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  • 1.
    Wolrath, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Amines and Bacterial Vaginosis2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial Vaginosis (BY) is a common syndrome, with a prevalence of 10-30% in women of childbearing age. The decisive pathogenetic factoris thought to have a microbiological origin, but so far no specific bacteria have been implicated in causing BV. Instead, it appears that BV is accompanied by a shift in the normal lactobacilli flora to a mixed vaginal anaerobic flora. Vaginal fluid from women with BY has also been reported to contain various amines, and several techniques have been used to identify these amines.

    We developed a sensitive gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method to analyze amines related to BV together with quantification of the amines isobutylamine, phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. The aim of our investigation was to study if the amine content in vaginal fluids is quantitatively related to BV, diagnosed according to the Nugent scoring system. Our results show that the production of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine is a property of BV, and that samples from healthy women do not include these amines.

    Using a sensitive gas chromatographic method, we also analyzed and quantified vaginal fluids with respect to trimethylamine (TMA), the amine responsible for the fishy odor in BV. In order to obtain a proper identification of BV, the vaginal fluid samples were Gram-stained and diagnosed according to two procedures. Our results show that regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis, vaginal fluids from women with BV generally contain elevated amounts of TMA, while samples from healthy women do not.

    In conclusion, the presence of specific amines is clearly a prominent finding in women with BV, and these amines can thus be used as selective markers or diagnostic tools for the syndrome.

    List of papers
    1. Analysis of bacterial vaginosis-related amines in vaginal fluid by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of bacterial vaginosis-related amines in vaginal fluid by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
    2001 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 4026-4031Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of various amines in vaginal fluid from women with malodorous vaginal discharge has been reported before. The investigations have used several techniques to identify the amines. However, an optimized quantification, together with a sensitive analysis method in connection with a diagnostic procedure for vaginal discharge, including the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis, as defined by the accepted “gold standard,” has not been done before. We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric method for identifying the amines isobutylamine, phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in vaginal fluid. We used weighted samples of vaginal fluid to obtain a correct quantification. In addition, a proper diagnosis was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid that were Nugent scored according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J. Clin. Microbiol., 29:297–301, 1991). We found that putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine occurred in high concentrations in vaginal fluid from 24 women with Nugent scores between 7 and 10. These amines either were not found or were found only in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. There is a strong correlation between bacterial vaginosis and the presence of putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in high concentrations in vaginal fluid.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25913 (URN)10.1128/JCM.39.11.4026-4031.2001 (DOI)000171934200034 ()10355 (Local ID)10355 (Archive number)10355 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis
    2002 (English)In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 110, no 11, p. 819-824Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a fishy odor emanating from women who present with a malodorous vaginal discharge is well known. The odor is due to bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine (TMA) in vaginal secretion. The release of TMA from specimens of vaginal fluid following the addition of alkali is often used in making a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic method for analysis and quantification of TMA in vaginal fluid in which weighed samples were used. In addition, a proper diagnosis of BV was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J Clin Microbiol 1991;29:297–301). We also diagnosed BV according to Hallén et al. (A. Hallén et al. Genitourin Med 1987;63:386–9). TMA was present in all women with a Nugent score between 7 and 10 and in almost all women diagnosed with BV according to the method of Hallén et al. TMA was not found or was only found in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. TMA was also found in four women with a negative sniff test. It seems that high levels of TMA in samples of vaginal fluid are typical for BV regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis. However, low levels of TMA, <5 μg/g vaginal fluid, do not always correlate with BV.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26449 (URN)10.1034/j.1600-0463.2002.1101108.x (DOI)000180804800008 ()10997 (Local ID)10997 (Archive number)10997 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 2.
    Wolrath, Helen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallén, Anders
    Dept. of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis2002In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 110, no 11, p. 819-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a fishy odor emanating from women who present with a malodorous vaginal discharge is well known. The odor is due to bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine (TMA) in vaginal secretion. The release of TMA from specimens of vaginal fluid following the addition of alkali is often used in making a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic method for analysis and quantification of TMA in vaginal fluid in which weighed samples were used. In addition, a proper diagnosis of BV was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J Clin Microbiol 1991;29:297–301). We also diagnosed BV according to Hallén et al. (A. Hallén et al. Genitourin Med 1987;63:386–9). TMA was present in all women with a Nugent score between 7 and 10 and in almost all women diagnosed with BV according to the method of Hallén et al. TMA was not found or was only found in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. TMA was also found in four women with a negative sniff test. It seems that high levels of TMA in samples of vaginal fluid are typical for BV regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis. However, low levels of TMA, <5 μg/g vaginal fluid, do not always correlate with BV.

  • 3.
    Wolrath, Helen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of bacterial vaginosis-related amines in vaginal fluid by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry2001In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 4026-4031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of various amines in vaginal fluid from women with malodorous vaginal discharge has been reported before. The investigations have used several techniques to identify the amines. However, an optimized quantification, together with a sensitive analysis method in connection with a diagnostic procedure for vaginal discharge, including the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis, as defined by the accepted “gold standard,” has not been done before. We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric method for identifying the amines isobutylamine, phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in vaginal fluid. We used weighted samples of vaginal fluid to obtain a correct quantification. In addition, a proper diagnosis was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid that were Nugent scored according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J. Clin. Microbiol., 29:297–301, 1991). We found that putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine occurred in high concentrations in vaginal fluid from 24 women with Nugent scores between 7 and 10. These amines either were not found or were found only in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. There is a strong correlation between bacterial vaginosis and the presence of putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in high concentrations in vaginal fluid.

  • 4.
    Wolrath, Helen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallén, Anders
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Trimethylamine and trimethylamine oxide levels in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis reflect a local metabolism in vaginal secretion as compared to urine2005In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 113, no 7-8, p. 513-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The smell of rotten fish is one of the characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV), and is due to trimethylamine (TMA). Trimethylamine can be found in human urine, although most of it occurs as the nonvolatile oxide (TMAO) form. The fraction TMA/TMAO can be expected to be the same in different body fluids if no local production of TMA occurs. In women with BV, TMAO in the vaginal fluid is expected to be chemically reduced by the local bacterial flora to the much more odorous TMA. We have therefore studied the local vaginal production of TMA in vaginal secretion compared to the general TMA-TMAO metabolism that was measured in urine using gas chromatography. Both vaginal fluid and random urine samples were collected from women, with and without BV, attending a Swedish clinic for sexually transmitted diseases, and these samples were analyzed for TMA and TMAO. The results show that a local production of TMA occurs in the vagina that is not part of the general metabolism of TMA-TMAO.

1 - 4 of 4
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  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
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