforts to standardise and automate the process as an integrated part of the radiology and nuclear medicine QA programs were reviewed. Some key performance parameters have been identified by a Swedish task group of medical physicists to give guidance on selecting relevant QA methods. These include low-contrast resolution, image homogeneity, automatic exposure control, calibration of air kerma-area product metres and patient–dose data registration in the radiological information system, as well as the quality of reading stations and of the transfer of images to the picture archive and communication system. IT-driven methods to automatically assess patient doses and other data on all examinations are being developed and evaluated as well as routines to assess clinical image quality by use of European quality criteria. By assessing both patient absorbed doses and clinical image quality on a routine basis, the medical physicists in our region aim to be able to spend more time on imaging optimisation and less time on periodic testing of the technical performance of the equipment, particularly on aspects that show very few divergences. The role of the Medical Physics Expert is rapidly developing towards a person doing advanced data-analysis and giving scientific support rather than one performing mainly routine periodic measurements. It is concluded that both the European Council directive and the rapid development towards more complex diagnostic imaging systems and procedures support this changing role of the medical physics professional.

  • 11.
    Sandborg, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Nilsson Althen, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Gustafsson, Agnetha
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Efficient quality assurance in radiology and Nuclear Medicine2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Sandborg, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Nilsson Althén, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Rossitti, Sandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Patient Organ Radiation Doses During Treatment for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage2012In: Clinical neuroradiology, ISSN 1869-1447, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 315-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate risk organ doses and to estimate radiation risks during the imaging work-up and treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: The imaging procedures comprised computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography studies for diagnosis or endovascular interventional procedures in 50 consecutive patients. Equivalent organ doses (H(T)) to skin, brain, eye lens, salivary glands, thyroid and oral mucosa were measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters in an anthropomorphic head phantom. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and radiological information system (RIS) records were analyzed and the frequency of each imaging procedure was recorded as well as the registered individual kerma-length product (P(KL)) and the kerma-area product (P(KA)). The doses were computed by multiplying the recorded P(KL) and P(KA) values by the conversion coefficients H(T)/P(KL) and H(T)/P(KA) from the head phantom. RESULTS: The mean fluoroscopy time, P(KL) and P(KA) were 38 min, 7269 mGy cm and 286 Gy cm(2), respectively. The estimated mean equivalent doses were as follows: skin 2.51 Sv, brain 0.92 Sv, eye lens 0.43 Sv and salivary glands 0.23 Sv. Maximum organ doses were 2.3-3.5 times higher than the mean. Interventional procedures contributed 66 % to skin dose, 55 % to brain dose and 25 % to eye lens dose. Of the patients with an estimated skin dose exceeding 6 Sv, only 1 developed temporary epilation. CONCLUSION: The risk for radiation-induced cancer for SAH patients is low (2-3 cases per 1,000 patients, of which 90 % are expected to be benign types) compared with the risk of tissue reactions on the head such as skin erythema and epilation (1 temporary epilation per 50 patients).

  • 13.
    Sandborg, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Rossitti, Sandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Nilsson Althen, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Patient organ radiation doses during treatment for aneurismal subarachnoid haemorrhage2011Conference paper (Other academic)
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