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  • 1. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Eriksson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Metabolic, methodological and developmental aspects of body composition: Studies in women and children with special reference to early life mechanisms behind childhood obesity2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades the number of children with overweight has increased worldwide. To understand the mechanisms behind this development, knowledge regarding metabolism and physiology in relation to the nutritional situation in early life is of importance. In particular, information about body composition development during early childhood is relevant. This thesis presents three studies in this area. In the pregnancy study serum samples, collected from 23 women before, during and after pregnancy, were analysed for serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin and used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in relation to the total body fat (TBF) content of the women. TBF (%) and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR before and during pregnancy. When HOMA-IR was regressed on TBF (%) the slope of the regression line was 0.111 in gestational week 32 and significantly (p<0.05) higher than the value before pregnancy, 0.046, indicating that healthy pregnancy enhances the relationship between body fatness and insulin resistance. In the HF-study hydration of fat-free mass (hydration factor, HF) was assessed in 12 newborns using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method and air displacement plethysmography (PeaPod). HF was 80.9% with a low biological variability (0.81% of average HF). In the longitudinal study the body density of 108 healthy fullterm infants (53 girls, 55 boys) was measured at one and 12 weeks of age using PeaPod. Body composition was calculated using two models (Fomon’s and Butte’s). BMI values for the mothers of the infants were assessed before pregnancy. Body composition and total energy expenditure using the DLW-method were assessed in 20 of these children at the age of 1.5 years, when their sleeping metabolic rate was measured using indirect calorimetry and their resting energy metabolism was calculated using prediction equations. Butte´s model gave significantly (p<0.05) lower values for TBF than Fomon´s model, and invalid results for five newborns. Using Fomon´s model, at one week of age girls contained 13.4 ± 3.7 % and boys contained 12.5 ± 4.0 % TBF. The corresponding figures at 12 weeks were 26.3 ± 4.2 % and 26.4 ± 5.1 %. The mothers’ BMI values before pregnancy were correlated with the body weight but not with the TBF (g,%) or fat-free mass (g) of their infants at one week of age. At 1.5 years of age girls (n=9) contained 28.0±2.8 % and boys (n=11) 28.3±3.7 % TBF. Between one and 12 weeks of age all infants increased their TBF content, while 13 children increased and seven children decreased their TBF content between the ages of 12 weeks and 1.5 years. The results demonstrated that predicting rather than measuring resting energy metabolism involves a risk for spurious correlations between TBF and physical activity level. The level of physical activity (x), was negatively correlated with [TBF (%) at 1.5 years minus TBF (%) at 12 weeks] (y), r=-0.52, p=0.02. In conclusion, the results suggest that the body fat content of a woman has a stimulating effect on the growth, rather than on the fat retention, of her foetus. They also show that the Fomon model is the best available model when calculating the body composition of infants from body density. Finally, the results indicate that physical activity at the age of 1.5 years is important regarding the rate at which the high level of body fat, typical of infancy, decreases in early childhood.

    List of papers
    1. Body fat, insulin resistance, energy expenditure and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin before, during and after pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body fat, insulin resistance, energy expenditure and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin before, during and after pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.
    2010 (English)In: The British journal of nutrition, ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy human pregnancy is associated with changes in food intake, body fatness, energy expenditure and insulin resistance. However, available knowledge is limited regarding the physiological basis of these changes. Published evidence suggests that so-called adipokines (i.e. leptin, adiponectin and resistin) have significant roles when such changes are established. We explored, throughout a complete pregnancy, relationships between total body fat (TBF), energy expenditure, insulin resistance (homeostasic model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Such concentrations were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 8, 14, 20, 32 and 35, and 2 weeks postpartum in twenty-three healthy women. TBF, BMR (n 23) and HOMA-IR (n 17) were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum. TBF (%) was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.68-0.79, P < 0.01) and with serum leptin (r 0.85-0.88, P < 0.001) before and during pregnancy. Serum leptin was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.53-0.70, P < 0.05) before and during pregnancy. Serum adiponectin was inversely correlated with HOMA-IR in gestational week 32 (r - 0.52, P < 0.05). When HOMA-IR was regressed on TBF (%), the slope of the regression line was 0.046 before pregnancy, which was significantly (P < 0.05) different from the corresponding value, 0.111, in gestational week 32. The results indicate that pregnancy has an enhancing effect on the relationship between body fatness and insulin resistance. This effect, possibly mediated by leptin, may represent a mechanism by which offspring size is regulated in response to the nutritional situation of the mother.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28247 (URN)10.1017/S0007114509991371 (DOI)000274575200008 ()19703326 (PubMedID)
    Note
    Original Publication: Britt Eriksson, Marie Löf, Hanna Olausson and Elisabet Forsum, Body fat, insulin resistance, energy expenditure and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin before, during and after pregnancy in healthy Swedish women., 2010, The British journal of nutrition, (103), 1, 50-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509991371 Copyright: Cambridge University Press http://www.cambridge.org/uk/ Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-28
    2. Fat-free mass hydration in newborns: assessment and implications for body composition studies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fat-free mass hydration in newborns: assessment and implications for body composition studies
    2011 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 680-686Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Equipment (Pea Pod) for assessing infant body density accurately and conveniently has recently become available. This density can be converted to body composition using the “Fomon” or the “Butte” model. These models differ regarding the water content in fat-free mass (hydration factor, HF). We assessed HF and its biological variability in newborns and compared results calculated using the two models at one and 12 weeks. Body volume and body weight were measured in 12 infants less than 10 days old using Pea Pod. Their total body water was assessed using isotope dilution. Their HF was found to be 80.9% with low biological variability (0.81% of average HF). Further, Pea Pod was used to assess body density of 108 infants at one and 12 weeks of age. Values for body fat (%) calculated using the “Butte” model were significantly lower than when using the “Fomon” model at one week (p<0.05) and 12 weeks (p<0.01). The difference between the two models was particularly large at one week, probably due to their different HF-values. Our HF-value is in agreement with that in the “Fomon” model and our results support the conclusion that this model is preferable when calculating body composition in infants.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2011
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54970 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02147.x (DOI)000289250200013 ()
    Available from: 2010-04-26 Created: 2010-04-26 Last updated: 2019-06-28
    3. Body composition in full-term healthy infants measured with air displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks of age
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition in full-term healthy infants measured with air displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks of age
    2010 (English)In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 563-568Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To use Pea Pod, a device based on air displacement plethysmography, to study body composition of healthy, full-term infants born to well-nourished women with a western life-style. Methods: Body composition was assessed in 53 girls and 55 boys at 1 week (before 10 days of age) and at 12 weeks (between 77 and 91 days of age). Results: At 1 week girls contained 13.4 +/- 3.7% body fat and boys 12.5 +/- 4.0%. At 12 weeks, these figures were 26.3 +/- 4.2% (girls) and 26.4 +/- 5.1% (boys). Body fat (%) did not differ significantly between the genders. Body fat (%) at the two measurements was not correlated. At 1 week, the weight (r = 0.20, p = 0.044) and BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.007) of the infants, but not their body fat (g, %) or fat free mass (g), correlated with BMI before pregnancy in their mothers. Conclusions: Pea Pod has potential for use in studies investigating the effect of external (i.e. nutritional status) and internal (i.e. age, gender, gestational age at birth) factors on infant body composition. This may be of value when studying relationships between the nutritional situation during early life and adult health.

    Keywords
    Air displacement plethysmography, Body composition, Infants, Longitudinal study, Pea Pod
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54411 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01665.x (DOI)000274951200022 ()
    Available from: 2010-03-12 Created: 2010-03-12 Last updated: 2019-06-28
    4. Body composition and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-year-old children studied by means of the doubly labeled water method
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-year-old children studied by means of the doubly labeled water method
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood has increased and studies of the mechanisms involved are motivated. Previous research has shown a correlation between total body fat (TBF) (%) and physical activity level (PAL) but the assessment of PAL has often involved a risk for spurious correlations. Thus we compared PAL calculated using basal metabolic rate (BMR) predicted from equations, based on body weight (PALBMR) and associated with a risk for spurious correlations, with PAL calculated using sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) assessed using indirect calorimetry (PALSMR) in 20 healthy children aged 1.5 years. Total energy expenditure and body fatness were assessed using the doubly labelled water method. Body fatness of these children was also assessed at one week and three months of age. PALBMR was significantly (r=-0.48, p=0.03) correlated with TBF (%) while PALSMR was not. Furthermore, the increase in body fatness between three months and 1.5 years was significantly (r=-0.52, p=0.02) correlated with PALSMR at the age of 1.5 years. Our results indicate complex relationships between body fatness and physical activity in early life. When conducting studies in this area, resting energy metabolism should be measured rather than predicted using equations based on body weight.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54971 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-04-26 Created: 2010-04-26 Last updated: 2019-06-28
  • 2.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hannestad, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Body-composition development during early childhood and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-y-old children2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 567-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased recently, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely known. Previous research has shown a correlation between the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and physical activity level (PAL). However, the PAL values used may involve a risk of spurious correlations because they are often based on predicted rather than measured estimates of resting energy metabolism. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjectives: We studied the development of body composition during early childhood and the relation between the percentage of TBF and PAL on the basis of the measured resting energy metabolism. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign: Body composition was previously measured in 108 children when they were 1 and 12 wk old. When 44 of these children (21 girls and 23 boys) were 1.5 y old, their total energy expenditure and TBF were assessed by using the doubly labeled water method. Resting energy metabolism, which was assessed by using indirect calorimetry, was used to calculate PAL. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Significant correlations were shown for TBF (r = 0.32, P = 0.035) and fat-free mass (r = 0.34, P = 0.025) between values (kg) assessed at 12 wk and 1.5 y of age. For TBF (kg) a significant interaction (P = 0.035) indicated a possible sex difference. PAL at 1.5 y was negatively correlated with the percentage of TBF (r = -0.40, P = 0.0076) and the increase in the percentage of TBF between 12 wk and 1.5 y (r = 0.38, P = 0.0105). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The results indicate that body fatness and physical activity interact during early childhood and thereby influence obesity risk. Our results are based on a small sample, but nevertheless, they motivate additional studies in boys compared with girls regarding the development of body composition during early life.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Body composition in full-term healthy infants measured with air displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks of age2010In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 563-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To use Pea Pod, a device based on air displacement plethysmography, to study body composition of healthy, full-term infants born to well-nourished women with a western life-style. Methods: Body composition was assessed in 53 girls and 55 boys at 1 week (before 10 days of age) and at 12 weeks (between 77 and 91 days of age). Results: At 1 week girls contained 13.4 +/- 3.7% body fat and boys 12.5 +/- 4.0%. At 12 weeks, these figures were 26.3 +/- 4.2% (girls) and 26.4 +/- 5.1% (boys). Body fat (%) did not differ significantly between the genders. Body fat (%) at the two measurements was not correlated. At 1 week, the weight (r = 0.20, p = 0.044) and BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.007) of the infants, but not their body fat (g, %) or fat free mass (g), correlated with BMI before pregnancy in their mothers. Conclusions: Pea Pod has potential for use in studies investigating the effect of external (i.e. nutritional status) and internal (i.e. age, gender, gestational age at birth) factors on infant body composition. This may be of value when studying relationships between the nutritional situation during early life and adult health.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hannestad, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fat-free mass hydration in newborns: assessment and implications for body composition studies2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 680-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equipment (Pea Pod) for assessing infant body density accurately and conveniently has recently become available. This density can be converted to body composition using the “Fomon” or the “Butte” model. These models differ regarding the water content in fat-free mass (hydration factor, HF). We assessed HF and its biological variability in newborns and compared results calculated using the two models at one and 12 weeks. Body volume and body weight were measured in 12 infants less than 10 days old using Pea Pod. Their total body water was assessed using isotope dilution. Their HF was found to be 80.9% with low biological variability (0.81% of average HF). Further, Pea Pod was used to assess body density of 108 infants at one and 12 weeks of age. Values for body fat (%) calculated using the “Butte” model were significantly lower than when using the “Fomon” model at one week (p<0.05) and 12 weeks (p<0.01). The difference between the two models was particularly large at one week, probably due to their different HF-values. Our HF-value is in agreement with that in the “Fomon” model and our results support the conclusion that this model is preferable when calculating body composition in infants.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olausson, Hanna
    University of Gothenburg.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Body fat, insulin resistance, energy expenditure and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin before, during and after pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.2010In: The British journal of nutrition, ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy human pregnancy is associated with changes in food intake, body fatness, energy expenditure and insulin resistance. However, available knowledge is limited regarding the physiological basis of these changes. Published evidence suggests that so-called adipokines (i.e. leptin, adiponectin and resistin) have significant roles when such changes are established. We explored, throughout a complete pregnancy, relationships between total body fat (TBF), energy expenditure, insulin resistance (homeostasic model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Such concentrations were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 8, 14, 20, 32 and 35, and 2 weeks postpartum in twenty-three healthy women. TBF, BMR (n 23) and HOMA-IR (n 17) were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum. TBF (%) was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.68-0.79, P < 0.01) and with serum leptin (r 0.85-0.88, P < 0.001) before and during pregnancy. Serum leptin was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.53-0.70, P < 0.05) before and during pregnancy. Serum adiponectin was inversely correlated with HOMA-IR in gestational week 32 (r - 0.52, P < 0.05). When HOMA-IR was regressed on TBF (%), the slope of the regression line was 0.046 before pregnancy, which was significantly (P < 0.05) different from the corresponding value, 0.111, in gestational week 32. The results indicate that pregnancy has an enhancing effect on the relationship between body fatness and insulin resistance. This effect, possibly mediated by leptin, may represent a mechanism by which offspring size is regulated in response to the nutritional situation of the mother.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hannestad, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Body composition and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-year-old children studied by means of the doubly labeled water methodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood has increased and studies of the mechanisms involved are motivated. Previous research has shown a correlation between total body fat (TBF) (%) and physical activity level (PAL) but the assessment of PAL has often involved a risk for spurious correlations. Thus we compared PAL calculated using basal metabolic rate (BMR) predicted from equations, based on body weight (PALBMR) and associated with a risk for spurious correlations, with PAL calculated using sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) assessed using indirect calorimetry (PALSMR) in 20 healthy children aged 1.5 years. Total energy expenditure and body fatness were assessed using the doubly labelled water method. Body fatness of these children was also assessed at one week and three months of age. PALBMR was significantly (r=-0.48, p=0.03) correlated with TBF (%) while PALSMR was not. Furthermore, the increase in body fatness between three months and 1.5 years was significantly (r=-0.52, p=0.02) correlated with PALSMR at the age of 1.5 years. Our results indicate complex relationships between body fatness and physical activity in early life. When conducting studies in this area, resting energy metabolism should be measured rather than predicted using equations based on body weight.

  • 7.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olausson, Hanna
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Maternal body composition in relation to infant growth and fatness2008In: International Journal of Body Composition Research, ISSN 1479-456X, Vol. 6, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Flinke Carlsson, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Development of body composition and its relationship with physical activity: A longitudinal study of Swedish children until 4·5 years of age2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop strategies to prevent early childhood obesity more knowledge about longitudinal body composition development is needed. Previous studies have shown that there is a negative relationship between the physical activity level (PAL) and total body fat (TBF) in children. The aims of this study were: 1) To describe the longitudinal development of body composition from 1 week to 4·5 years of age. 2) To study the relationships between measures of body composition and PAL at 3 years of age. 3) To compare the relationships between body composition measures and PAL at 3 years of age to the corresponding relationships at 1·5 years of age. Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography at 1 week, 12 weeks and at 4·5 years of age. At 1·5 and 3 years body composition and PAL were assessed using the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry. The results showed that TBF% and fat mass index (FMI) were higher than corresponding reference values, during infancy and childhood. We found a relationship between TBF% and PAL at 3 years of age but this was explained by a relationship between PAL and fat-free mass index (FFMI). The corresponding relationship at 1·5 years of age could not be explained by a relationship between PAL and FFMI. In conclusion, the children in this study had higher body fatness compared to the corresponding reference values. This may indicate an identification of a secular trend in body composition development which is characterized by a high body fatness. Our findings also suggest that body fatness might counteract physical activity at 1·5 years of age when the capacity to perform physical activity is limited, however this result was not observed at 3 years of age when such a capacity has been developed.

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