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  • 1.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Simple Hybrid Aligner for Generating Lexical Correspondences in Parallel Texts.1998In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-ACL'98) / [ed] Pierre Isabelle, Stroudsburg, PA, USA: The Association for Computational Linguistics , 1998, p. 29-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alignment2014In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology / [ed] Chan Sin-wai, London and New York: Routledge, 2014, p. 395-408Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alignment-based profiling of Europarl data in an English-Swedish parallel corpus2010In: Proceedings of the Seventh conference on International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10) / [ed] Nicoletta Calzolari (Conference Chair) and Khalid Choukri and Bente Maegaard and Joseph Mariani and Jan Odijk and Stelios Piperidis and Mike Rosner and Daniel Tapias, Paris, France: European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2010, p. 3398-3404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper profiles the Europarl part of an English-Swedish parallel corpus and compares it with three other subcorpora of the sameparallel corpus. We first describe our method for comparison which is based on alignments, both at the token level and the structurallevel. Although two of the other subcorpora contains fiction, it is found that the Europarl part is the one having the highest proportion ofmany types of restructurings, including additions, deletions and long distance reorderings. We explain this by the fact that the majorityof Europarl segments are parallel translations.

  • 4.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatisk textanalys i språkprofessionerna1999In: Samtal och språkanvändning i professionerna: Rapport från ASLA:s höstsymposium, Linköping, 6-7 november 1997 / [ed] Per Linell, Lars Ahrenberg, Linda Jönsson, Uppsala: ASLA , 1999, p. 19-32Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chunk Accuracy: A Simple, Flexible Metric for Translation Quality2014In: LREC 2014 - NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION, European Language Resources Association, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Codified Close Translation as a Standard for MT2005In: Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation,2005, Budapest: EAMT , 2005, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Comparing machine translation and human translation: A case study2017In: RANLP 2017 The First Workshop on Human-Informed Translation and Interpreting Technology (HiT-IT) Proceedings of the Workshop, September 7th, 2017 / [ed] Irina Temnikova, Constantin Orasan, Gloria Corpas and Stephan Vogel, Shoumen, Bulgaria: Association for Computational Linguistics , 2017, p. 21-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As machine translation technology improves comparisons to human performance are often made in quite general and exaggerated terms. Thus, it is important to be able to account for differences accurately. This paper reports a simple, descriptive scheme for comparing translations and applies it to two translations of a British opinion article published in March, 2017. One is a human translation (HT) into Swedish, and the other a machine translation (MT). While the comparison is limited to one text, the results are indicative of current limitations in MT.

  • 8.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    LinES: An English-Swedish Parallel Treebank2007In: Proceedings of 16th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics Nodalida,2007 / [ed] Joakim Nivre, Heiki-Jaan Kaalep, Kadri Muischnek, Mare Koit, Tartu, Estonia: University of Tartu , 2007, p. 270-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an English-Swedish Parallel Treebank, LinES, that is currently under development. LinES is intended as a resource for the study of variation in translation of common syntactic constructions from English to Swedish. For this reason, annotation in LinES is syntactically oriented, multi-level, complete and manually reviewed according to guidelines. Another aim of LinES is to support queries made in terms of types of translation shifts.

  • 9.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Positions vs. precedences as primitives of constituent order1999In: Saetningsskemaet i Generativ Grammatik / [ed] Per Anker Jensen og Peter Skadhauge, Kolding: Institut for Erhvervssproglig Informatik og Kommunikation, Syddansk Universitet , 1999, p. 1-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Precedenser eller positioner för beskrivningen av svenskans ledföljd.1999In: Svenskans beskrivning 23: Förhandlingar vid Tjugotredje sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Andersson, Aina Lundqvist, Kerstin Norén, Lena Rogström, Lund: Lund University Press , 1999, p. 19-27Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Searching Parallel Treebanks for Translation Relations2008In: Resourceful Language Technology: Festschrift in Honor of Anna Sågvall Hein, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2008, 1, p. 11-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the first holder of the first chair in computational linguistics in Sweden, Anna Sågvall Hein has played a central role in the development of computational linguistics and language technology both in Sweden and on the international scene. Besides her valuable contributions to research, which include work on machine translation, syntactic parsing, grammar checking, word prediction, and corpus linguistics, she has been instrumental in establishing a national graduate school in language technology as well as an undergraduate program in language technology at Uppsala University. It is with great pleasure that we present her with this Festschrift to honor her lasting contributions to the field and to commemorate her retirement from the chair in computational linguistics at Uppsala University. The contributions to the Festschrift come from Anna’s friends and colleagues around the world and deal with many of the topics that are dear to her heart. A common theme in many of the articles, as well as in Anna’s own scientific work, is the design, development and use of adequate language technology resources, epitomized in the title Resourceful Language Technology.

  • 12.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Swedish prepositions are not pure function words2017In: Proceedings of the NoDaLiDa 2017 Workshop on Universal Dependencies, 22 May, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Joakim Nivre, and Sebastian Schuster, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, Vol. 135, p. 11-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As for any categorial scheme used for annotation, UD abound with borderline cases. The main instruments to resolve them are the UD design principles and, of course, the linguistic facts of the matter. UD makes a fundamental distinction between content words and function words, and a, perhaps less fundamental, distinction between pure function words and the rest. It has been suggested that adpositions are to be included among the pure function words. In this paper I discuss the case of prepositions in Swedish and related languages in the light of these distinctions. It relates to a more general problem: How should we resolve cases where the linguistic intuitions and UD design principles are in conflict?

  • 13.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Towards a research infrastructure for translation studies.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In principle the CLARIN research infrastructure provides a good environment to support research on translation. In reality, the progress within CLARIN in this area seems to be fairly slow. In this paper I will give examples of the resources currently available, and suggest what is needed to achieve a relevant research infrastructure for translation studies. Also, I argue that translation studies has more to gain from language technology, and statistical machine translation in particular, than what is generally assumed, and give some examples.

  • 14.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Linköping University.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Simple Hybrid Aligner for Generating Lexical Correspondences in Parallel Texts1998In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-ACL'98) Montreal, August 10-14, 1998, / [ed] Pierre Isabelle, The Association for Computational Linguistics , 1998, p. 29-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A System for Incremental and Interactive Word Linking2002In: In Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2002), Las Palmas, 29-31 May 2002., European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2002, p. 485-490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aligned parallel corpora constitute a critical information resource for a great number of linguistic and technological endeavors. Automatic sentence alignment has reached a level whereby large parallel documents can be fully aligned with the aid of interactive post-editing tools. Word alignment systems have not yet reached the same level of performance, but are good enough to support full word alignment if embedded in an interactive system. In this paper we describe a system for fast and accurate word alignment currently under development at our department, where the user can review and improve the output from an automatic system in an incremental fashion.

  • 16.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thureé, Åke
    Linköping University.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Customizing Interaction for Natural Language Interfaces1996Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A knowledge-lite approach to word alignment2000In: Parallel Text Processing: Alignment and Use of Translation Corpora / [ed] Jean Veronis, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 97-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The most promising approach to word alignment is to combine statistical methods with non-statistical information sources. Some of the proposed non-statistical sources, including bilingual dictionaries, POS-taggers and lemmatizers, rely on considerable linguistic knowledge, while other knowledge-lite sources such as cognate heuristics and word order heuristics can be implemented relatively easy. While knowledge-heavy sources might be expected to give better performance, knowledge-lite systems are easier to port to new language pairs and text types, and they can give sufficiently good results for many purposes, e.g. if the output is to be used by a human user for the creation of a complete word-aligned bitext. In this paper we describe the current status of the Linköping Word Aligner (LWA), which combines the use of statistical measures of co-occurrence with four knowledge-lite modules for (i)) word categorization, (ii) morphological variation, (iii) word order, and (iv) phrase recognition. We demonstrate the portability of the system (from English-Swedish texts to French-English texts) and present results for these two language-pairs. Finally, we will report observations from an error analysis of system output, and identify the major strengths and weaknesses of the system.

  • 18.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Correspondence measures for MT evaluation.2000In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Linguistic Resources and Evaluation (LREC-2000, Paris, France: European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2000, p. 41-46Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On translation corpora and translation support tools: A project report.1996In: Languages in Contrast. : Papers from a Symposium on Text-based Cross-linguistic Studies, Lund 4-5 March 1994 / [ed] K. Aijmer, B Altenberg & M. Johansson, Lund: Lund University Press , 1996, p. 185-200Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Språkliga effekter av översättningssystem.1998In: Svenskan i IT-samhället. / [ed] Olle Josephsson, Uppsala: Hallgren & Fallgren , 1998, p. 96-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur förändras det svenska språket av datorer och IT-teknik? Hur påverkas svenska ord, meningar och texter? Ett tiotal språkvetare diskuterar vad ordbehandlare, e-post, internet och s.k. "översättningsmaskiner" kan få för konsekvenser för svenskan. Analyser och resonemang kring en mängd exempel från både myndighetsbrev och chattare på nätet

  • 21.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petterstedt, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interactive Word Alignment for Language Engineering2003In: The 10th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Conference Companion, Association for Computational Linguistics , 2003, p. 49-52Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sågvall Hein, Anna
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Uppsala universitet..
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Uppsala universitet.
    Evaluation of word alignment systems2000In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Linguistic Resources and Evaluation (LREC-2000), Paris, France: European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2000, p. 1255-1261Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tarvi, Ljuba
    Helsingfors University, Finland.
    Natural Language Processing for the Translation Class2013In: Proceedings of the second workshop on NLP for computer-assisted language learning at NODALIDA 2013: NEALT Proceedings Series 17 / [ed] Elena Volodina, Lars Borin, Hrafn Loftsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a system for use in translation teaching with automatic support for alignment and comparative assessment of different translations. A primary use of this system is for discussion in class and comparison of student translations from a given source text, but it may also be used to study and compare differences between published translations. We describe the intended functions of the system and give suggestions on its design and architecture. We also discuss the degree of automation that can be expected and report results from a small indicative study focused on word alignment performance.

  • 24.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tarvi, Ljuba
    Helsinki University.
    Translation Class Instruction as Collaboration in the Act of Translation2014In: Proceedings of The 9th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, Baltimore, USA, June 26th, 2014. / [ed] Joel Tetreault, Jill Burstein, Claudia Leacock, The Association for Computational Linguistics , 2014, p. 34-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper offers an effective way of teacher-student computer-based collabo-ration in translation class. We show how a quantitative-qualitative method of analysis supported by word alignment technology can be applied to student translations for use in the classroom. The combined use of natural-language pro-cessing and manual techniques enables students to ‘co-emerge’ during highly motivated collaborative sessions. Within the advocated approach, students are pro-active seekers for a better translation (grade) in a teacher-centered computer-based peer-assisted translation class.

  • 25.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Tiedemann, JörgUppsala universitet.Volk, MartinUniversität Zürich.
    Proceedings of the Workshop on Annotation and Exploitation of Parallel Corpora, Tartu, December 2, 2010. NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol. 10.,2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Eldén, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fagerlund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Computing Semantic Clusters by Semantic Mirroring and Spectral Graph Partitioning2013In: Mathematics in Computer Science, ISSN 1661-8270, Vol. 7, p. 293-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the technique of semantic mirroring a graph is obtained that represents words and their translationsfrom a parallel corpus or a bilingual lexicon. The connectedness of the graph holds information about the semanticrelations of words that occur in the translations. Spectral graph theory is used to partition the graph, which leadsto a grouping of the words in different clusters. We illustrate the method using a small sample of seed words froma lexicon of Swedish and English adjectives and discuss its application to computational lexical semantics andlexicography.

  • 27. Fagerlund, Martin
    et al.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eldén, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Scientific Computing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Computing Word Senses by Semantic Mirroring and Spectral Graph Partitioning2010In: Proceedings of TextGraphs-5 - 2010 Workshop on Graph-based Methods for Natural Language Processing / [ed] Carmen Banea, Alessandro Moschitti, Swapna Somasundaran and Fabio Massimo Zanzotto, Stroudsburg, PA, USA: The Association for Computational Linguistics , 2010, p. 103-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the technique of ”semantic mirroring”a graph is obtained that representswords and their translations from a parallelcorpus or a bilingual lexicon. The connectednessof the graph holds informationabout the different meanings of words thatoccur in the translations. Spectral graphtheory is used to partition the graph, whichleads to a grouping of the words accordingto different senses. We also report resultsfrom an evaluation using a small sample ofseed words from a lexicon of Swedish andEnglish adjectives.

  • 28.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Taking advantage of the "Big Mo": Momentum in everyday english and swedish and in physics teaching2015In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 345-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science education research suggests that our everyday intuitions of motion and interaction of physical objects fit well with how physicists use the term “momentum”. Corpus linguistics provides an easily accessible approach to study language in different domains, including everyday language. Analysis of language samples from English text corpora reveals a trend of increasing metaphorical use of “momentum” in non-science domains, and through conceptual metaphor analysis, we show that the use of the word in everyday language, as opposed to for instance “force”, is largely adequate from a physics point of view. In addition, “momentum” has recently been borrowed into Swedish as a metaphor in domains such as sports, politics and finance, with meanings similar to those in physics. As an implication for educational practice, we find support for the suggestion to introduce the term “momentum” to English-speaking pupils at an earlier age than what is typically done in the educational system today, thereby capitalising on their intuitions and experiences of everyday language. For Swedish-speaking pupils, and possibly also relevant to other languages, the parallel between “momentum” and the corresponding physics term in the students’ mother tongue could be made explicit.

  • 29.
    Holmqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Gold Standard for English-Swedish Word Alignment2011In: Proceedings of the 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics NODALIDA 2011 / [ed] Bolette Sandford Pedersen, Gunta Nepore and Inguna Skadina, Tartu, Estland, 2011, p. 106-113Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Word alignment gold standards are an importantresource for developing and evaluatingword alignment methods. In thispaper we present a free English–Swedishword alignment gold standard consistingof texts from Europarl with manually verifiedword alignments. The gold standardcontains two sets of word aligned sentences,a test set for the purpose of evaluationand a training set that can be usedfor supervised training. The guidelinesused for English–Swedish alignment werecreated based on guidelines for other languagepairs and with statistical machinetranslation as the targeted application. Wealso present results of intrinsic evaluationusing our gold standard and discuss the relationshipto extrinsic evaluation in a statisticalmachine translation system.

  • 30.
    Holmqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    High-precision Word Alignment with Parallel Phrases2008In: The second Swedish Language Technology Conference SLTC-08,2008, 2008, p. 45-46Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Holmqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Experiments with word alignment, normalization and clause reordering for SMT between English and German2011In: Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (WMT 2011) / [ed] Chris Callison-Burch, Philipp Koehn, Christof Monz, Omar F. Zaidan, 2011, p. 393-398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the LIU system for the WMT 2011 shared task for translation between German and English. For English– German we attempted to improve the translation tables with a combination of standard statistical word alignments and phrase-based word alignments. For German–English translation we tried to make the German text more similar to the English text by normalizing German morphology and performing rule-based clause reordering of the German text. This resulted in small improvements for both translation directions.

  • 32.
    Holmqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Getting to Know Moses: Initial Experiments on German-English Factored Translation2007In: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation,2007, Stroudsberg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics , 2007, p. 181-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Holmqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alignment-based reordering for SMT2012In: Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12), 2012, p. 3436-3440Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for improving word alignment quality for phrase-based statistical machine translation by reordering the source text according to the target word order suggested by an initial word alignment. The reordered text is used to create a second word alignment which can be an improvement of the first alignment, since the word order is more similar. The method requires no other pre-processing such as part-of-speech tagging or parsing. We report improved Bleu scores for English-to-German and English-to-Swedish translation. We also examined the effect on word alignment quality and found that the reordering method increased recall while lowering precision, which partly can explain the improved Bleu scores. A manual evaluation of the translation output was also performed to understand what effect our reordering method has on the translation system. We found that where the system employing reordering differed from the baseline in terms of having more words, or a different word order, this generally led to an improvement in translation quality.

  • 34.
    Holmqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jody, Foo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving alignment for SMT by reordering and augmenting the training corpus2009In: Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (WMT09), Athens, Greece, 2009, p. 120-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the LIU systems for English-German and German-English translation in the WMT09 shared task. We focus on two methods to improve the word alignment: (i) by applying Giza++ in a second phase to a reordered training corpus, where reordering is based on the alignments from the first phase, and (ii) by adding lexical data obtained as high-precision alignments from a different word aligner. These methods were studied in the context of a system that uses compound processing, a morphological sequence model for German, and a part-of-speech sequence model for English. Both methods gave some improvements to translation quality as measured by Bleu and Meteor scores, though not consistently. All systems used both out-of-domain and in-domain data as the mixed corpus had better scores in the baseline configuration.

  • 35.
    Lahoud, Inaya
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, University of Galatasaray, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ahrenberg, LarsLinköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Proceedings from the First International Workshop on Educational Knowledge Management (EKM 2014), Linköping, November 24, 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lahoud, Inaya
    et al.
    University of Galatasaray, Turkey.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Summary of the Workshop on Educational Knowledge Management2015In: KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, EKAW 2014, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 8982, p. 64-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 37.
    Linell, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Ahrenberg, LarsLinköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.Jönsson, LindaLinköping University, Department of Language and Culture.
    Samtal och språkanvändning i professionerna : rapport från ASLA1998Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Linell, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahrenberg, LarsLinköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.Jönsson, LindaLinköping University, Department of Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samtal och språkanvändning i professionerna: Rapport från ASLA:s höstsymposium, Linköping, 6-7 november 19971999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ASLA är Svenska föreningen för tillämpad språkvetenskap. När ASLA och dess internationella och överordnade organisation AlLA (Association Internationate de Lingui stique Appliquee) kom till, tolkade man begreppet "tillämpad språkvetenskap" på ett sätt som nu håller på att bli omodernt. Man tänkte sig att den teoretiska lingvistiken med dess beskrivningar av språkstrukturen på olika plan (fonologi , grammatik, lexikologi, semantik etc.) var en sorts abstrakt modell av vad man kan när man behärskar ett språk. De som då studerade hur man använder, tillägnar sig, undervisar i eller översätter mellan språk, sysslade med att söka tillämpa de lingvistiska teorierna på dessa skilda områden. Den tillämpade språkvetenskapens förklaringar skulle, enli gt detta synsätt, härledas från lingvistikens modeller, eventuellt kompletterade med sociologiska, psykologiska eller pedagogiska hjälpteorier.

    Detta tillämpningstänkande kan naturligtvis fortfarande ha sina poänger i specifika sammanhang. Men de som idag arbetar med att utforska, beskriva och förklara språkliga praktiker utgår oftast från att språkanvändningen i tal, samtal, skrivande, lyssnande och läsande inte kan förstås främst, ännu mindre enbart, som en tillämpning av språkliga regler. Det handlar i stället om kognitiva och kommunikativa verksamheter som har en annan natur. Dessa verksamheter ingår i psykologiska, sociala och kulturella processer och kontexter som kräver en annan teoriram än den som ger en exklusiv prioritet åt det språkstrukturella. Man behöver helt enkelt en teori (eller flera olika sorters teorier) för språkliga praktiker, som utgår från verksamheterna, interaktionerna, samtalen och texterna som primära analysenheter, inte som sekundära i relation till abstrakta strukturer. Den moderna "tillämpade" språkvetenskapen arbetar med bl.a. sådana perspektiv på sina olika problemområden.

    Det har därför förefallit oss konsekvent att som tema för 1997 års ASLA-symposium välja "Samtal och textanvändning i professionerna". Många moderna professioner har just samtal och textpraktiker som karaktäristiska inslag. Det kan gälla jurister, läkare, sköterskor, logopeder, socialarbetare, kuratorer, lärare, rådgivare, personalutvecklare, marknadsförare, ombudsmän och förhandlare, översättare, och många andra. De använder språk på speciella sätt i samtal och texter inom och mellan sina professioner, och i kontakterna med klienter, kunder och lekmän av olika slag. "Discourse and the Professions" är namnet på en ny AlLA-kommission, som syftar till att bl. a. fungera som forum för forskning om sådana språkliga verksamheter. (Kommissionen har f.ö. startats på initiativ av Britt-Louise Gunnarsson.) För oss i Linköping och särskilt på tema K känns det särskilt naturligt att välja det ovannämnda temat, eftersom vi under årens lopp sökt bidra till just denna forskning (se t.ex. ASLA-Information, 21:3, 1995). Forskningen finns emellertid generellt väl representerad på många institutioner i Sverige och i övriga Norden. Det sistnämnda förhållandet har vi velat uppmärksamma genom att som plenartalare inbjuda Deirdre Boden (Köpenhamn), Lars Sigfred Evensen (Trondheim) och Anssi Peräkylä (Helsingfors).

    I denna volym publiceras 19 av de 21 föredragen vid ASLA:s årsmöte i Linköping 6-7 november 1997. Föredragen av Deirdre Boden och Hans Strand saknas. De problemområden som främst kommit att representeras är kommunikation i vården och inom organisationer och företag. I övrigt uppmärksammas bl.a. sådana språkprofessioner som översättare och lärare (även om Lars Sigfred Evensens bidrag sätter elevernas texter i centrum).

    ASLA:s årsmöte understöddes ekonomiskt av tema Kommunikation. Organisationskommittén bestod förutom av mig själv av Lars Ahrenberg och Linda Jönsson, som också fungerat som medutgivare av denna volym, samt Charlotte Lodens, som vi tackar för organisatorisk hjälp och praktisk redigering av volymen.

    Linköping i oktober 1998

    Per Linell

  • 39. Maegaard, Bente
    et al.
    Fenstad, Jens-Erik
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Kvale, Knut
    Mühlenbock, Katarina
    Heid, Bernt-Erik
    KUNSTI - Knowledge Generation for Norwegian Language Technology2006In: Proceedings of LREC 2006 Language Resources and Evaluation Conference,2006, Genoa: LREC , 2006, p. 757-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Maleki, Jalal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Converting Romanized Persian to the Arabic Writing System2008In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08) / [ed] Nicoletta Calzolari, Khalid Choukri, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Jan Odjik, Stelios Piperidis, Daniel Tapias, Marrakech, Morocco: European Language Resources Association, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a syllabification based conversion method for converting romanized Persian text to the traditional Arabic-based writing system. The system is implemented in Xerox XFST and relies on rule based conversion of words rather than using morphological analysis. The paper presents a brief evaluation of the accuracy of the transcriptions generated by the method.

  • 41.
    Maleki, Jalal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yaesoubi, Maziar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Applying Finite State Morphology to Conversion Between Roman and Perso-Arabic Writing Systems2009In: FINITE-STATE METHODS AND NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, ISSN 0922-6389, Vol. 191, p. 215-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for converting back and forth between the Perso-Arabic and a romanized writing system for Persian. Given a word in one writing system, we use finite state transducers to generate morphological analysis for the word that is subsequently used to regenerate the orthography of the word in the other writing system. The system has been implemented in XFST and LEXC.

  • 42.
    Maleki, Jalal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yaesoubi, Maziar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Applying Finite State Morphology to Conversion Between Roman and Perso-Arabic Writing Systems2009In: Finite-State Methods and Natural Language Processing - Post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop FSMNLP 2008 / [ed] Jakub Piskorski, Bruce Watson, Anssi Yli-Jyrä, IOS Press , 2009, p. 215-223Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for converting back and forth between the Perso-Arabic and a romanized writing system for Persian. Given a word in one writing system, we use finite state transducers to generate morphological analysis for the word that is subsequently used to regenerate the orthography of the word in the other writing system. The system has been implemented in XFST and LEXC.

  • 43.
    Merkel, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Foo, Jody
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    IPhraxtor - A linguistically informed system for extraction of term candidates2013In: Proceedings of the 19th Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (Nodalida 2013), Oslo, May 22-24, 2013, NEALT Proceedings Series 16 / [ed] Stephan Oepen, Kristin Hagen, Janne Bondi Johannesse, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 85, p. 121-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a method and a flexible tool for performing monolingual term extraction is presented; based on the use of syntactic analysis where information on parts-of-speech; syntactic functions and surface syntax tags can be utilised. The standard approaches to evaluating term extraction; namely by manual evaluation of the top n term candidates or by comparing to a gold standard consisting of a list of terms from a specific domain can have its advantages; but in this paper we try to realise a proposal by Bernier-Colborne (2012) where extracted terms are compared to a gold standard consisting of a test corpus where terms have been annotated in context. Apart from applying this evaluation to different configuratio

  • 44.
    Merkel, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petterstedt, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interactive Word Alignment for Corpus Linguistics2003In: Proceedings of Corpus Linguistics 2003, 28-31st March, 2003, Lancaster UK. UCREL Technical Papers., UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language) , 2003, p. 533-542Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Zweigenbaum, Pierre
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment2006In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 6, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods: The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. Results: A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. Conclusion: In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems. © 2006 Nyström et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 46.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zweigenbaum, Pierre
    Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Inserm U729, Inalco CRIM.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment2009In: Lexicography: The Changing Landscape / [ed] Salonee Priya, Hyderabad, India: The Icfai University Press , 2009, 1, p. 131-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lexicography is a realm of growing academic specialization. Dictionaries map meaning onto use. We have innumerable dictionaries on different subjects and for different purposes which we keep referring to, time and again. Despite the frequency with which dictionaries are unquestioningly consulted, many have little idea of what actually goes into making them or how meanings are definitively ascertained. We have become so accustomed to using dictionaries that we fail to take notice of the effort and time spent in their making. Understanding the finer nuances of the art of dictionary-making will be of interest to everyone. With changing times and the penetration of technology, the bulkier forms of dictionaries have given way to softer forms. This book updates the reader to the changing notions of the lexicon and dictionary-making in the new realm of modern technology and newer electronic tools. The book introduces us to lexicography and leads us to dictionaries for general and specific purposes. It examines dictionary compilation and research and enables compilers, users, educators and publishers to look anew at the art of lexicography. It duly takes into account the fact that dictionaries are meant to fulfill the needs of specific user groups and reflects the same in the chapters devoted to various professional dictionaries, which have recently achieved widespread recognition in the lexicographical literature. A good read for students of linguistics, teachers and translators apart from general readers interested in knowing the intricate art of making a dictionary.

  • 47.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klein, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Chen, Rong
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Halvautomatisk översättning av SNOMED CT till svenska2003In: IT i vården - terminologi, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Stymne, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    A Bilingual Grammar for Translation of English-Swedish Verb Frame Divergences2006In: Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation EAMT,2006, Oslo, Norway: EAMT , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Stymne, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the practice of error analysis for machine translation evaluation2012In: Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12), European Language Resources Association , 2012, p. 1786-1790Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error analysis is a means to assess machine translation output in qualitative terms, which can be used as a basis for the generation of error profiles for different systems. As for other subjective approaches to evaluation it runs the risk of low inter-annotator agreement, but very often in papers applying error analysis to MT, this aspect is not even discussed. In this paper, we report results from a comparative evaluation of two systems where agreement initially was low, and discuss the different ways we used to improve it. We compared the effects of using more or less fine-grained taxonomies, and the possibility to restrict analysis to short sentences only. We report results on inter-annotator agreement before and after measures were taken, on error categories that are most likely to be confused, and on the possibility to establish error profiles also in the absence of a high inter-annotator agreement.

  • 50.
    Stymne, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using a Grammar Checker for Evaluation and Postprocessing of Statistical Machine Translation2010In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10), European Language Resources Association, 2010, p. 2175-2181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One problem in statistical machine translation (SMT) is that the output often is ungrammatical. To address this issue, we have investigated the use of a grammar checker for two purposes in connection with SMT: as an evaluation tool and as a postprocessing tool. As an evaluation tool the grammar checker gives a complementary picture to standard metrics such as Bleu, which do not account for grammaticality. We use the grammar checker as a postprocessing tool by applying the error correction suggestions it gives. There are only small overall improvements of the postprocessing on automatic metrics, but the sentences that are affected by the changes are improved, as shown both by automatic metrics and by a human error analysis. These results indicate that grammar checker techniques are a useful complement to SMT.

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