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  • 1.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fats in Mind: Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cognition and Behaviour in Childhood2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to examine possible effects of omega-3 fatty acids on children’s cognition and behavior. Longitudinal as well as cross-sectional comparisons were made among children with typical development and children with ADHD /at risk developing ADHD.

    The specific purposes were to examine (1) breast-feeding in relation to cognition; (2) relation between long chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in mothers breast-milk and children´s cognition; (3) effects of EPA supplementation on cognition and behavior in children with ADHD; (4) if LCPUFAs have differential effects on working memory, inhibition, problem-solving and theory of mind (ToM).

    The main conclusions were as follows; (1) duration of breast-feeding was positively correlated to children levels of intelligence (IQ); (2) LCPUFAs in breast-milk was related to children’s ToM and IQ, the quotient DHA/AA, together with length of breastfeeding and gestation week explained 76% of the variance of total IQ; (3) subtypes of children with ADHD responded to EPA supplementation with significant reductions in symptoms, but there were no effects in the whole group with ADHD; (4) ToM ability was related to LCPUFAs, but not to any other cognitive measures as working memory, inhibition and problem-solving.

    To conclude, these results indicate that fatty acid status in breast-milk at birth affect general cognitive function in children at 6.5 years of age, including ToM. Short-term intervention with omega-3 fatty acids does not affect cognition in children with ADHD, but improves clinical symptoms as assessed by means of teacher ratings. These results further indicate that hot executive function and social cognition may be an area of interest for future research.

    List of papers
    1. Nutrition and theory of mind: The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the development of theory of mind
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutrition and theory of mind: The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the development of theory of mind
    2006 (English)In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Breast-milk provides nutrients required for the development of the brain. n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been suggested to be particularly involved. In this study levels of fatty acids in breast-milk were examined in relation to theory of mind (ToM) (n=13) and WISC-III (n=22) in six-year-old children. ToM tasks comprised four illustrated stories with questions about emotional (sad) events. Single polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were estimated as well as ratios between different fatty acids in order to describe putative associations between PUFA and psychological measures. Results show correlations between both ToM and WISC-III with single n-6 PUFA and the ratios DHA/AA and DHA/DPA. The correlations remained when socio-demographic factors were statistically controlled for. The positive findings related to the n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs corroborate previous findings related to child cognitive development. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50186 (URN)10.1016/j.plefa.2006.04.001 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Breastfeeding, very long polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and IQ at 6 1/2 years of age
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breastfeeding, very long polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and IQ at 6 1/2 years of age
    2004 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 1280-1287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Breastfeeding seems to be favorable for cognitive development. Could levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) explain this? Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited consecutively at maternity care centres. PUFA were analysed in colostrum and breast milk at 1 and 3 mo. The product-precursor ratios of n-6+n-3 PUFA were examined as measures of activity in respective steps in the fatty acid metabolic chain. Also, the quotient between DHA and AA was analysed. The children were tested with the full WISC-III at 6.5 y. Results: First, the influence of length of breastfeeding was analysed by multiple regression together with relevant cofactors (except for PUFA). In the best models, 46% of the variation in total IQ was explained. Length of breastfeeding contributed significantly to total IQ (beta = 0.228, p = 0.021), verbal IQ (beta = 0.204, p = 0.040) and performance IQ (beta = 0.210, p = 0.056). There were no significant single correlations between PUFA and measures of cognitive development. However, in multiple regression analysis of colostrum, significant beta-coefficients were found for steps 4+5 in the fatty acid metabolic chain (beta = 0.559, p = 0.002). If length of breastfeeding and gestation week were added to steps 4+5, this three-factor model could explain 67% of the variation of total IQ. Introducing length of breastfeeding and gestation week together with the quotient DHA/AA (beta = 0.510, p < 0.001) yielded a three-factor model, which explained 76% of the variation in total IQ. Conclusion: Our findings could be interpreted as supporting the importance of high levels of PUFA for cognitive development. However, the sample is small and the results must be interpreted with caution.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22154 (URN)10.1080/08035250410033123 (DOI)1264 (Local ID)1264 (Archive number)1264 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 10, p. 1540-1549Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Measure efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 0.5 g EPA or placebo (15 weeks) in 92 children (7-12 years) with ADHD. Efficacy measure was Conners Parent/Teacher Rating Scales (CPRS/CTRS). Fatty acids were analysed in serum phospholipids and red blood cell membranes (RBC) at baseline and endpoint with gas chromatography. Results: EPA improved CTRS inattention/cognitive subscale (p = 0.04), but not Conners total score. In oppositional children (n = 48), CTRS total score improved andgt;= 25% in 48% of the children receiving EPA vs. 9% for placebo [effect size (ES) 0.63, p = 0.01]. In less hyperactive/impulsive children (n = 44), andgt;= 25% improvement was seen in 36% vs. 18% (ES 0.41, n.s.), and with both these types of symptoms 8/13 with EPA vs. 1/9 for placebo improved andgt;= 25% (p = 0.03). Children responding to treatment had lower EPA concentrations (p = 0.02), higher AA/EPA (p = 0.005) and higher AA/DHA ratios (p = 0.03) in serum at baseline. Similarly, AA/EPA (p = 0.01), AA/DHA (p = 0.038) and total omega-6/omega-3 ratios (p = 0.028) were higher in RBC, probably because of higher AA (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15-week EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010
    Keywords
    ADHD, Arachidonic acid, DHA, EPA, LCPUFA, RBC, serum phospholipids
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59732 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01871.x (DOI)000281556700025 ()
    Available from: 2010-09-24 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. A Placebo controlled, randomized study of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) as treatment for neurodevelopmental problems in 7-year-old children and cognitive performance in relation to an age-matched control group
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Placebo controlled, randomized study of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) as treatment for neurodevelopmental problems in 7-year-old children and cognitive performance in relation to an age-matched control group
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present randomized placebo controlled double-blind study was to investigate the potential effect of PUFA supplementation on cognitive and behavioural performance in children with neurodevelopmental problems at 7 years of age (n = 28) and to compare findings with an age matched healthy control group (n = 20).

    METHODS: Children were screened with parent and teacher rating scales (Conner’s and SNAP-IV), and were included if they showed a range of neurodevelopmental problems that reached ADHD criteria. The group with neurodevelopmental difficulties was randomized to treatment with an EPA rich formula (n = 13) or to placebo (n = 15). Cognitive performance was determined at baseline and after 15 weeks of supplementation with a cognitive test battery including executive function and theory of mind tasks.

    RESULTS: Children with neurodevelopmental problems differed from the control group regarding working memory, inhibition and language ability, but not on an advanced theory of mind task. Regarding the treatment with EPA supplement there were no significant advantages in the active treatment group compared to placebo in any of the cognitive measures or in parents or teacher rating scales.

    CONCLUSION: The significant differences in cognitive performance and rating scales between the group with neurodevelopmental problems and the healthy control group at baseline indicate problems at a clinical level and suitability for treatment. However we found no significant effects of PUFA supplementation. The study is small and limited by a number of drop-outs.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68080 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-10 Created: 2011-05-10 Last updated: 2011-05-10Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Division of Paediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Umeå University.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    A Placebo controlled, randomized study of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) as treatment for neurodevelopmental problems in 7-year-old children and cognitive performance in relation to an age-matched control groupManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present randomized placebo controlled double-blind study was to investigate the potential effect of PUFA supplementation on cognitive and behavioural performance in children with neurodevelopmental problems at 7 years of age (n = 28) and to compare findings with an age matched healthy control group (n = 20).

    METHODS: Children were screened with parent and teacher rating scales (Conner’s and SNAP-IV), and were included if they showed a range of neurodevelopmental problems that reached ADHD criteria. The group with neurodevelopmental difficulties was randomized to treatment with an EPA rich formula (n = 13) or to placebo (n = 15). Cognitive performance was determined at baseline and after 15 weeks of supplementation with a cognitive test battery including executive function and theory of mind tasks.

    RESULTS: Children with neurodevelopmental problems differed from the control group regarding working memory, inhibition and language ability, but not on an advanced theory of mind task. Regarding the treatment with EPA supplement there were no significant advantages in the active treatment group compared to placebo in any of the cognitive measures or in parents or teacher rating scales.

    CONCLUSION: The significant differences in cognitive performance and rating scales between the group with neurodevelopmental problems and the healthy control group at baseline indicate problems at a clinical level and suitability for treatment. However we found no significant effects of PUFA supplementation. The study is small and limited by a number of drop-outs.

  • 3.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Gustafsson, P.
    Duchen, K.
    Nutrition and cognitive development2002In: Områdesgruppen för utvecklingspsykologi och neuropsykologi,2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Nutrition and theory of mind: The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the development of theory of mind2006In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast-milk provides nutrients required for the development of the brain. n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been suggested to be particularly involved. In this study levels of fatty acids in breast-milk were examined in relation to theory of mind (ToM) (n=13) and WISC-III (n=22) in six-year-old children. ToM tasks comprised four illustrated stories with questions about emotional (sad) events. Single polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were estimated as well as ratios between different fatty acids in order to describe putative associations between PUFA and psychological measures. Results show correlations between both ToM and WISC-III with single n-6 PUFA and the ratios DHA/AA and DHA/DPA. The correlations remained when socio-demographic factors were statistically controlled for. The positive findings related to the n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs corroborate previous findings related to child cognitive development. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Landgren, Magnus
    Department of Pediatrics, Mariestad, Sweden .
    Malmberg, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Pelling, Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Strandvik, Birgitta
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 10, p. 1540-1549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Measure efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 0.5 g EPA or placebo (15 weeks) in 92 children (7-12 years) with ADHD. Efficacy measure was Conners Parent/Teacher Rating Scales (CPRS/CTRS). Fatty acids were analysed in serum phospholipids and red blood cell membranes (RBC) at baseline and endpoint with gas chromatography. Results: EPA improved CTRS inattention/cognitive subscale (p = 0.04), but not Conners total score. In oppositional children (n = 48), CTRS total score improved andgt;= 25% in 48% of the children receiving EPA vs. 9% for placebo [effect size (ES) 0.63, p = 0.01]. In less hyperactive/impulsive children (n = 44), andgt;= 25% improvement was seen in 36% vs. 18% (ES 0.41, n.s.), and with both these types of symptoms 8/13 with EPA vs. 1/9 for placebo improved andgt;= 25% (p = 0.03). Children responding to treatment had lower EPA concentrations (p = 0.02), higher AA/EPA (p = 0.005) and higher AA/DHA ratios (p = 0.03) in serum at baseline. Similarly, AA/EPA (p = 0.01), AA/DHA (p = 0.038) and total omega-6/omega-3 ratios (p = 0.028) were higher in RBC, probably because of higher AA (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15-week EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Birberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Breastfeeding, very long polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and IQ at 6 1/2 years of age2004In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 1280-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Breastfeeding seems to be favorable for cognitive development. Could levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) explain this? Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited consecutively at maternity care centres. PUFA were analysed in colostrum and breast milk at 1 and 3 mo. The product-precursor ratios of n-6+n-3 PUFA were examined as measures of activity in respective steps in the fatty acid metabolic chain. Also, the quotient between DHA and AA was analysed. The children were tested with the full WISC-III at 6.5 y. Results: First, the influence of length of breastfeeding was analysed by multiple regression together with relevant cofactors (except for PUFA). In the best models, 46% of the variation in total IQ was explained. Length of breastfeeding contributed significantly to total IQ (beta = 0.228, p = 0.021), verbal IQ (beta = 0.204, p = 0.040) and performance IQ (beta = 0.210, p = 0.056). There were no significant single correlations between PUFA and measures of cognitive development. However, in multiple regression analysis of colostrum, significant beta-coefficients were found for steps 4+5 in the fatty acid metabolic chain (beta = 0.559, p = 0.002). If length of breastfeeding and gestation week were added to steps 4+5, this three-factor model could explain 67% of the variation of total IQ. Introducing length of breastfeeding and gestation week together with the quotient DHA/AA (beta = 0.510, p < 0.001) yielded a three-factor model, which explained 76% of the variation in total IQ. Conclusion: Our findings could be interpreted as supporting the importance of high levels of PUFA for cognitive development. However, the sample is small and the results must be interpreted with caution.

  • 7.
    Jungert, Tomas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Developmental Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alamaa, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Daud, Noor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Psychopathy, morality, and bullying among pre-adolescents2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Alamaa, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Daud, Noor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Children’s conceptions of bullying and repeated conventional transgressions: Moral, conventional, structuring and personal-choice reasoning2016In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined 307 elementary school children’s judgements and reasoning about bullying and other repeated transgressions when school rules regulating these transgressions have been removed in hypothetical school situations. As expected, children judged bullying (repeated moral transgressions) as wrong independently of rules and as more wrong than all the other repeated transgressions. They justified their judgement in terms of harm that the actions caused. Moreover, whereas children tended to judge repeated structuring transgressions as wrong independently of rules (but to a lesser degree than when they evaluated bullying) and justified their judgements in terms of the disruptive, obstructive or disturbing effects that the actions caused, they tended to accept repeated etiquette transgressions by arguing that the acts had no negative effects or simply that the rule had been removed. The findings confirm as well as extend previous social-cognitive domain research on children’s socio-moral reasoning.

  • 9.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Developmental Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Daud, Noor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Alamaa, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Schoolchildren's judgements and reasoning about bullying and repeated conventional transgressions in school settings2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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