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  • 1.
    Comstock, Mica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Monteringsteknik.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Monteringsteknik.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Winroth, Mats
    Jönköpings tekniska högskola.
    Project Course within Assembly-NET2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Herbertsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Engström, Magnus
    Saab Aerospace Commercial programs, Linköping, Sweden.
    Reconfigurable aircraft assembly: using industrial robots and new tooling to meet future production scenarios2002Inngår i: Proceedings of the 33rd ISR (International Symposium on Robotics), 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development of a new concept for aircraft airframe assembly tooling. While conventional aircraft assembly tooling relics on rigid steel frames this novel approach can be re-con figured for different products by the help of an accurate laser tracker guided industrial robot. Through this, aircraft manufacturers can better cope with an increased number of variants and smaller volumes which will increase the already high tooling costs. So far in the project a tooling concept has been conceptually designed and economically evaluated. The early technical results of the concepntal work indicate that the concept will work provided that enough mechanical stiffness can be obtained. The economical analysis shows that despite a much higher investment cost, a reconfigurable tool can be economical if it will replace 4-5 conventional tools. In certain future production scenarios reconfigurable tooling can play a very important role to keep the tooling costs down.

  • 3.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fixture design using Configurators2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2008 Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Lindberg, B.; Stahre, J., 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and manufacture of fixtures are among one of the major cost drivers in product industrialization. Modular or reconfigurable fixture solutions that may be adapted to encompass a large variety of parts or products have been researched and employed in applications ranging from machining to assembly. These solutions have not only the potential to reduce fixture manufacturing cost, but they also render it possible for different solutions to facilitate and speed up actual design work. The process of designing fixtures today is complicated, time consuming and require long experience by the tool designer. In this paper we present the Configurator approach - add on programs to the CAD-software which aids the designer in the design process. The Configurators are semi-automated and interactive, designed to use in compliance with the ART-concept, a reconfigurable fixture concept for assembly applications. The Configurator approach has been tested on industrial cases and parts of the results are presented in this paper.

  • 4.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Murray, Tom
    Airbus UK, United Kingdom.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany / [ed] D. Spath, R Ilg and T. Krause, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixtures are used in manufacturing to hold and position products or workpieces. Linköping University has over a period of several years developed an approach to flexible fixturing that relies on an outer measuring system to ensure accuracy rather than the more common approaches of high internal accuracy or a built-in chain of tolerances. The Linköping system fuses modularity, a rebuildable framework, with reconfigurability, through the means of adjustable devices. To address the need for speed in reconfiguration an automated approach has been developed as a proof-ofconcept. The system consists of electrical motors attached to the legs of the Flexapod 6, a PC, controller cards and an external measuring system. The measuring system feeds information to the PC that is utilized to calculate desired leg length using a Visual Basic program that communicates with CATIA V5. This program then sets signals to the motor controller cards which run the actuators. Due to the motors used the accuracy achieved are in the range of +/-0.15 mm but this may be enhanced with other types of motors developed for higher strengthrather than speed. The system can be further developed by having the actuators as the actual legs of the Flexapod, making it a cheaper Hexapod robot. The paper presents the automated Flexapod 6 in the current system along with possible further development.

  • 5.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Affordable automation for airframe assembly: developing of key enabling technologies2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Building aircraft is a challenging field. An aircraft has a life expectancy of 40 years, compared to just 10 years for a car. Given the vibrations of flying at close to Mach one at an altitude of 10,000 meters, these machines must function flawlessly in a tough environment. This demands high quality in the assembly processes. The typical part joining process in the automotive industry is welding, whereas in the aircraft industry, assembly is made through drilling, followed by fastening. The typical tolerances for part location in aircraft assembly, as well as for hole drilling, is +/- 0.2 mm.

    This dissertation discusses the use of industrial robots, widely used for welding and pick-and-place operation for automotive industry, in the automation of the aircraft industry, and specifically for the drilling of holes in the assembly process of airframe parts. The dissertation presents how a new drilling technology called orbital drilling is incorporated with and industrial robot. Orbital drilling reduces the cutting forces up to ten times compared to conventional drilling using a spiral cutter.

    The robot is also utilized for performing changeovers between different airframe structure types. A novel jointed reconfigurable tooling system called Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling (ART) is presented, which uses the robot to reconfigure flexible fixture modules. The ART system can also be rebuilt, which means that the tool is dismantled and reused for a completely different product family (e.g. wings, fins or fuselage sections). This is made possible through a modular framework, i.e. not welded as with conventional tooling, but rather jointed by screws.

    Robots, originally developed for the automotive industry, have an accuracy which is ten times less accurate than that required for aerospace applications. To help meet this limitation in the use of robots in aircraft assembly, an additional metrology system, used in the aircraft industry for calibrating assembly tooling, is integrated into the robot controller. The feedback loop enables the robot to be positioned to ±0.05 mm absolute accuracy. This integration is made possible by existing embedded software packages for the robot and the metrology system.

    The processes in the system are programmed in a software package with an intuitive user interface in a 3D-environment, normally used for the offline-programming of robots in automotive industry. The planning is intuitive, and an approach towards a process planning abstraction level is presented where processes are defined directly on the coordinate frames constituting the robot trajectories and manual operations. Tolerance on accuracy requirements are dynamically programmed in the same environment. The metrology system, working online with the robot controller, eliminates most of the calibration work required in traditional robot programming. Changes in the operation planning take less than a minute to run physically with the best tolerance.

    Delarbeid
    1. Reconfigurable tooling for airframe assembly: a state-of-the-art review of the related literature and a short presentation of a new tooling concept
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Reconfigurable tooling for airframe assembly: a state-of-the-art review of the related literature and a short presentation of a new tooling concept
    2001 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From the early days of aircraft manufacturing Dedicated Tooling has been used in the assembly process to ensure the attainment of assembly tolerances and product quality. Dedicated Tooling clamps the aircraft parts to be assembled into the jig to enable assembly by riveting. However, increased competition in the aircraft industry has driven the need to improve quality while reducing cost and in turn the need for innovative solutions to accomplish this.

    In this review paper the possibility of using metrology to increase the position accuracy in robotics will be examined. This is necessary to be able to use robotics in assembly of aircraft parts with the appropriate accuracy. Also, because of the small product volumes in the aircraft industry, the jigs must be flexible in order to assemble more than one structure in each jig. Solving these two problems could be the break through for starting to use robotics in aircraft assembly at a higher rate, and doing so in a cost-effective way.

    By then reviewing literature of today's flexible tooling technology in the aircraft industry, the conclusion indicates that there is a gap to fill in aircraft assembly tooling. Modular Tools is one solution where standard aluminium profiles are used to manufacture jigs with some degree of flexibility. Another way is pogo fixturing, which uses sticks to hold airframe parts together in the assembly process. The sticks can only be reconfigured in a limited range, and are not cost-effective. By using Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling, the jigs will not only have greater ability to be reconfigured, but by using robotics for the reconfiguration task as well as for drilling, riveting and other material handling tasks, the system will also be cost effective.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA: University of Michigan, 2001
    Emneord
    Reconfigurable, Airframe, Assembly, Tooling, Flexibility, Affordable
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73297 (URN)
    Konferanse
    CIRP 1st International Conference on Agile, Reconfigurable Manufacturing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 21-22 May
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-13 Laget: 2012-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2012-11-29bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Reconfigurable aircraft assembly: using industrial robots and new tooling to meet future production scenarios
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Reconfigurable aircraft assembly: using industrial robots and new tooling to meet future production scenarios
    2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 33rd ISR (International Symposium on Robotics), 2002Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development of a new concept for aircraft airframe assembly tooling. While conventional aircraft assembly tooling relics on rigid steel frames this novel approach can be re-con figured for different products by the help of an accurate laser tracker guided industrial robot. Through this, aircraft manufacturers can better cope with an increased number of variants and smaller volumes which will increase the already high tooling costs. So far in the project a tooling concept has been conceptually designed and economically evaluated. The early technical results of the concepntal work indicate that the concept will work provided that enough mechanical stiffness can be obtained. The economical analysis shows that despite a much higher investment cost, a reconfigurable tool can be economical if it will replace 4-5 conventional tools. In certain future production scenarios reconfigurable tooling can play a very important role to keep the tooling costs down.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85838 (URN)
    Konferanse
    33rd International Symposium on Robotics in Stockholm, October 8-10
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-11-29 Laget: 2012-11-29 Sist oppdatert: 2012-11-29
    3. Affordable reconfigurable tooling
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Affordable reconfigurable tooling
    2002 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early days of aircraft assembly, welded steel structures called Conventional Tooling has been used for positioning and holding parts in place during assembly. This paper presents a new tooling concept called Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling, where a robot is not only used for drilling and riveting but also for reconfiguring the tool itself. The concept consists of modular units that can either be reconfigured between products of the same family of assembly or rebuilt between product families. The research is part of an ongoing EU-founded aircraft industry project - ADFAST*.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73299 (URN)10.4271/2002-01-2645 (DOI)0-7680-1285-6 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    2002 SAE Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, 1 October 2002, Chester, United Kingdom
    Prosjekter
    ADFAST
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-13 Laget: 2012-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2012-11-29bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Robotic orbital drilling of structures for aerospace applications
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Robotic orbital drilling of structures for aerospace applications
    2002 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into orbital drilling using standard industrial robots. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project - ADFAST*. Generally it is difficult to use standard industrial robots to automate drilling in the aerospace industry. The stiffness of the standard robotic device is not sufficient to resist the deflections caused by the cutting forces from the drilling process, therefore it is difficult to achieve the tight hole tolerance requirements. Orbital drilling creates lower axial cutting forces compared to conventional drilling and therefore allows the use of low-cost standard industrial robots for drilling holes within the required hole tolerances. This paper presents results from a study where forces, moments and dislocations produced during orbital- and conventional drilling have been measured.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Chester, United Kingdom: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73377 (URN)10.4271/2002-01-2636 (DOI)
    Konferanse
    SAE Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, Oktober 1, 2002, Chester, United Kingdom
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-13 Laget: 2012-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2012-11-29bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. 6DOF metrology-integrated robot control
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>6DOF metrology-integrated robot control
    2003 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into Metrology-integrated robot control. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project – ADFAST*. The ADFAST project tries to implement the use of industrial robots in low-volume production, high-demand-on-accuracy operations and for dynamic force compensation. To detect and compensate deflection in industrial robots during a process, the robot uses a metrology system. The metrology system supervises the tool center point of the robot as it executes its processes. Leica has recently released a new metrology system; the LTD800, which measures distances with laser interferometry and can simultaneously measure orientation of targets, through photogrammetry, using an additional camera on top of the measuring unit. This paper will describe theory and results from tests performed on integrating the LTD800 with the robot.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Montreal, QC, Canada: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003
    Emneord
    Aircraft Assembly
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73378 (URN)10.4271/2003-01-2961 (DOI)
    Konferanse
    Automated Fastening Conference & Exposition, September 8, 2003, Montreal, Canada
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-13 Laget: 2012-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2012-11-29bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Metrology-integrated industrial robots: calibration, implementation and testing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Metrology-integrated industrial robots: calibration, implementation and testing
    Vise andre…
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 35th ISR (International Symposium on Robotics), 2004Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents integration of a metrology system and an industrial robot. The metrology system consists of a laser tracker that measures the distance to a prism with high accuracy and a camera that through photogrammetry measures the orientation of a reflector. Both laser prism and camera reflector is integrated to a 6D-Reflector that is attached close to the TCP of an industrial robot. Tracker and robot is connected to a PC on a TCP/IP network. The PC takes measurements with the tracker, and thereby compensates the robot to reach high absolute accuracy in the robot positioning (+/-50 μm). The 6D-Reflector has multi-functionality and simplifies calibration procedures. This paper explains the architecture of the system and the methods for calibration.

    Emneord
    Metrology, laser, photogrammetry, robot, online control, calibration
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73380 (URN)
    Konferanse
    35th ISR International Symposium on Robotics, 23-26 March, Paris, France
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-09 Laget: 2012-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2012-11-29bibliografisk kontrollert
    7. Low-cost automation for aircraft assembly
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Low-cost automation for aircraft assembly
    2004 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper solution for low-cost automation of aircraft assembly is presented. The concept of this development is closely related to "Lean Automation", which in this case concerns the use of modern standard equipment such as standard robots, PC-computers and a newlydeveloped spatial sensor system for prec1s1on measurements of positions. The robot is used to perform reconfiguration of tooling modules that arepossible to be configured/reconfigured in six degrees of freedom. A prototype developed as the result of an EU-project called ADFAST* has been evaluated at Linköping University in Sweden. Technical functionality is reported where the robot manages to configure the flexible tooling modules to a total error bellow 50 μm. This paper presents the resu~s on the portion of the project addressing robot, metrology system and tooling.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22547 (URN)10.4271/2004-01-2830 (DOI)1810 (Lokal ID)1810 (Arkivnummer)1810 (OAI)
    Konferanse
    SAE 2004 Aerospace Manufacturing & Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, September 21th 2004, St Louis, Missouri, United States
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-07 Laget: 2009-10-07 Sist oppdatert: 2012-11-29
    8. Orbital drilling: implementation and evaluation
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Orbital drilling: implementation and evaluation
    2004 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with issues about Orbital drilling implementation and evaluation. The paper summarizes and includes the so far written papers about Orbital drilling.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22549 (URN)10.4271/2004-01-2814 (DOI)1812 (Lokal ID)1812 (Arkivnummer)1812 (OAI)
    Konferanse
    SAE 2004 Aerospace Manufacturing & Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, September 21th 2004, St Louis, Missouri, United States
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-07 Laget: 2009-10-07 Sist oppdatert: 2012-11-29
  • 6.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Affordable reconfigurable assembly tooling: an aircraft development and manufacturing perspective2002Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry has changed in recent years. Increased globalization has led to a situation where few manufacturers build their own complete products "in-house". This situation is no different in the aerospace industry. In fact, aircraft manufacturers who build their complete aircraft in­ house are uncommon today. Aircraft manufacturers have, more and more, become specialists in limited areas of development and manufacturing. As specialists, aircraft manufacturers have focused on a narrow field of product categories. It would be a great advantage if these manufacturers had an assembly system that could produce several kinds of product categories using the same production equipment, instead of having one dedicated piece of equipment for each assembly.

    Today, the most common solution for aircraft assembly is Conventional Tooling (CT). CT is based on the same principles used during the early days of aircraft assembly tooling. The main principle of CT is that the fixture/tool is fabricated according to the shape of the workpiece, and that every assembly to be built requires its own unique tool. The problem with this type of tooling, however, is that developing one tool for each assembly is expensive and takes up a lot of storage space.

    The next generation of aircraft will be more advanced than their predecessors as world-class aircraft manufacturer employ the newest technologies in every new aircraft they manufacture. Building an advanced product like an aircraft involves continuous changes, both in the development of new aircraft and in the development of manufacturing technologies for the serial manufacture of aircraft. One of the main challenges for tomorrow' s aircraft industry will be to develop assembly systems that can manage changes within one product. Aircraft manufacturers would also benefit from using the same flexible assembly equipment for many product types, since product volumes in the aircraft industry are much smaller than in other industries.

    This thesis presents the theory of Conventional Tooling and its advantages and limitations, as well as new solutions. Given the advantages from both Conventional Tooling and the new tooling methods, together with general aircraft assembly requirements, a synthesizes has been made which has resulted in a new concept called Affordable Reconfigurable (Assembly) Tooling (ART). ART is based on using a robot to reconfigure the moveable fixturing units, called Dynamic Modules. The Dynamic Modules can also be detached from the Static Framework and attached again in a new configuration. Reconfiguration enables the ART concept to make changeovers between product types within a product family, and modularity enables the tool to be rebuilt between product families. The conclusion of this thesis is that if the enabling technologies work, i.e. if the technical solutions for ART are feasible, then the ART concept could represent a promising solution for manufacturers striving to meet future requirements for aircraft manufacturing in a turbulent globalized marketplace.

  • 7.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reconfigurable tooling for airframe assembly: a state-of-the-art review of the related literature and a short presentation of a new tooling concept2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From the early days of aircraft manufacturing Dedicated Tooling has been used in the assembly process to ensure the attainment of assembly tolerances and product quality. Dedicated Tooling clamps the aircraft parts to be assembled into the jig to enable assembly by riveting. However, increased competition in the aircraft industry has driven the need to improve quality while reducing cost and in turn the need for innovative solutions to accomplish this.

    In this review paper the possibility of using metrology to increase the position accuracy in robotics will be examined. This is necessary to be able to use robotics in assembly of aircraft parts with the appropriate accuracy. Also, because of the small product volumes in the aircraft industry, the jigs must be flexible in order to assemble more than one structure in each jig. Solving these two problems could be the break through for starting to use robotics in aircraft assembly at a higher rate, and doing so in a cost-effective way.

    By then reviewing literature of today's flexible tooling technology in the aircraft industry, the conclusion indicates that there is a gap to fill in aircraft assembly tooling. Modular Tools is one solution where standard aluminium profiles are used to manufacture jigs with some degree of flexibility. Another way is pogo fixturing, which uses sticks to hold airframe parts together in the assembly process. The sticks can only be reconfigured in a limited range, and are not cost-effective. By using Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling, the jigs will not only have greater ability to be reconfigured, but by using robotics for the reconfiguration task as well as for drilling, riveting and other material handling tasks, the system will also be cost effective.

  • 8.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brogårdh, Torgny
    ABB Robotics.
    Haage, Mathias
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Klas
    Lund University.
    Olsson, Tomas
    Lund University.
    On the Use of Force Feedback for Cost Efficient Robotic Drilling2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Drilling is one of the most costly and labour-intensive operations in aircraft assembly. Rather than automating with expensive fixtures and precise machinery, our approach is to make use of standard low-cost robot equipment in combination with sensor feedback. The focus is to eliminate the sliding movement of the end-effector during the clamp-up, called the skating effect, and to keep the end-effector orthogonal to the surface, thus avoiding holes that are not perpendicular. To that end, force feedback is used for building up pressure to clamp up an end-effector to the work-piece surface prior to drilling. The system, including the planning of force parameters for each hole to be drilled, was programmed in DELMIA. The drilling was accomplished with the aid of an extension to the ABB Rapid language called ExtRapid, which is an XML-like code that is interpreted by the force feedback controller downstream in the process. Although experimental results are from drilling, the conceptual idea is believed to be useful in many other applications requiring external sensor feedback control of industrial robots.

  • 9.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Engström, Magnus
    Commercial Programs, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Affordable reconfigurable tooling2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early days of aircraft assembly, welded steel structures called Conventional Tooling has been used for positioning and holding parts in place during assembly. This paper presents a new tooling concept called Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling, where a robot is not only used for drilling and riveting but also for reconfiguring the tool itself. The concept consists of modular units that can either be reconfigured between products of the same family of assembly or rebuilt between product families. The research is part of an ongoing EU-founded aircraft industry project - ADFAST*.

  • 10.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    DELFOi.
    Engström, Magnus
    Saab Aeronautics.
    Flexapods - Flexible Tooling at SAAB for Building the NEURON Aircraft2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building prototype aircrafts is costly in tooling especially since only one aircraft is being built. Today's most common tooling strategy is to weld together a beam framework. Welded framework solutions have long lead times both in design and manufacturing and once the aircraft is assembled the tool becomes obsolete. Flexible tooling strategy uses non-welded tooling thus it can be changed and re-used for future products. Early version of a new aircraft model is always hampered by frequent changes in its design, which is cumbersome to handle in a welded framework solution. This paper presents a flexible assembly tooling solutions based on Flexapods and BoxJoint. The Flexapods are commercialized reconfigurable tooling units that are manually adjusted injunction with a laser tracker to a final positional accuracy of +/? 0,05 mm absolute accuracy. An operator software program called the Flexapod control panel collect metrology data in real-time and an operator screen show graphics on how to manually jog the Flexapod joints to reach the final Cartesian 3D-coordinate. The Flexapods are installed in a modular steel based framework solution called BoxJoint. A complete PLM package has been developed for the solution where the Flexapods are configured in CATIA using an add-on package to CATIA called the Flexapod configurator. All CATIA data is stored in ENOVIA. Once the Flexapod fixture is designed in CATIA a file, containing all Cartesian coordinates of the Flexapods, is exported and loaded into the Flexapod control panel on the workshop floor. A previous paper on the Flexapod as an early concept and a paper on BoxJoint have been presented at SAE Aerofast. This paper follows up on these results and presents a case study at SAAB Aeronautics for implementing the first industrial solution of Flexapods to build the military unmanned aerial vehicle - nEURON.

  • 11.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Engström, Magnus
    Aerostructures Saab AB.
    Flexible Fixtures with Low Cost and Short Lead Times2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents preliminary result in a flexible fixture solution for airframe assembly comprising a modular steel framework called Box-joint and flexible tooling modules called Hexapods. The solution is comprises a framework that is screwed together instead of welding beams together, which enables re-building the framework when performing change-over in a more extensive reconfiguration. The Hexapods are parallel legged passive fixture stands that can change their configuration to facilitate easy setup in a change-over between handle different assemblies. A solution to configure the Hexapods manually is described. The investment cost can be kept low by using a metrology system to provide for high accuracy in the tool configuration process instead of using precision parts in the fixture system.

  • 12.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Novator AB.
    Ennis, Mark
    Novator AB.
    Robotic orbital drilling of structures for aerospace applications2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into orbital drilling using standard industrial robots. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project - ADFAST*. Generally it is difficult to use standard industrial robots to automate drilling in the aerospace industry. The stiffness of the standard robotic device is not sufficient to resist the deflections caused by the cutting forces from the drilling process, therefore it is difficult to achieve the tight hole tolerance requirements. Orbital drilling creates lower axial cutting forces compared to conventional drilling and therefore allows the use of low-cost standard industrial robots for drilling holes within the required hole tolerances. This paper presents results from a study where forces, moments and dislocations produced during orbital- and conventional drilling have been measured.

  • 13.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindqvist, Richard
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Orbital drilling: implementation and evaluation2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with issues about Orbital drilling implementation and evaluation. The paper summarizes and includes the so far written papers about Orbital drilling.

  • 14.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Loser, Raimund
    Leica Geosystems AG.
    6DOF metrology-integrated robot control2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into Metrology-integrated robot control. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project – ADFAST*. The ADFAST project tries to implement the use of industrial robots in low-volume production, high-demand-on-accuracy operations and for dynamic force compensation. To detect and compensate deflection in industrial robots during a process, the robot uses a metrology system. The metrology system supervises the tool center point of the robot as it executes its processes. Leica has recently released a new metrology system; the LTD800, which measures distances with laser interferometry and can simultaneously measure orientation of targets, through photogrammetry, using an additional camera on top of the measuring unit. This paper will describe theory and results from tests performed on integrating the LTD800 with the robot.

  • 15.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Loser, Raimund
    Leica Geosystems AG, Metrology Division, Switzerland.
    Cooke, Andrew
    BAE Systems, Advanced Technology Centre, United Kingdom.
    Sunnanbo, Albin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Von Arb, Konrad
    Leica Geosystems AG, Metrology Division, Switzerland.
    Metrology-integrated industrial robots: calibration, implementation and testing2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the 35th ISR (International Symposium on Robotics), 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents integration of a metrology system and an industrial robot. The metrology system consists of a laser tracker that measures the distance to a prism with high accuracy and a camera that through photogrammetry measures the orientation of a reflector. Both laser prism and camera reflector is integrated to a 6D-Reflector that is attached close to the TCP of an industrial robot. Tracker and robot is connected to a PC on a TCP/IP network. The PC takes measurements with the tracker, and thereby compensates the robot to reach high absolute accuracy in the robot positioning (+/-50 μm). The 6D-Reflector has multi-functionality and simplifies calibration procedures. This paper explains the architecture of the system and the methods for calibration.

  • 16.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ossbahr, Gilbert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Engström, Magnus
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Anderson, John
    Advanced Technology Centre, BAE SYSTEMS.
    Low-cost automation for aircraft assembly2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper solution for low-cost automation of aircraft assembly is presented. The concept of this development is closely related to "Lean Automation", which in this case concerns the use of modern standard equipment such as standard robots, PC-computers and a newlydeveloped spatial sensor system for prec1s1on measurements of positions. The robot is used to perform reconfiguration of tooling modules that arepossible to be configured/reconfigured in six degrees of freedom. A prototype developed as the result of an EU-project called ADFAST* has been evaluated at Linköping University in Sweden. Technical functionality is reported where the robot manages to configure the flexible tooling modules to a total error bellow 50 μm. This paper presents the resu~s on the portion of the project addressing robot, metrology system and tooling.

  • 17.
    Millar, Alison
    et al.
    Airbus Operations Ltd.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    DELFOi.
    Reconfigurable Flexible Tooling for Aerospace Wing Assembly2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, in the civil aerospace industry, assembly fixtures are large, bespoke, permanent structures that are costly to both design and manufacture. Additionally, the time to design, manufacture and install a large fixture can be significant with lead times in excess of 24 months.

    Within Airbus Operations Ltd there is a requirement to reduce non-recurring costs, reduce the time to market and improve the capacity and flexibility of equipment. This means that while the costs and lead times must be reduced, the utilisation of the tooling should be increased.

    Flexible and reconfigurable fixtures have not yet been deployed within Airbus Operations Ltd due to the assembly sizes and complex component configurations. However, they offer the potential for reducing costs by utilising off the shelf components. Using standard parts and implementing design tools can reduce the design time. The reconfigurable and flexible nature of the fixture will also enable embodiment of late component design changes with minimal time and cost impact.

    This paper presents the design, manufacture and installation of a reconfigurable fixture to assemble a wing box section in a research environment. This tooling demonstrator is then being used to evaluate the technical and industrial benefits of reconfigurable fixtures for aircraft wing sub assemblies and assemblies at Airbus.

  • 18.
    Olsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Lund and ABB Robotics, Department RC and ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Haage, Mathias
    Department of Computer Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. DELFOi, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Klas
    Department of Computer Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Robertsson, Anders
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Isaksson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ossbahr, Gilbert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brogardh, Torgny
    ABB Robotics, Department RC and ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Cost-efficient drilling using industrial robots with high-bandwidth force feedback2010Inngår i: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 24-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a method for high-precision drilling using an industrial robot with high-bandwidth force feedback which is used for building up pressure to clamp-up an end-effector to the work-piece surface prior to drilling, The focus is to eliminate the sliding movement (skating) of the end-effector during the clamp-up of the end-effector to the work-piece surface, an undesired effect that is due to the comparatively low mechanical stiffness of typical serial industrial robots. This compliance also makes the robot deflect due to the cutting forces, resulting in poor hole position accuracy and to some extent in poor hole quality. Recently, functionality for high-bandwidth force control has found its way into industrial robot control systems. This could potentially open up the possibility for robotic drilling systems with improved performance, using only standard systems without excessive extra hardware and calibration techniques. Instead of automation with expensive fixtures and precise machinery, our approach was to make use of standard low-cost robot equipment in combination with sensor feedback. The resulting sliding suppression control results in greatly improved hole positioning and quality. The conceptual idea behind the force control is useful also in many other robotic applications requiring external sensor feedback control.

  • 19.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Monteringsteknik.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Trend&Frntiers at BT Products, Mjölby, Sweden: The Orion Project2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
1 - 19 of 19
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