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  • 1.
    Bui, Hai Thanh
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Color and texture induced structures of keyword space2005In: Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association,2005, Granada: International Colour Association , 2005, p. 1059-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Gooran, Sasan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media.
    A novel bi-level halftoning technique based on multi-level halftoning2005In: Proceedings of the Beijing Internaltional Conference on Imaging 2005,2005, New York, US: Science Press , 2005, p. 122-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Gooran, Sasan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Color Halftoning in Digital Printing1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gooran, Sasan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High-speed first- and second-order frequency modulated halftoning2015In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 24, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halftoning is a crucial part of image reproduction in print. First-order FM halftones, in which the single dots are stochastically distributed, is widely used in printing technologies, such as inkjet, that are able to stably print isolated dispersed dots. Printers, such as laser printers, that utilize electrophotographic technology are not able to stably print the isolated dots and therefore use clustered-dot halftones. Periodic clustered-dot, i.e. AM, halftones are commonly used in this type of printers but they suffer from undesired periodic interference pattern called moiré. An alternative solution is to use second-order FM halftones in which the clustered dots are stochastically distributed. The iterative halftoning techniques, that usually result in well-formed halftones, are operating on the whole input image and require extensive computations and thereby are very slow when the input image is large. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate image independent threshold matrices for first and second-order FM halftoning. The first-order threshold matrix generates well-formed halftone patterns and the second-order FM threshold matrix can be adjusted to produce clustered-dots of different size, shape and alignment. Using predetermined and image independent threshold matrices makes the proposed halftoning method a point-by-point process and thereby very fast.

  • 5.
    Gooran, Sasan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hybrid halftoning2004Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gooran, Sasan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Near-optimal model-based halftoning technique with dot gain1998In: SPIE Volume 3308 - Very High Resolution and Quality Imaging III, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 1998Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel halftoning technique for transformation of continuous tone images into binary halftoned separations. The algorithm is based on a successive assessment of the near optimum sequence of positions to render. The impact of each rendered point is fed back to the process as a distribution function thereby influencing the following evaluations. The distribution function is not constant over the density range. In order to be able to separate the dots adequately in the highlights the 'width or radius' of the distribution has to be made larger than in the mid-tones. The human visual system and the effect of dot gain are also taken into account in this algorithm. The notion of incremental dot gain is introduced. Since the series of positions to render are not known in advance the final necessary dot gain compensation is impossible to assess. However the incremental dot gain can be computed in advance for each configuration of dots and taken into account in the process of generating the output. Some aspects of the process have certain resemblance with error distribution based algorithms. However the raster scanning sequence of rendering the output points in usual error diffusion algorithms is completely different from the image dependent traversal described in this paper.

  • 7.
    Gooran, Sasan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Österberg, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hybrid Halftoning: A novel Algorithm for Using Multiple Halftoning Technologies1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rendering quality in halftoning is a critical issue. The quality aspects are more important in some images than in others. The quality of skin tone rendering of halftoned images generated by frequency modulated (FM) halftoning techniques differs from those generated by conventional halftoning techniques. Some judge the conventional halftoning techniques as superior in smoothly varying tones whereas frequency modulated halftoning techniques excel in heavily textured images. This paper describes an algorithm that can incorporate both technologies simultaneously. The technique is an iterative optimization of the binary halftone image with respect to the differences between the original and the halftoned images. The performance of the algorithm can be controlled by the nature of the original state of the iteration. The algorithm can in effect accommodate any type of halftone that can be described by a threshold matrix.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Colour Separation Strategy for Reproduction of Printed Dynamic Images on Paper Substrate2005In: iarigai Research Conference,2005, Zagreb: Iarigai , 2005, p. 191-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Influence of Paper Properties on Colour Reproduction with Dynamic Inks2005In: 2005 Beijing International Conference on Imaging: Technology and Applications for the 21st Century,2005, 2005, p. 214-215Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulation Experiments in Turbid Media - The Effect of In-homogeneous Layers2008In: TAGA 2008 proceedings, Sewickley PA, USA: TAGA - Technical Association of the Graphic Arts , 2008, p. 10-26Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical property of the substrate governs the reproduction characteristics and quality of printed paper. Paper is a very complex substrate that is designed for different application areas. In the simplest case it is a one-layer structure of fibers. In more complex structures the substrate may be build from several layers with different properties. In both situations it is vital to be able to control the manufacturing in order to achieve the desired product. This paper deals with simulation of differently composed structures that is difficult to accomplish in complex cases that goes beyond the Kubelka-Munk original theory. The paper describes qualitative results concerning the reproduction due to inhomogeneities in the layers themselves and the layer structures. More specifically we will study two simple structures, a one-layer substrate with inclusions ( for example recycled paper) and a two-layer substrate in which the coating layer thickness varies. In the second example the optical properties for the coating layer are supposed to be different from the base. The qualitative results show the degradations that can be expected due to inhomogeneities. The simulations will also allow for computation of the tone value increase in the simulated instances.

  • 11.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Characterization of Gloss from detailed Semi Goniometric Measurements2010In: Proc. TAGA (Technical Association of the Graphic Arts) / [ed] Alexandra Pekarovicova, TAGA, Sewickley, PA, USA: Technical Association of the Graphic Arts , 2010, p. 1-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gloss has a profound impact on the quality of printed matter. The manufacturing of the substrate and the printing process result in varying amount of gloss from the print. A glossy print with a smooth surface give a high degree of reflection in a relatively narrow specular sector. This contributes to the observed density range and is usually regarded as beneficial from a qualitative perspective. On surfaces that are less smooth, such as newsprint, the print quality is very dependent on the way gloss is angularly distributed. From the measurements it is clearly seen that gloss can be observed at different scales. The fibers themselves as well as the filler and surface material reflect with different characteristics.

    This paper is based on 360 degree angular measurements with a geometry of 60 degree illumination and zero degree detector. The specimen is placed in the instrument on a moving stage. Mechanically moving the specimen relative to the light source and digitally restoring the geometry create an impression of a moving light-source. In this paper we will focus on the gloss measured on a very detailed level (micrometers) as points of high reflection.

  • 12.
    Lindstrand, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Skogsindustrins tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Information Capacity Revisited - Reflections on Print Quality2000In: Advances in Printing Science and Technology / [ed] J. A. Bristow, Leatherhead, UK: Pira International , 2000, Vol. 26, p. 175-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of digital printing stresses the importance of quality measurement. Print quality measures that give an objective value have long been sought. The aim is 10 be able to dcscrihe objectively the properties of print on paper so that conclusions regarding the apparent quality can be drawn. In this paper, we discuss the measures proposed in the literature and relate them to the subjective quality. Several years ago, the concept of ‘information capacity’ was proposed as such a measure. Some reflections are made in the light of coding. and telecommunication theory. areas in which in information capacity is a vital tool. On the other hand. for the print quality applications. the interest in in formation capacity has in fact been decreasing. An obvious question therefore arises and is treated in this work: Why have we seen so few applications of this theory for practical applications in the area of print? Is the area of print quality so very different from the areas or image compression and telecommunication?

  • 13.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Colorimetric Device Characterization for Accurate Color Image Acquisition2007In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Vol. 36: iarigai / [ed] N. Enlund, Zagreb: Acta Graphic Publishers , 2007, p. 349-360Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High resolution properties of color prints2005In: Bijing International Conference on Imaging,2005, Beijing, China: Science Press , 2005, p. 242-243Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yang, Li
    Dept. of Chemical Engineering Karlastad University.
    A Micro-scale study of optical dot gain in color halftone2007In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Vol. 34: iarigai / [ed] N. Enlund & M. Lovrecek, Zagreb: Acta Graphic Publishers , 2007, p. 171-179Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Qu, Yuan Yuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A New Approach to Estimate the 3-D Surface of Paper2011In: Proceedings of the 63rd Technical Association of the GraphicArts, (TAGA), Pittsburgh, USA, 2011, p. 321-339Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for 3-D surface estimation based on reflection measurements in different orientationsof the light source and the paper. To facilitate the estimation, surface facets that probably support specular reflection weremarked and isolated, so as to enable the application of sample Lambertian reflectance model over those non-specular reflectionpoints. A computer controlled imaging device was used to capture images in a large number of orientations. The image capturewas performed using several different exposures in order to present larger dynamic irradiance range. Images together with theircounterpoints under antithetical illuminations were used to deal with the possible situation that light failed illumination arrivalson some points locate behind bulges.Iteration using difference approximation as well as enforcing integrability algorithm wereused to calculate the surface height based on Shaping from Shading algorithm.

  • 17.
    Solli, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Digital Printing Center, Mid Sweden University.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media.
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media.
    Digital Camera Characterization for Color Measurements2005In: 2005 Beijing International Conference on Imaging: Technology and Applications for the 21st Century, 2005 / [ed] Peijie Xia, Zhiying Qi, Guiping Niu, Li Zhang, Yunxia Zhou, Science Press , 2005, p. 278-279Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Solli, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Digital Printing Center, Mid Sweden University.
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media.
    Color measurements with a consumer digital camera using spectral estimation techniques2005In: 14th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, SCIA 2005 / [ed] Heikki Kalviainen, Jussi Parkkinen, Arto Kaarna, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag , 2005, , p. 10p. 105-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of spectrophotometers for color measurements on printed substrates is widely spread among paper producers as well as within the printing industry. Spectrophotometer measurements are precise, but time-consuming procedures and faster methods are desirable. The rapid development of digital cameras has opened the possibility to use consumer digital cameras as substitutes for spectrophotometers for certain applications such as production control. Two methods for estimating the reflectance properties of objects from camera RGB measurements using linear estimation techniques combined with linear and non-linear constraints are presented. In the experiments, we have investigated if these techniques can be used to measure the reflectance properties of flat objects such as printed pages of paper. Reflectances were converted to CIELAB color values, and the minimization of color errors were evaluated with CIE color difference formulas. Our experiments show that a consumer digital camera can be used as a fast and inexpensive alternative to spectrophotometers for color measurements on printed substrates.

  • 19.
    Yang, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fogden, Andrew
    Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Pauler, Nils
    Mid Sweden University.
    Saevborg, Oerjan
    Stora Enso Research Center.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Studying ink penetration with microscopic and spectroscopic techniques2006In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 327-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of ink jet ink in paper substrates and the consequences of ink penetration for printing color reproduction have been studied by combining microscopic image processing with spectroscopic analysis. The study focused on the effects of the composition of uncoated paper, for five laboratory papers plus two commercial products, all consisting of similar pulps but with different combinations of additives. In particular, it was observed that hydrophobizing internal size agents significantly reduced ink penetration, while their effect on paper optical properties was negligible. This observation thus made it possible to study experimentally the pure effects of ink penetration. Pairwise comparisons of prints on such laboratory papers with identical optical properties revealed remarkable impacts of ink penetration on optical density, causing color saturation reduction and color shift. These experimental observations confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  • 20.
    Yang, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Fogden, Andrew
    Pauler, Nils
    Sävborg, Örjan
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel method for studying ink penetration of a print2005In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 423-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method combining microscopy with image analysis for studying ink penetration of ink-jet prints has been proposed. Prints on paper substrates of various material compositions have been microtomed, imaged with optical microscopy, and analyzed with image processing. The penetration depth and distribution of the ink-jet dye in the paper, which depend on the material compositions of the substrates and printed ink volumes, are then obtained by means of statistical analysis. The study focuses on uncoated fine papers, including five types of hand-sheets and two commercial papers. It is observed that ink penetration can be significantly reduced by adding internal sizing (hydrophobizing) chemicals in the hand-sheet making, while it is relatively less affected by addition of filler and fluorescent whitening agent (FWA). Ink volume obviously influences the depth of its penetration, with depth increasing linearly for higher ink volumes but displaying a disproportionately shallow penetration for smaller applied volumes.

  • 21.
    Yang, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulation of optical dot gain in multichromatic tone production2001In: Journal of Imaging Science And Technology, ISSN 8750-9237, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 198-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical dot gain (light scattering or Yule-Nielsen effect) is an important effect influencing the quality of tone reproductions. Based on probability descriptions on the light scattering, a framework is established for describing this effect on the reflectance and color appearance of a chromatic halftone image. General expressions for the reflectance and CIEXYZ tristimulus values have been derived. Simulations for images printed with 2 inks have been carried out by applying Gaussian type of point spread function (PSF). Dependence of the optical dot gain on the optical properties of substrate and inks, the dot geometry etc., have been studied in detail.

  • 22.
    Yang, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yule-Nielsen Effect and Ink-penetration in Multi-chromatic Tone Reproduction2000In: IS & T's NIP16: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, 2000, p. 363-366Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework describing influences of ink penetration and Yule-Nielsen effect on the reflectance and tristimulus values of a halftone sample has been proposed. General expressions of the reflectance values and CIEXYZ tristimulus values have been derived. Simulations for images printed with two inks have been carried out by applying Gaussian type of point spread function (PSF). Dependence of Yule-Nielsen effect on the optical properties of substrate, inks, the dot geometry, ink penetration etc., have been discussed.

  • 23.
    Yang, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of the effects of ink penetration in ink jet printing: Experiments and simulation2004In: Journal of Imaging Science And Technology, ISSN 8750-9237, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 260-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Yang, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Revised Kubelka-Munk theory. I. Theory and application2004In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision, ISSN 1084-7529, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1933-1941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a statistical analysis of light propagation in media, we propose a revision to Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory by taking into account the effect of scattering on the path length of light propagation (path variation). This leads to new relationships between the K-M scattering S and absorbing K coefficients and the intrinsic scattering s and absorbing a coefficients of a material that indicate that the S and K coefficients depend nonlinearly on both a and s. The additivity law that bridges K-M S and K coefficients of a composite medium, such as dye-dispersed paper (dyed paper) and those of its material components (dye and paper), is also revised. It is further shown that experimental findings on dyed paper that the original K-M theory failed to explain can be clearly understood and accommodated by the new K-M theoretical framework (two-flux approach). Numerical simulations with the revised theory on model ink, paper, and dyed paper have been carried out.

  • 25.
    Yang, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miklavcic, Stan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Revised Kubelka-Munk theory. II. Unified framework for homogeneous and inhomogeneous optical media2004In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision, ISSN 1084-7529, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1942-1952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the applicability of the recently revised Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory to inhomogeneous optical media by treating inhomogeneous ink penetration of the substrate. We propose a method for describing light propagation in either homogeneous or inhomogeneous layers using series representations for the K-M scattering and absorption coefficients as well as for intensities of the upward and downward light streams. The conventional and matrix expressions for spectral reflectance and transmittance values of optically homogeneous media in the K-M theory are shown to be special cases of the present framework. Three types of ink distribution - homogeneous, linear, and exponential - have been studied. Simulations of spectral reflectance predict a depression of reflectance peaks and reduction of absorption bands characteristic of hue shifts and significant reduction of saturation and, in turn, color gamut.

  • 26.
    Yang, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Light scattering and ink penetration effects on tone reproduction2001In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 360-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light scattering, or the so-called Yule-Nielsen effect, and ink penetration into the substrate paper play important roles in tone reproduction. We develop a framework in which the influences of both of these effects on the reflectance and tristimulus values of a halftone sample are investigated. The properties of the paper and the ink and their bilateral interaction can be parameterized by the reflectance R-p(0) of the substrate paper, the transmittance T-i of the ink layer, the parameter gamma describing the ink penetration, and (p) over bar describing the Yule-Nielsen effect. We derive explicit expressions that relate the reflectance of the ink dots (R-i), the paper (R-p) and the halftone image (R) as functions of these parameters, We also describe the optical dot gain as a function of these parameters. We further demonstrate that ink penetration leads to a decrease in optical dot gain and that scattering in the paper results in the printed image's being viewed as more saturated in color. (C) 2001 Optical Society of America. OCIS codes: 100.7810, 290.7050.

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