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  • 1.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rapport: Lärande för hållbar utveckling vid utbildningsprogram vid IEI, LiU2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

     Denna rapport beskriver en studie vars syfte har varit att undersöka vilka utmaningar och möjligheter som finns med att på ett systematiskt sätt arbeta för att främja ett lärande för hållbar utveckling vid LiU. Vår utgångspunkt har varit universitetskanslerämbetets tematiska utvärdering från 2017 av lärosätenas arbete med att främja en hållbar utveckling genom sina utbildningar. Vi har genomfört en studie med programansvariga vid utbildningar som ges vid institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, IEI varav en del på filosofisk och andra på teknisk fakultet. Dels har vi gått igenom utbildningsplanerna för programmen, dels har vi genomfört en enkätundersökning och en uppsättning fokusgruppsdiskussioner med programansvariga.

    Ett mindre antal av programmen och specifikt civilingenjörsutbildningen i Energi, Miljö & Management (EMM) har i utbildningsplaner referenser till specifika mål för en hållbar utveckling som man avser förbereda sina studenter att kunna bidra till. De flesta programs primära fokus ligger dock på anställningsbarhet för sina studenter. Från enkäten och fokusgruppsdiskussioner har vi förstått att det för många programansvariga har varit det första tillfället de fått att fundera över hur deras utbildningar eventuellt bidrar till att förbereda studenter för att hantera utmaningar kopplade till en hållbar utveckling. I våra resultat märks också en tydlig ambivalens och tveksamhet inför både vad man gör just nu, vad man vill göra och vilken sorts drivkrafter och styrning man önskar i det arbetet. Flera programansvariga hävdar å ena sidan att begreppet är svårdefinierat, men att man å andra sidan är säker på att man arbetar i en riktning som gör att utbildningarna bidrar till att främja en hållbar utveckling. Man hävdar att en del lärare vid de egna programmen kan sakna kompetens att hantera problem med flera dimensioner, men anser samtidigt att de egna lärarna har den kompetens som behövs för utbildnings-programmen. Man ser positivt på studenters och externa finansiärers önskemål om förändringar av utbildningarna, men är samtidigt tveksam till många av de sätt som LiU skulle kunna använda för att stödja arbetet med för-ändringar.

    Baserat på vår analys av programansvarigas respons och universitetskanslersämbetets rekommendationer ger vi avslutningsvis rekommendationer för fortsatt arbete med frågan om lärande för hållbar utveckling på LiU.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raciti, Massimiliano
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Basile, Maurizio
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cunsolo, Alessandro
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fröberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Cloud-Based Simulation Architecture for Pandemic Influenza Simulation2011In: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings 2011, Curran , 2011, p. 364-373Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-fidelity simulations of pandemic outbreaks are resource consuming. Cluster-based solutions have been suggested for executing such complex computations. We present a cloud-based simulation architecture that utilizes computing resources both locally available and dynamically rented online. The approach uses the Condor framework for job distribution and management of the Amazon Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2) as well as local resources. The architecture has a web-based user interface that allows users to monitor and control simulation execution. In a benchmark test, the best costadjusted performance was recorded for the EC2 H-CPU Medium instance, while a field trial showed that the job configuration had significant influence on the execution time and that the network capacity of the master node could become a bottleneck. We conclude that it is possible to develop a scalable simulation environment that uses cloud-based solutions, while providing an easy-to-use graphical user interface.

  • 3.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affordances and Constraints of Intelligent Decision Support for Military Command and Control: Three Case Studies of Support Systems2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers in military command and control (C2) have for several decades sought to help commanders by introducing automated, intelligent decision support systems. These systems are still not widely used, however, and some researchers argue that this may be due to those problems that are inherent in the relationship between the affordances of technology and the requirements by the specific contexts of work in military C2. In this thesis, we study some specific properties of three support techniques for analyzing and automating aspects of C2 scenarios that are relevant for the contexts of work in which they can be used.

    The research questions we address concern (1) which affordances and constraints of these technologies are of most relevance to C2, and (2) how these affordances and limitations can be managed to improve the utility of intelligent decision support systems in C2. The thesis comprises three case studies of C2 scenarios where intelligent support systems have been devised for each scenario.

    The first study considered two military planning scenarios: planning for medical evacuations and similar tactical operations. In the study, we argue that the plan production capabilities of automated planners may be of less use than their constraint management facilities. ComPlan, which was the main technical system studied in the first case study, consisted of a highly configurable, collaborative, constraint-management framework for planning in which constraints could be used either to enforce relationships or notify users of their validity during planning. As a partial result of the first study, we proposed three tentative design criteria for intelligent decision support: transparency, graceful regulation and event-based feedback.

    The second study was of information management during planning at the operational level, where we used a C2 training scenario from the Swedish Armed Forces and the documents produced during the scenario as a basis for studying properties of Semantic Desktops as intelligent decision support. In the study, we argue that (1) due to the simultaneous use of both documents and specialized systems, it is imperative that commanders can manage information from heterogeneous sources consistently, and (2) in the context of a structurally rich domain such as C2, documents can contain enough information about domain-specific concepts that occur in several applications to allow them to be automatically extracted from documents and managed in a unified manner. As a result of our second study, we present a model for extending a general semantic desktop ontology with domain-specific concepts and mechanisms for extracting and managing semantic objects from plan documents. Our model adheres to the design criteria from the first case study.

    The third study investigated machine learning techniques in general and text clustering in particular, to support researchers who study team behavior and performance in C2. In this study, we used material from several C2 scenarios which had been studied previously. We interviewed the participating researchers about their work profiles, evaluated machine learning approaches for the purpose of supporting their work and devised a support system based on the results of our evaluations. In the study, we report on empirical results regarding the precision possible to achieve when automatically classifying messages in C2 workflows and present some ramifications of these results on the design of support tools for communication analysis. Finally, we report how the prototype support system for clustering messages in C2 communications was conceived by the users, the utility of the design criteria from case study 1 when applied to communication analysis, and the possibilities for using text clustering as a concrete support tool in communication analysis.

    In conclusion, we discuss how the affordances and constraints of intelligent decision support systems for C2 relate to our design criteria, and how the characteristics of each work situation demand new adaptations of the way in which intelligent support systems are used.

    List of papers
    1. Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach
    2008 (English)In: ISCRAM2008 Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle, 2008, p. 504-515Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ComPlan (A Combined, Collaborative Command and Control Planning tool) is an approach to providing knowledge-based decision support in the context of command and control. It combines technical research on automated planning tools with human-centered research on mission planning. At its core, ComPlan uses interconnected views of a planning situation to present and manipulate aspects of a scenario. By using domain knowledge flexibly, it presents immediate and directly visible feedback on constraint violations of a plan, facilitates mental simulation of events, and provides support for synchronization of concurrently working mission planners. The conceptual framework of ComPlan is grounded on three main principles from human-centered research on command and control: transparency, graceful regulation, and event-based feedback. As a result, ComPlan provides a model for applying a human-centered perspective on plan authoring tools for command and control, and a demonstration for how to apply that model in an integrated plan-authoring environment.

    Keywords
    Decision support, mixed-initiative planning, critiquing, cognitive systems engineering
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42584 (URN)66339 (Local ID)66339 (Archive number)66339 (OAI)
    Conference
    5th International ISCRAM Conference, May 4-7, Washington, DC, USA
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. A Model for Document Processing in Semantic Desktop Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model for Document Processing in Semantic Desktop Systems
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the I-KNOW '08, the International Conference on Knowledge Management, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a significant gap between the services provided by dedicated information systems and general desktop systems for document communication and preparation. This situation is a serious knowledge-management problem, which often results in information loss, poor communication, and confusion among users. Semantic desktops promise to bring knowledge-based services to common desktop applications and, ultimately, to support knowledge management by adding advanced functionality to familiar computing environments. By custom tailoring these systems to different application domains, it is possible to provide dedicated services that assist users in combining document handling and communication with structured workflow processes and the services provided by dedicated systems. This paper presents a model for developing custom-tailored document processing for semantic-desktop systems. Our approach has been applied to the domain of military command and control, which as based on highly-structured document-driven processes. Key Words: semantic desktop, document-driven processes, semantic documents, planning

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 2008
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42583 (URN)66319 (Local ID)66319 (Archive number)66319 (OAI)
    Conference
    I-KNOW '08, the International Conference on Knowledge Management, 3-5 September, Graz, Austria
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Domain-specific knowledge management in a Semantic Desktop
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domain-specific knowledge management in a Semantic Desktop
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of I-KNOW '09 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies / [ed] Klaus Tochtermann, 2009, p. 360-365Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic Desktops hold promise to provide intelligent information-management environments that can respond to users’ needs. A critical requirement for creating such environments is that the underlying ontology reflects the context of work properly. For specialized work domains where people deal with rich information sources in a context-specific manner, there may be a significant amount of domain-specific information available in text documents, emails and other domain-dependent data sources. We propose that this can be exploited to great effect in a Semantic Desktop to provide much more effective knowledge management. In this paper, we present extensions to an existing semantic desktop through content- and structure-based information extraction, domain-specific ontological extensions as well as visualization of semantic entities. Our extensions are justified by needs in strategic decision making, where domain-specific, well-structured knowledge is available in documents and communications but scattered across the desktop. The consistent and efficient use of these resources by a group of co-workers is critical to success. With a domain-aware semantic desktop, we argue that decision makers will have a much better chance of successful sense making in strategic decision making.

    Keywords
    semantic desktop, knowledge management, domain-specific ontology
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56634 (URN)
    Conference
    9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies 2-4 September, Graz, Austria
    Available from: 2010-05-27 Created: 2010-05-27 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Message classification as a basis for studying command and control communication: an evaluation of machine learning approaches
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Message classification as a basis for studying command and control communication: an evaluation of machine learning approaches
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, ISSN 0925-9902, E-ISSN 1573-7675, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 299-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In military command and control, success relies on being able to perform key functions such as communicating intent. Most staff functions are carried out using standard means of text communication. Exactly how members of staff perform their duties, who they communicate with and how, and how they could perform better, is an area of active research. In command and control research, there is not yet a single model which explains all actions undertaken by members of staff well enough to prescribe a set of procedures for how to perform functions in command and control. In this context, we have studied whether automated classification approaches can be applied to textual communication to assist researchers who study command teams and analyze their actions. Specifically, we report the results from evaluating machine leaning with respect to two metrics of classification performance: (1) the precision of finding a known transition between two activities in a work process, and (2) the precision of classifying messages similarly to human researchers that search for critical episodes in a workflow. The results indicate that classification based on text only provides higher precision results with respect to both metrics when compared to other machine learning approaches, and that the precision of classifying messages using text-based classification in already classified datasets was approximately 50%. We present the implications that these results have for the design of support systems based on machine learning, and outline how to practically use text classification for analyzing team communications by demonstrating a specific prototype support tool for workflow analysis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2012
    Keywords
    Command and control – Classification, Exploratory sequential data analysis, Workflow mining, Random indexing, Text clustering
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67227 (URN)10.1007/s10844-011-0156-5 (DOI)000302240800001 ()
    Note

    funding agencies|Swedish National Defense College||

    Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision-making: a meta-study of command and control research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision-making: a meta-study of command and control research
    2012 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of distributed decision making in professional teams and their performance comes in part from studies in which researchers gather and process information about the communications and actions of teams. In many cases, the data sets available for analysis are large, unwieldy and require methods for exploratory and dynamic management of data. In this paper, we report the results of interviewing eight researchers on their work process when conducting such analyses and their use of support tools in this process. Our aim with the study was to gain an understanding of their workflow when studying distributed decision making in teams, and specifically how automated pattern extraction tools could be of use in their work. Based on an analysis of the interviews, we elicited three issues of concern related to the use of support tools in analysis: focusing on a subset of data to study, drawing conclusionsfrom data and understanding tool limitations. Together, these three issues point to two observations regarding tool use that are of specific relevance to the design of intelligent support tools based on pattern extraction: open-endedness and transparency.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer London, 2012
    Keywords
    Command and control, Text analysis, Interview study, Exploratory sequential data analysis
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67228 (URN)10.1007/s10111-011-0177-4 (DOI)000310239500005 ()
    Note

    funding agencies|Swedish National Defense College||

    Available from: 2011-04-04 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Automated text-based analysis for decision-making research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated text-based analysis for decision-making research
    2012 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a study on constructing and evaluating a support tool for the extraction of patterns in distributed decision -making processes, based on design criteria elicited from a study on the work process involved in studying such decision-making. Specifically, we devised and evaluated an analysis tool for C2 researchers who study simulated decision-making scenarios for command teams. The analysis tool used text clustering as an underlying pattern extraction technique and was evaluated together with C2 researchers in a workshop to establish whether the design criteria were valid and the approach taken with the analysis tool was sound. Design criteria elicited from an earlier study with researchers (open-endedness and transparency) were highly consistent with the results from the workshop. Specifically, evaluation results indicate that successful deployment of advanced analysis tools requires that tools can treat multiple data sources and offer rich opportunities for manipulation and interaction (open-endedness) and careful design of visual presentations and explanations of the techniques used (transparency). Finally, the results point to the high relevance and promise of using text clustering as a support for analysis of C2 data.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer London, 2012
    Keywords
    Command and control, Text analysis, Exploratory sequential data analysis, Text clustering
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67229 (URN)10.1007/s10111-010-0170-3 (DOI)000310239500003 ()
    Note

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Ola Leifler and Henrik Eriksson, Text-based Analysis for Command and Control Researchers: The Workflow Visualizer Approach, 2011, Cognition, Technology & Work. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10111-010-0170-3 Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/

    Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach2008In: ISCRAM2008 Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle, 2008, p. 504-515Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ComPlan (A Combined, Collaborative Command and Control Planning tool) is an approach to providing knowledge-based decision support in the context of command and control. It combines technical research on automated planning tools with human-centered research on mission planning. At its core, ComPlan uses interconnected views of a planning situation to present and manipulate aspects of a scenario. By using domain knowledge flexibly, it presents immediate and directly visible feedback on constraint violations of a plan, facilitates mental simulation of events, and provides support for synchronization of concurrently working mission planners. The conceptual framework of ComPlan is grounded on three main principles from human-centered research on command and control: transparency, graceful regulation, and event-based feedback. As a result, ComPlan provides a model for applying a human-centered perspective on plan authoring tools for command and control, and a demonstration for how to apply that model in an integrated plan-authoring environment.

  • 5.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    User-centric critiquing in command and control: the DKExpert and ComPlan approaches2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes two approaches for using critiquing as decision support for military mission planning. In our work, we have drawn from both human-centered research as well as results on decision support systems research for military mission planning when devising approaches for knowledge acquisition and decision support for mission planning.

    Our two approaches build on a common set of requirements which have been developed as the consequence of both literature analyses as well as interview studies. In short, these criteria state that critiquing systems should be developed with transparency, ease of use and integration in traditional work flow in mind. The use of these criteria is illustrated in two approaches to decision support in two different settings: a collaborative real-time war-gaming simulation and a planning tool for training mission commanders.

    Our first approach is demonstrated by the DKExpert system, in which end-users can create feedback mechanisms for their own needs when playing a two-sided war-game scenario in the DKE simulation environment. In DKExpert, users can choose to trigger feedback during the game by instructing a rule engine to recognize critical situations. Our second approach, ComPlan, builds on the insights on knowledge and planning representation gained from DKExpert and introduces an explicit representation of planning operations, thereby allowing for better analysis of planning operations and user-controlled feedback. ComPlan also demonstrates a design for critiquing support systems that respects the traditional work practice of mission planners while allowing for intelligent analysis of military plans. 

    List of papers
    1. Development of Critiquing Systems in Networked Organizations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Critiquing Systems in Networked Organizations
    2004 (English)In: Human Error, Safety and Systems Development, Springer US , 2004, p. 31-43Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, network organizations have been suggested as a solution for future crisis management and warfare. This will, however, have consequences for the development of decision support and critiquing systems. This paper suggests that there are special conditions that need to be taken into account when providing the means for decision-making in networked organizations. Hence, three research problems are suggested that need to be investigated in order to develop useful critiquing systems for future command and control systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer US, 2004
    Series
    IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, ISSN 1868-4238 ; 152
    Keywords
    decision support, critiquing systems, crisis management
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23805 (URN)10.1007/1-4020-8153-7_3 (DOI)3328 (Local ID)978-1-4020-8152-1 (ISBN)3328 (Archive number)3328 (OAI)
    Conference
    IFIP 18th World Computer Congress TC13/WC13.5 7th Working Conference on Human Error, Safety and Systems Development 22–27 August 2004 Toulouse, France
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    2. Critique and Visualization as decision support for mass-casualty emergency management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critique and Visualization as decision support for mass-casualty emergency management
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the Second International ISCRAM Conference, Brussels, Belgium: Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium , 2005, p. 155-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency management in highly dynamic situations consists of exploring options to solve a planning problem. This task can be supported through the use of visual cues that are based on domain knowledge of the current domain. We present an approach to use visualization of critical constraints in timelines and hierarchical views as decision support in mass-casualty emergency situations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Brussels, Belgium: Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium, 2005
    Keywords
    Decision support, crisis management, visualization
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-33968 (URN)20133 (Local ID)9076971099 (ISBN)9789076971094 (ISBN)20133 (Archive number)20133 (OAI)
    Conference
    Second International ISCRAM Conference. Brussels, Belgium. April 18-20 2005.
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    3. Simulation as a tool for problem detection in rescue operation planning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation as a tool for problem detection in rescue operation planning
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the Conference on Modeling and Simulation for Public Safety: SimSafe 2005, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management and response in the case of an emergency is a very demanding task. Rescue missiuns can involve numerous individuals and teams working together to save lives and property. The outcome of a rescue mission depends to a large extent on the responding units' ability to co-operate and the overall co-ordination of their efforts. This in turn makes it imponant to investigate how to support the decision makers in emergency situations.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102679 (URN)
    Conference
    Conference on Modeling and Simulation for Public Safety: SimSafe 2005, Linköping, Sweden, May 30, 2005
    Available from: 2013-12-18 Created: 2013-12-18 Last updated: 2014-01-21
    4. Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach
    2008 (English)In: ISCRAM2008 Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle, 2008, p. 504-515Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ComPlan (A Combined, Collaborative Command and Control Planning tool) is an approach to providing knowledge-based decision support in the context of command and control. It combines technical research on automated planning tools with human-centered research on mission planning. At its core, ComPlan uses interconnected views of a planning situation to present and manipulate aspects of a scenario. By using domain knowledge flexibly, it presents immediate and directly visible feedback on constraint violations of a plan, facilitates mental simulation of events, and provides support for synchronization of concurrently working mission planners. The conceptual framework of ComPlan is grounded on three main principles from human-centered research on command and control: transparency, graceful regulation, and event-based feedback. As a result, ComPlan provides a model for applying a human-centered perspective on plan authoring tools for command and control, and a demonstration for how to apply that model in an integrated plan-authoring environment.

    Keywords
    Decision support, mixed-initiative planning, critiquing, cognitive systems engineering
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42584 (URN)66339 (Local ID)66339 (Archive number)66339 (OAI)
    Conference
    5th International ISCRAM Conference, May 4-7, Washington, DC, USA
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Model for Document Processing in Semantic Desktop Systems2008In: Proceedings of the I-KNOW '08, the International Conference on Knowledge Management, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a significant gap between the services provided by dedicated information systems and general desktop systems for document communication and preparation. This situation is a serious knowledge-management problem, which often results in information loss, poor communication, and confusion among users. Semantic desktops promise to bring knowledge-based services to common desktop applications and, ultimately, to support knowledge management by adding advanced functionality to familiar computing environments. By custom tailoring these systems to different application domains, it is possible to provide dedicated services that assist users in combining document handling and communication with structured workflow processes and the services provided by dedicated systems. This paper presents a model for developing custom-tailored document processing for semantic-desktop systems. Our approach has been applied to the domain of military command and control, which as based on highly-structured document-driven processes. Key Words: semantic desktop, document-driven processes, semantic documents, planning

  • 7.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    A Research Agenda for Critiquing in Military Decision-Making2004In: Swedish-American Workshop on Simulation and modeling,2004, 2004, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision-making: a meta-study of command and control research2012In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of distributed decision making in professional teams and their performance comes in part from studies in which researchers gather and process information about the communications and actions of teams. In many cases, the data sets available for analysis are large, unwieldy and require methods for exploratory and dynamic management of data. In this paper, we report the results of interviewing eight researchers on their work process when conducting such analyses and their use of support tools in this process. Our aim with the study was to gain an understanding of their workflow when studying distributed decision making in teams, and specifically how automated pattern extraction tools could be of use in their work. Based on an analysis of the interviews, we elicited three issues of concern related to the use of support tools in analysis: focusing on a subset of data to study, drawing conclusionsfrom data and understanding tool limitations. Together, these three issues point to two observations regarding tool use that are of specific relevance to the design of intelligent support tools based on pattern extraction: open-endedness and transparency.

  • 9.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automated text-based analysis for decision-making research2012In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a study on constructing and evaluating a support tool for the extraction of patterns in distributed decision -making processes, based on design criteria elicited from a study on the work process involved in studying such decision-making. Specifically, we devised and evaluated an analysis tool for C2 researchers who study simulated decision-making scenarios for command teams. The analysis tool used text clustering as an underlying pattern extraction technique and was evaluated together with C2 researchers in a workshop to establish whether the design criteria were valid and the approach taken with the analysis tool was sound. Design criteria elicited from an earlier study with researchers (open-endedness and transparency) were highly consistent with the results from the workshop. Specifically, evaluation results indicate that successful deployment of advanced analysis tools requires that tools can treat multiple data sources and offer rich opportunities for manipulation and interaction (open-endedness) and careful design of visual presentations and explanations of the techniques used (transparency). Finally, the results point to the high relevance and promise of using text clustering as a support for analysis of C2 data.

  • 10.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Domain-specific knowledge management in a Semantic Desktop2009In: Proceedings of I-KNOW '09 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies / [ed] Klaus Tochtermann, 2009, p. 360-365Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic Desktops hold promise to provide intelligent information-management environments that can respond to users’ needs. A critical requirement for creating such environments is that the underlying ontology reflects the context of work properly. For specialized work domains where people deal with rich information sources in a context-specific manner, there may be a significant amount of domain-specific information available in text documents, emails and other domain-dependent data sources. We propose that this can be exploited to great effect in a Semantic Desktop to provide much more effective knowledge management. In this paper, we present extensions to an existing semantic desktop through content- and structure-based information extraction, domain-specific ontological extensions as well as visualization of semantic entities. Our extensions are justified by needs in strategic decision making, where domain-specific, well-structured knowledge is available in documents and communications but scattered across the desktop. The consistent and efficient use of these resources by a group of co-workers is critical to success. With a domain-aware semantic desktop, we argue that decision makers will have a much better chance of successful sense making in strategic decision making.

  • 11.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Message classification as a basis for studying command and control communication: an evaluation of machine learning approaches2012In: Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, ISSN 0925-9902, E-ISSN 1573-7675, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 299-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In military command and control, success relies on being able to perform key functions such as communicating intent. Most staff functions are carried out using standard means of text communication. Exactly how members of staff perform their duties, who they communicate with and how, and how they could perform better, is an area of active research. In command and control research, there is not yet a single model which explains all actions undertaken by members of staff well enough to prescribe a set of procedures for how to perform functions in command and control. In this context, we have studied whether automated classification approaches can be applied to textual communication to assist researchers who study command teams and analyze their actions. Specifically, we report the results from evaluating machine leaning with respect to two metrics of classification performance: (1) the precision of finding a known transition between two activities in a work process, and (2) the precision of classifying messages similarly to human researchers that search for critical episodes in a workflow. The results indicate that classification based on text only provides higher precision results with respect to both metrics when compared to other machine learning approaches, and that the precision of classifying messages using text-based classification in already classified datasets was approximately 50%. We present the implications that these results have for the design of support systems based on machine learning, and outline how to practically use text classification for analyzing team communications by demonstrating a specific prototype support tool for workflow analysis.

  • 12.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs, Linköpings, Sweden.
    Critique and Visualization as decision support for mass-casualty emergency management2005In: Proceedings of the Second International ISCRAM Conference, Brussels, Belgium: Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium , 2005, p. 155-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency management in highly dynamic situations consists of exploring options to solve a planning problem. This task can be supported through the use of visual cues that are based on domain knowledge of the current domain. We present an approach to use visualization of critical constraints in timelines and hierarchical views as decision support in mass-casualty emergency situations.

  • 13.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Simulation as a tool for problem detection in rescue operation planning2005In: Proceedings of the Conference on Modeling and Simulation for Public Safety: SimSafe 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management and response in the case of an emergency is a very demanding task. Rescue missiuns can involve numerous individuals and teams working together to save lives and property. The outcome of a rescue mission depends to a large extent on the responding units' ability to co-operate and the overall co-ordination of their efforts. This in turn makes it imponant to investigate how to support the decision makers in emergency situations.

  • 14.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Mats
    National Defence College, Sweden.
    Rigas, Georgios
    National Defence College, Sweden.
    Development of Critiquing Systems in Networked Organizations2004In: Human Error, Safety and Systems Development, Springer US , 2004, p. 31-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, network organizations have been suggested as a solution for future crisis management and warfare. This will, however, have consequences for the development of decision support and critiquing systems. This paper suggests that there are special conditions that need to be taken into account when providing the means for decision-making in networked organizations. Hence, three research problems are suggested that need to be investigated in order to develop useful critiquing systems for future command and control systems.

  • 15.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Rigas, Georgios
    KVI Försvarshögskolan.
    Persson, Mats
    KVI Försvarshögskolan.
    Developing critiquing systems for network organizations.2004In: IFIP 13.5 Working Conference on Human Error, Safety and Systems Development,2004, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag , 2004, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
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