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  • 1.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Mentor time; the Content and Meaning of a New Subject2006In: NERA,2006, 2006, p. 10-15Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Abstract: In the past 15 years several steps have been taken in the Swedish school system towards deregulation and decentralisation. The reforms have enhanced and increased possi¬bility and responsibility as to school staffs to choose educational methods, subject content, and to decide how to organise time. Schools in general, and 900 pilot schools with no set timetable in particular, are now empowered to decide for themselves how to arrange the school days of their pupils. A study of 326 time schedules from 33 schools indicates that many schools, especially grade 7-9, choose to allot time to Mentor time. A fact that gives rise to questions like: What is Mentor time? What is going on in these lessons? And what sense does Mentor time seem to give the pupils? Based on group interviews with pupils in grade 8 and 9, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate what the pupils perceive they are doing during Mentor time lessons, and to interpret what this might mean in -Curriculum terms-.    

  • 2.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    När läroplanens mål och innehåll blir ämnen på schemat2004In: Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy, ISSN 1652-2729, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    At present, approximately 900 schools in Sweden are taking part in a trial during five years, where they are exempted from the time regulations set by the present National Time Schedule. The main object of this article is to illuminate how these schools choose to use their time for teaching and learning. Based on an analysis of class schedules I will discuss the use of some schedule designations and what they can implicate. The results indicate that time is allocated to content which emanates from the national curriculum (Lpo 94), as well as from the subjects in the syllabus.

  • 3.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schemats roll i en skola utan timplan2005In: Utan timplan: forskning och utvärdering :en antologi från Timplanedelegationen, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2005, , p. 260p. 105-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I den här artikeln behandlas inledningsvis kort schemat och schemats roll i skolan i förhållande till det senaste decenniets förändringar av den svenska skolans styrning. Därefter ges en övergripande bild av hur skolor utan timplan har valt att använda elevernas tid enligt deras scheman. Avslutningsvis ges förslag på frågor, modeller och resonemang som lärare och skolledare kan ta stöd av när man på en skola ska diskutera frågor om tidsanvändning och vad som ska schemaläggas. 

  • 4.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Skolämnen och alternativen: Schemat som indikator på vad som händer i skolor utan timplan2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     I Sverige genomförs för närvarande en försöksverksamhet där ca 900 grundskolor är fullständigt befriade från den nationella timplanen, som reglerar tid per ämne eller ämnesgrupp. Skolorna inom försöksverksamheten omfattas dock av samtliga övriga bestämmelser vad gäller mål och riktlinjer för grundskolan. Hur väljer då skolor lokalt att använda sin tid när timplanens reglering tas bort? Den frågan besvaras i den här studien utifrån analyser av skolors scheman. Det övergripande syftet med studien är att skapa en kartbild av skolterrängen med avseende på hur skolor som arbetar utan timplan organiserar elevernas lärande. Det empiriska material som samlats in består av 326 scheman från 33 grundskolor i fyra kommuner. De scheman som samlats in kom¬mer från grundskolans samtliga skolår, och avser en specifik vecka under läsåret 2001/2002. Det insamlade materialet har bearbetats med hjälp av dokumentanalys, i syfte att finna övergripande mönster/likheter och skillnader avseende manifesterat innehåll. Resultatet visar att en mängd olika schemabeteckningar används för att visa vad som ska ske i skolan. Såväl ämnen som andra beteckningar, vilka har benämnts Alternativa beteckningar, brukas. Exempel på alternativa beteckningar är Egen planering, Utvärdering, Stuga eller Social kompetens. De ämnen som förekommer mest frekvent på schemat är idrott och hälsa, slöjd, musik och hem- och konsumentkunskap. De ämnen som därefter är vanligast förekommande är matematik, svenska, engelska och bild. 317 av 326 scheman innehåller såväl ämnen som alternativa beteckningar. När alternativa beteckningar används istället för ämnen indikerar elevernas scheman att tid används till att: (a) fokusera ett visst arbetssätt, (b) elever och lärare träffas i mentorsgrupper, (c) eleverna planerar och utvärderar, (d) eleverna utöver ämnen som idrott och hälsa, bild och musik ägnar sig åt friskvård eller kulturella inslag, (e) arbeta med fostran och socialisation. Resultaten tyder på att skolorna, i viss utsträckning, på olika sätt nyttjar det friutrymme som skapas när timplanen slopas.  

  • 5.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Uttryck på schemat och intryck i klassrummet: En studie av lektioner i skolor utan timplan2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis is to study the existence and use of lesson designations on the schedules in schools that do not work according to a nationally set timetable, and to elucidate how pupils experience the local choices as regards some of these designations. The theoretical frame of reference is based on the didactical questions of selection and communication together with Bernstein’s concepts of classification and framing. The thesis includes two studies. Study I is a qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of 326 schedules from 33 schools that take part in an experiment where they work without the nationally set timetable. For the purpose of comparison 163 schedules from schools following the set timetable have also been analysed. In study II ten group interviews with a total of 41 pupils are carried out concerning three types of non-subject related lesson designations (team time, workshop, and mentor time), which frequently appear on the pupils’ schedules. In the thesis it is demonstrated that a large number of lesson designations (170 in all) are used to describe what the pupils and the teachers are doing at school. Apart from traditional subjects, working methods, group-based time, time for reading and writing as well as social interaction and recreation, and lessons, where pupils are involved in selecting, planning and evaluating activities, are included on the agenda. These types of alternative lesson designations are used to a significantly higher degree in schools without a timetable and in the lower grades. The use of alternative designations at the schools without timetable primarily leads to lessons with weak framing and weak classification and, in addition, to a change of focus from content to method or form. The pupils think that lessons with weak framing and classification have a meaningful content related to their everyday life but they are not as important as the ‘real’ subjects. They are sometimes experienced as a waste of valuable lesson time. The thesis has an overall didactic perspective, and the results of the two studies are discussed in the light of previous research about schools using no set timetable.

  • 6.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Colnerud, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teachers' Experiences of Unfair Grading2015In: Educational Assessment, ISSN 1062-7197, E-ISSN 1532-6977, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 132-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grading is often perceived as one of teacher's most difficult tasks. Despite most teachers endeavoring to grade their students as objectively as possible, many students feel that they are subjets to unfair grading. The aim of this study is to describe what it is about a teacher's grading that contributes to the perception of unfairness. This study used the critical incident technique, with 411 practicing teachers in Sweden contributing their own experiences of being assessed in a school context. The main findings from qualitative data analysis indicate that when teachers fail to follow guidelines of the current grading system, use undependable information, allow themselves to be influenced by irrelevant factors, or are ambiguous in their communication, the pupils percived the grading process as unfair. The findings are analyzed and discussed in relation to a theoretical model of teachers' grading, validity and reliability, and three ethical principles.

  • 7.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Academic commitment and self-determination among teacher students2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Nyantagna lärarstudenters motiv, motivation, självtillit och akademiska engagemang2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det första studieåret vid universitet eller högskola har visat sig utgöra en kritisk period för nya studenter och en stor del av alla avhopp sker under den här perioden. Forskning har visat att hög studiemotivation, självtillit och högt akademiskt engagemang hos studenter predicerar goda studieresultat och motverkar avhopp.

    I den här rapporten redogör vi för en studie av nyantagna lä-rarstudenters motiv för studieval, akademiska självtillit, studiemo-tivation och akademiska engagemang. I rapporten beskrivs även relationerna mellan dessa variabler och deras koppling till kön och lärarkategori. Studieavhopp analyseras i relation till kön, lärarkategori och studenternas initiala motiv för att läsa till lärare. En central teoribildning som forskningsprojektet utgår ifrån är teorin om själv-beslutsamhet (”self-determination theory”). Urvalet utgörs av stu-denter vid Linköpings universitet som avser att studera till grundskol- och gymnasielärare. Data har samlats in med enkäter och bearbetats med deskriptiv och analytisk statistisk.

    Av resultaten framgår att studenterna rapporterar att de i första hand har valt att läsa till lärare till följd av altruistiska och inre skäl, och att de i högre grad motiveras av autonom motivation än kontrollerad motivation i sina studier. De blivande lärarna i grundskolans senare år och gymnasiet (senarelärare) uppvisade en högre akademisk självtillit än de blivande lärarna i grundskolans tidigare år (tidigarelärare). För akademiskt engagemang var resul-tatet det omvända. Medelvärdena för självbeslutsamhet, akademisk självtillit och akademiskt engagemang i studien är dock inte högre än att det finns utrymme för att försöka höja dem för kommande kohorter av lärarstudenter. Andelen avhopp bland lärarstudenterna som ingår i studien ligger på drygt 40%. Andelen avhopp var större för senarelärarna än för tidigarelärarna. Resultaten visar också att altruistiska motiv bakom valet att studera till lärare sammanhänger med en lägre benägenhet till avhopp via akademiskt engagemang som medierande variabel. Avslutningsvis diskuteras pedagogiska implikationer av studien för lärarutbildningen.

  • 9.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Utprovning av NTA i skolår 7-9. En studie av möjligheter och hinder i den vardagliga praktiken.2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 10.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Villkor för implementering av naturvetenskap och teknik för alla, NTA2009In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 89-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Colnerud, Gunnel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Även lärare har varit elever2010In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 3, p. 16-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Jungert, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Motives for becoming a teacher and their relations to academic engagement and dropout among student teachers2014In: Journal of Education for Teaching, ISSN 0260-7476, E-ISSN 1360-0540, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties in attracting student teachers have resulted in research focusing on student teachers motives for studying to join the profession. Because previous findings are mixed, the first aim of this study was to explore motives for students to become teachers. A second aim was to explore the relationship between teachers motives and their academic engagement and dropout rates at the end of their studies. A sample of 333 student teachers at a Swedish university completed a questionnaire measuring motives for becoming a teacher and their academic engagement. The best model of a confirmatory factor analyses defined three motivational factors as altruistic, intrinsic and extrinsic motives. A path analysis showed a negative significant relationship between the altruistic motive and dropout, mediated by academic engagement, whereas the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives and academic engagement were not significant.

  • 13.
    Jungert, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Motives to become a teacher, self-efficacy and self-determination among first-year students in teacher education2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Colnerud, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Delighted to be governed: Teachers’ experiences of moderation as an expression of a more delimited but sharper professionalism?2015In: Abstract book, Gothenburg, Sweden: University of Gothenburg , 2015, p. 227-228Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in this paper is directed towards teachers’ experiences of collaboration, in particular of moderation when marking national tests. The purpose is to describe and discuss these experiences as expressions of a teaching profession in change.

    The point of departure is that the now extended national testing in Sweden also increases the demands on moderation as the teachers are supposed to mark the tests together.  The National Agency for Education stress that the tests are intended to "support equal and fair assessment and grading", and delivers samples, instructions and examples on how the tests should be marked. Teachers are also supplied with advisory texts on how to conduct moderation. This we regard as a part of a growing interest by the state to control and evaluate schools and teachers’ performances, and of parent’s claims on fair assessments and grades for their children.

    Collaboration is thus recommended in policy and what we might call professional tools for assessment is provided by the state. This development supports descriptions of teaching in terms of an organizational form of professionalism based on external control and accountability at the expense of a loss of a professional autonomy. However, we believe that teachers’ moderation when marking national tests also needs to be described as an expression of an occupational form of professionalism that is based on teachers’ collegial authority, self-control, ethics and trust. Interviews were conducted with teachers about their collaborative work in general and more specifically on their joint marking of national tests. Further, we have conducted observations of teachers moderation work when marking national tests. The interviews were audio recorded and fully transcribed.

    The results indicate that teachers use the state-provided tools with enthusiasm and express a commitment to their collaborative work. We argue that they develop a collective professional knowledge in their moderation work with national tests. In this sense, they express a kind of state-directed professionalism that we describe as sharp but delimited and definitely different from the wider kinds of professionalism that has been described as a result of a “chock professionalization”.

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