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  • 1.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flexible Interleaving Sub–systems for FEC in Baseband Processors2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleaving is always used in combination with an error control coding. It spreads the burst noise, and changes the burst noise to white noise so that the noise induced bit errors can be corrected. With the advancement of communication systems and substantial increase in bandwidth requirements, use of coding for forward error correction (FEC) has become an integral part in the modern communication systems. Dividing the FEC sub-systems in two categories i.e. channel coding/de-coding and interleaving/de-interleaving, the later appears to be more varying in permutation functions, block sizes and throughput requirements. The interleaving/de-interleaving consumes more silicon due to the silicon cost of the permutation tables used in conventional LUT based approaches. For multi-standard support devices the silicon cost of the permutation tables can grow much higher resulting in an un-efficient solution. Therefore, the hardware re-use among different interleaver modules to support multimode processing platform is of significance.

    The broadness of the interleaving algorithms gives rise to many challenges when considering a true multimode interleaver implementation. The main challenges include real-time low latency computation for different permutation functions, managing wide range of interleaving block sizes, higher throughput, low cost, fast and dynamic reconfiguration for different standards, and introducing parallelism where ever necessary.

    It is difficult to merge all currently used interleavers to a singlearchitecture because of different algorithms and throughputs; however, thefact that multimode coverage does not require multiple interleavers to workat the same time, provides opportunities to use hardware multiplexing. The multimode functionality is then achieved by fast switching between differentstandards. We used the algorithmic level transformations such as 2-Dtransformation, and realization of recursive computations, which appear to bethe key to bring different interleaving functions to the same level. In general,the work focuses on function level hardware re-use, but it also utilizesclassical data-path level optimizations for efficient hardware multiplexingamong different standards.

    The research has resulted in multiple flexible architectures supporting multiple standards. These architectures target both channel interleaving and turbo-code interleaving. The presented architectures can support both types of communication systems i.e. single-stream and multi-stream systems. Introducing the algorithmic level transformations and then applying hardware re-use methodology has resulted in lower silicon cost while supporting sufficient throughput. According to the database searching in March 2010, we have the first multimode interleaver core covering WLAN (802.11a/b/g and 802.11n), WiMAX (802.16e), 3GPP-WCDMA, 3GPP-LTE, and DVB-T/H on a single architecture with minimum silicon cost. The research also provides the support for parallel interleaver address generation using different architectures. It provides the algorithmic modifications and architectures to generate up to 8 addresses in parallel and handle the memory conflicts on-the-fly.

    One of the vital requirements for multimode operation is the fast switching between different standards, which is supported by the presented architectures with minimal cycle cost overheads. Fast switching between different standards gives luxury to the baseband processor to re-configure the

    interleaver architecture on-the-fly and re-use the same hardware for another standard. Lower silicon cost, maximum flexibility and fast switchability among multiple standards during run time make the proposed research a good choice for the radio baseband processing platforms.

  • 2.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    2-D Realization of WiMAX Channel Interleaver for Efficient Hardware Implementation2009In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (ISSN: 2070-3740), 2009, p. 25-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct implementation of interleaver functions in WiMAX is not hardware efficient due to presence of complex functions. Also the conventional method i.e. using memories for storing the permutation tables is silicon consuming. This work presents a 2-D transformation for WiMAX channel interleaver functions which reduces the overall hardware complexity to compute the interleaver addresses on the fly.  A fully re-configurable architecture for address generation in WiMAX channel interleaver is presented, which consume 1.1 k-gates in total. It can be configured for any block size and any modulation scheme in WiMAX. The presented architecture can run at a frequency of 200 MHz, thus fully supporting high bandwidth requirements for WiMAX.

  • 3.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dual standard re-configurable hardware interleaver for turbo decoding2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A very low cost re-configurable hardwareinterleaver for two standards, 3GPP-WCMDA and 3GPPLong Term Evolution (3GPP-LTE) is presented. Theinterleaver is a key component of radio communicationsystems. Using conventional design methods, it consumes alarge part of silicon area in the design of turbo encoder anddecoder. The presented hardware interleaver addressgeneration architecture, utilizes the algorithmic levelhardware simplifications to achieve very low cost solution.After doing the hardware optimizations the proposedarchitecture consumes only 3.1k gates with a 256x8 bitmemory for the fully re-configurable dual standardinterleaver address generator. The interleaved address iscomputed every clock cycle except the case of pruning (ifblock size is less than the row-column matrix) in 3GPPWCDMA.In this case one additional clock cycle is consumedfor valid address generation.

  • 4.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low Complexity Hardware Interleaver for MIMO-OFDM based Wireless LAN2009In: Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2009, p. 1747-1750Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low complexity hardware interleaver architecture is presented for MIMO-OFDM based Wireless LAN e.g. 802.11n. Novelty of the presented architecture is twofold; 1) Flexibility to choose interleaver implementation with different modulation scheme and different size for different spatial streams in a multi antenna system, 2) Complexity to compute on the fly interleaver address is reduce by using recursion and is supported by mathematical formulation. The proposed interleaver architecture is implemented on 65nm CMOS process and it consumes 0.035 mm2 area. The proposed architecture supports high speed communication with maximum throughput of 900 Mbps at a clock rate of 225 MHz.

  • 5.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low Complexity Multi Mode Interleaver Core for WiMax with Support for Convolutional Interleaving2009In: International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 20-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hardware efficient, multi mode, re-configurable architecture of interleaver/de-interleaver for multiple standards, like DVB, WiMAX and WLAN is presented. The interleavers consume a large part of silicon area when implemented by using conventional methods as they use memories to store permutation patterns. In addition, different types of interleavers in different standards cannot share the hardware due to different construction methodologies. The novelty of the work presented in this paper is threefold: 1) Mapping of vital types of interleavers including convolutional interleaver onto a single architecture with flexibility to change interleaver size; 2) Hardware complexity for channel interleaving in WiMAX is reduced by using 2-D realization of the interleaver functions; and 3) Silicon cost overheads reduced by avoiding the use of small memories. The proposed architecture consumes 0.18mm2 silicon area for 0.12μm process and can operate at a frequency of 140 MHz. The reduced complexity helps in minimizing the memory utilization, and at the same time provides strong support to on-the-fly computation of permutation patterns.

  • 6.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Multimode flex-interleaver core for baseband processor platform2010In: Journal of Computer Systems, Networks and Communications, ISSN 1687-7381, Vol. 2010, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a flexible interleaver architecture supportingmultiple standards likeWLAN,WiMAX, HSPA+, 3GPP-LTE, and DVB. Algorithmic level optimizations like 2D transformation and realization of recursive computation are applied, which appear to be the key to reach to an efficient hardware multiplexing among different interleaver implementations. The presented hardware enables the mapping of vital types of interleavers including multiple block interleavers and convolutional interleaver onto a single architecture. By exploiting the hardware reuse methodology the silicon cost is reduced, and it consumes 0.126mm2 area in total in 65nm CMOS process for a fully reconfigurable architecture. It can operate at a frequency of 166 MHz, providing a maximum throughput up to 664 Mbps for a multistream system and 166 Mbps for single stream communication systems, respectively. One of the vital requirements for multimode operation is the fast switching between different standards, which is supported by this hardware with minimal cycle cost overheads. Maximum flexibility and fast switchability among multiple standards during run time makes the proposed architecture a right choice for the radio baseband processing platform.

  • 7.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    Programmable Parallel Data-path for FEC2007In: Swedish System-on-Chip Conference, SSoCC,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards Radix-4, Parallel Interleaver Design to Support High-Throughput Turbo Decoding for Re-Configurability2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel, radix-4 turbo decoding is used to enhance the throughput and at the same time reduce the overall memory cost. The bottleneck is the higher complexity associated with radix-4 parallel interleaver implementation. This paper addresses the implementation issues of radix-4, parallel interleaver and also proposes necessary modifications in the interleaver algorithms for parallel address generation. It presents a re-configurable architecture which enables the use of same turbo decoding core to be used for multiple standards. The proposed interleaver architecture is capable of handling the memory conflicts on-the-fly. It consumes 12.5K gates and can run at a frequency of 285MHz, thus supporting a throughput of 173.3Mpbs, which can cover most of the emerging communication standards.

  • 9.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    Very Low Cost Configurable Hardware Interleaver for 3G Turbo Decoding2008In: IEEE Internation Conference on Information and Communication Tech from Theory to Applications, ICTTA,2008, IEEE , 2008, p. 2314-2318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A very low cost hardware interleaver for 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) turbo coding algorithm is presented. The interleaver is a key component of turbo codes and it is used to minimize the effect of burst errors in the transmission. Using conventional design methods, it consumes a large part of silicon area in the design of turbo encoder and decoder. The presented hardware interleaver architecture utilizes the algorithmic level hardware simplifications as well as the iterative modulo computation to achieve very low cost solution. After doing the hardware multiplexing and optimization the proposed architecture consumes only 1.5 k gates (without pre-computation) and 2.2 k gates (with pre-computation). In both cases the interleaved address is computed every clock cycle except the case of pruning, in which one additional clock cycle is consumed.

  • 10.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wu, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eilert, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Memory Conflict Analysis and Implementation of a Re-configurable Interleaver Architecture Supporting Unified Parallel Turbo Decoding2010In: Journal of Signal Processing Systems for Signal, Image, and Video Technology, ISSN 1939-8018, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel hardware interleaver architecture for unified parallel turbo decoding. The architecture is fully re-configurable among multiple standards like HSPA Evolution, DVB-SH, 3GPP-LTE and WiMAX. Turbo codes being widely used for error correction in today’s consumer electronics are prone to introduce higher latency due to bigger block sizes and multiple iterations. Many parallel turbo decoding architectures have recently been proposed to enhance the channel throughput but the interleaving algorithms used indifferent standards do not freely allow using them due to higher percentage of memory conflicts. The architecture presented in this paper provides a re-configurable platform for implementing the parallel interleavers for different standards by managing the conflicts involved in each. The memory conflicts are managed by applying different approaches like stream misalignment, memory division and use of small FIFO buffer. The proposed flexible architecture is low cost and consumes 0.085 mm2 area in 65nm CMOS process. It can implement up to 8 parallel interleavers and can operate at a frequency of 200 MHz, thus providing significant support to higher throughput systems based on parallel SISO processors.

  • 11.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wu, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eilert, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Memory Conflict Analysis and Interleaver Design for Parallel Turbo Decoding Supporting HSPA Evolution2009In: 12th EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design, 2009, p. 699-706Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HSPA evolution has raised the throughput requirements for WCDMA based systems where turbo code has been adapted to perform the error correction. Many parallel turbo decoding architectures have recently been proposed to enhance the channel throughput but the interleaving algorithm used in WCDMA based systems does not freely allows to use them due to high percentage of memory conflicts. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis for reduction of interleaver memory conflicts while generating more than one address in a single clock cycle. It also provides trade-off analysis in terms of area and power efficiency for multiple architectures for different functions involved in the interleaver design. The final architecture supports processing of two parallel SISO blocks and manages the conflicts by applying different approaches like stream misalignment, memory division and small FIFO buffer. The proposed architecture is low cost and consumes 4.3K gates at a frequency of 150MHz. This work also focuses on reduction of pre-processing overheads by introducing the segment based modulo computation, thus providing further relaxation to SISO decoding process.

  • 12.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wu, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Saeed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huang, Yulin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation of a Radix-4, Parallel Turbo Decoder and Enabling the Multi-Standard Support2012In: Journal of Signal Processing Systems, ISSN 1939-8018, E-ISSN 1939-8115, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a unified, radix-4 implementation of turbo decoder, covering multiple standards such as DVB, WiMAX, 3GPP-LTE and HSPA Evolution. The radix-4, parallel interleaver is the bottleneck while using the same turbo-decoding architecture for multiple standards. This paper covers the issues associated with design of radix-4 parallel interleaver to reach to flexible turbo-decoder architecture. Radix-4, parallel interleaver algorithms and their mapping on to hardware architecture is presented for multi-mode operations. The overheads associated with hardware multiplexing are found to be least significant. Other than flexibility for the turbo decoder implementation, the low silicon cost and low power aspects are also addressed by optimizing the storage scheme for branch metrics and extrinsic information. The proposed unified architecture for radix-4 turbo decoding consumes 0.65 mm(2) area in total in 65 nm CMOS process. With 4 SISO blocks used in parallel and 6 iterations, it can achieve a throughput up to 173.3 Mbps while consuming 570 mW power in total. It provides a good trade-off between silicon cost, power consumption and throughput with silicon efficiency of 0.005 mm(2)/Mbps and energy efficiency of 0.55 nJ/b/iter.

  • 13.
    Wu, Di
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huang, Yulin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation of a high-speed parallel Turbo decoder for 3GPP LTE terminals2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a parameterized parallel Turbo decoder for 3GPP LTE terminals. To support the high peak data-rate defined in the forthcoming 3GPP LTE standard, turbo decoder with a throughout beyond 150 Mbit/s is needed as a key component of the radio baseband chip. By exploiting the tradeoff of precision, speed and area consumption, a turbo decoder with eight parallel SISO units is implemented to meet the throughput requirement. The turbo decoder is synthesized, placed and routed using 65 nm CMOS technology. It achieves a throughput of 152 Mbit/s and occupies an area of 0.7 mm2 with estimated power consumption being 650 mW.

  • 14.
    Wu, Di
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eilert, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    VLSI Implementation of a Fixed-Complexity Soft-Output MIMO Detector for High-Speed Wireless2010In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, Vol. 2010, no 893184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a low-complexity MIMO symbol detector with close-Maximum a posteriori performance for the emerging multiantenna enhanced high-speed wireless communications. The VLSI implementation is based on a novel MIMO detection algorithm called Modified Fixed-Complexity Soft-Output (MFCSO) detection, which achieves a good trade-off between performance and implementation cost compared to the referenced prior art. By including a microcode-controlled channel preprocessing unit and a pipelined detection unit, it is flexible enough to cover several different standards and transmission schemes. The flexibility allows adaptive detection to minimize power consumption without degradation in throughput. The VLSI implementation of the detector is presented to show that real-time MIMO symbol detection of 20 MHz bandwidth 3GPP LTE and 10 MHz WiMAX downlink physical channel is achievable at reasonable silicon cost.

  • 15.
    Wu, Di
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eilert, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ge, Qun
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    VLSI Implementation of A Multi-Standard MIMO Symbol Detector for 3GPP LTE and WiMAX2010In: Wireless Telecommunications Symposium (WTS), 2010, IEEE , 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a low-complexity symbol detector is presentedtargeting the emerging 3GPP LTE andWiMAX standards. The detector isthe VLSI implementation of a novel MIMO detection algorithm recentlyproposed. Compared to the design in the reference, the detector performsbetter while consumes less silicon area. Including a microcode controlledchannel preprocessing unit and a pipelined detection unit, it is flexibleenough to cover different standards and transmission schemes whilemaintaining the power and area efficiency. Implemented using 65 nmCMOS process, the detector can support real-time detection of 20 MHzbandwidth 3GPP LTE or 10 MHz WiMAX downlink physical channel.

  • 16.
    Wu, Di
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eilert, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, A.
    Coresonic AB, Sweden.
    Tell, E.
    Coresonic AB, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, E.
    Coresonic AB, Sweden.
    System architecture for 3GPP-LTE modem using a programmable baseband processor2010In: International Journal of Embedded and Real-Time Communication Systems, ISSN 1947-3176, E-ISSN 1947-3184, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 44-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of third generation mobile communications toward high-speed packet access and long-term evolution is ongoing and will substantially increase the throughput with higher spectral efficiency. This paper presents the system architecture of an LTE modem based on a programmable baseband processor. The architecture includes a baseband processor that handles processing time and frequency synchronization, IFFT/FFT (up to 2048-p), channel estimation and subcarrier de-mapping. The throughput and latency requirements of a Category four User Equipment (CAT4 UE) is met by adding a MIMO symbol detector and a parallel Turbo decoder supporting H-ARQ, which brings both low silicon cost and enough flexibility to support other wireless standards. The complexity demonstrated by the modem shows the practicality and advantage of using programmable baseband processors for a single-chip LTE solution. Copyright © 2010, IGI Global.

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