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  • 1.
    Afazeli, Siamak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sattari Dabaghi, Alireza
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Görn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of   Enterprise Quality and Export Performance: An Empirical Study on the Pharmaceutical Industry in IRAN2011In: Proceedings QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Science 2011, 14th QMOD Conference 29st-31st August, 2011, San Sebastian, Spain: From LearnAbility & InnovaAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo and Elizabeth Viles Javier Santos, Pamplona, Spain: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 55-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between export involvement and domestic market performance with focus on pharmaceutical firms. The study covers three research questions including: 1: How to assess the export involvement/performance of the Iranian pharmaceutical companies? 2: How to assess the performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies in domestic market? 3: How to examine the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance?

    An intensive literature review and integration of relevant views and models helped us to build our own framework as a conceptual and analytical model. The model consists of EXPERF model, EFQM model, Export performance evaluation, domestic performance evaluation and the relationship between domestic performance and export performance. EFQM model and respective ILL indices was used for measuring domestic performance of the organizations on nine components of leadership, policy and strategy, people, partnership and resources, processes, people results, customer results, society results and key performance results. In order to achieve true representative of Iranian pharmaceutical companies K-mean clustering algorithm has been used to cluster Iranian pharmaceutical companies. EXPERF scale was used to measure export performance of the pharmaceutical companies in Iran on three aspects of financial export performance, strategic export performance and satisfaction with the export venture. Six clusters emerged after running the clustering algorithm in MATLAB software. This software enables us to put the similar companies together. Then centroids of the clusters were chosen to verify the relationship. Then relationship between export involvement (export performance) of pharmaceutical companies and their domestic performance was determined by use of Pearson coefficient.

    Pearson correlation = 0.708 and Sig= 0.026which is less than 0.0 5 then with 95% confidence we can claim that there is a significant relation between export performance of the Centroids and Domestic performance of the centroids of Iranian pharmaceutical companies and considering that the correlation

    coefficient value is positive, it means better export performance will result in better domestic performance. In other words Export performance of the companies has positive direct effect on domestic performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies. Further studies can be done on clustering of Iranian pharmaceutical companies; effects of export involvement on individual components of EFQM based performance of firms and also verification of effect of export involvement and domestic performance in other business contexts.

  • 2.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhancing the franchisees’ performance: A resource-based view2012In: The Business & Management Review, ISSN 2047-2854, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 220-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the influential factors in business’ performance is an important cornerstone in business research. Although the study of franchise failure and success has received significant attention among researchers, the lack of knowledge about influential factors on franchisees’ performance as an integral part of the franchise system, as well as the consequences of franchising, has resulted in a gap in the franchise literature. According to previous literature, business success and failure results from the three major elements of resources, capacity and competency. Given the firm’s resources have a considerable share in explaining the variation of firms’ performance, the resource-based view provides an outstanding theoretical explanation for varying performance of the firms, and it looks to be promising for analyzing the franchisee’s performance. In franchising systems, provided services by the franchisor have a crucial role in franchisees’ performance. Therefore, this research was conducted to show how provided services by the franchisor, through impact on product and services’ quality, consistency, price and customer awareness, could enhance the franchisee’s performance.

  • 3.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurial orientation in franchising systems: A franchisee perspective2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the role of franchisees in the generation of new ideas and innovations in the franchise system, there are limited studies on the conduct of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within the context of franchising and from the franchisee perspective. Although in a franchise system, the franchisor always tries to develop the standardization across the system to take advantage of cost minimization, different local environments require some flexibilities and adaptation in a franchisor policy (Falbe et al., 1999). Therefore, the franchisor should balance between standardization and adaptation, and display the entrepreneurial behaviors to take advantage of local market opportunities (Bradach, 1997). Given the important role of franchising in global wealth creation, understanding the extent to which an EO is desirable in franchise systems is an area which merits attention (Dada and Watson, 2012). Therefore, this study examines the entrepreneurial orientation in the franchised outlets. Findings from this study show that innovativeness in a franchise system is different in the core and peripheral elements of a product or service. The franchisor in a franchise system restricts the franchisees for innovation in "peripheral" elements of products. In addition, the franchisor concentrates on the innovation in the "core" elements. Both the franchisor and franchisee equally share the risk in a franchise system, and the franchisee takes even more risk in entering the new market and bearing the financial risk. The franchisee's autonomy in a franchise system is limited to the decision making about the peripheral elements. The franchisor almost always thinks about the future and seeks new opportunity in the industry; in fact, the franchisor in a system proactively looks for new opportunities. In contrast, the franchisees in a franchise system aggressively react to local competitors and apply the proper strategy to overcome them.

  • 4.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurial process in franchised outlets2013In: Journal of WEI Business and Economics, E-ISSN 2166-7918, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 59-71Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although in recent years the study of franchise systems has been the subject of many academic studies, most of them have studied franchise systems from the franchisor's point of view, and the franchisee point of view has received only limited attention. Researchers in business fields have adopted four main perspectives in the study of franchising: strategy, economics, marketing, and entrepreneurship. From an entrepreneurship perspective, while there is no doubt about considering a franchisor's business as an entrepreneurial firm, considering the franchisee's activities during the running and managing of an outlet as an entrepreneurial firm is disputed. An entrepreneurial firm includes involvement in product innovation, commitment to calculated risk, proactiveness and aggressiveness. While the diversity of definitions about entrepreneurship has caused a problem to understand what an entrepreneurial firm is, a process-focused approach offers much unexplored potential for understanding the nature of entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial firms. Therefore, due to the pivotal role of an entrepreneurial process in the nature of entrepreneurship, and considering the entrepreneurial process as the core unit of analysis in entrepreneurial firms, this article aims to study what happens during the entrepreneurial process in a franchised outlet. This study shows, although franchisees are restricted about product innovation, and franchisor reduces the risk of business for them, the franchisor never can omit the risk for franchisee. Moreover, many product innovations in the franchise system stem from the franchisee's ideas, and the franchisor will never be able to eliminate the risk for the franchisees. The franchisee's business also encompasses all dimensions of the entrepreneurial process as the unique features of entrepreneurial firms.

  • 5.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Franchisees’ Activities as Entrepreneurship2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, franchising has turned into one of the fastest-growing business forms. Research in franchising has been viewed through the four major perspectives of economics, strategy, marketing and entrepreneurship. Although there is a consensus that the franchisors’ activities are considered as entrepreneurship, this notion is disputed with regard to franchisees. A paradox in entrepreneurial activities of the franchisee has caused doubt in considering franchisees’ activities as entrepreneurship. On the one hand, in a franchisee context, some believe opportunity is always identified and that the franchisor helps the franchisees in exploitation. On the other hand, the opposing view considers a franchisee as an entrepreneur who focuses on opportunity, risk and innovation. Ignoring the franchisees’ capabilities and abilities in innovation and introducing new products can prevent a franchise system from taking advantage of environmental change. Therefore, due to the importance of identification of unique aspects of entrepreneurship research rather than unique definition of entrepreneurship, and attention to entrepreneurial process as a core unit of analysis, this research will examine whether franchisees’ activities can be considered as entrepreneurship. According to the Shane model, the entrepreneurial process involves the existence of profitbased (objective) opportunities, risk-taking and some kind of innovation. Nature of opportunity in franchised outlets is closer to Kirznerian's view than Schumpeterian's  view. Sources of opportunities in franchised outlets are not so clear, like the introduction of a new restaurant in a storefront where none had existed before. In Schumpeter's view, according to different types of innovation, franchisees’ operations involve product-market  innovativeness to include market research, product design, and innovations in advertising and promotion. Regarding risk-taking as the third dimension of the entrepreneurial process, franchisees risk their capital. Although it seems in franchise systems that risk for the  franchisee is, to some extent, shared with the franchisor, no franchisor will be able to eliminate the financial, business and personal risk of the franchisees. The franchisor also transfers the risk of expanding into new markets to the franchisees. In sum, franchisees do almost all of the functions of other entrepreneurs, except generating new ideas in the initial step of running a business.

  • 6.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affärsguide till Saudi-Arabien: Marknadsutveckling, köparbeteende och arabisk kultur1984Book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Beyond Islam: A Framework for understanding Arab Culture2002In: World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies,2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Building bridges among the triple helix: lessons from Sweden2006In: International cngress on cooperation among university-government-industry,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Cultural Changes in and Around Organization1986In: Strategic Management Society Annual Conference,1986, 1986Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    In Search of Perspectives on Territorial Discourse in M.E.2001In: International Symposium on Symbolic and Practical Dimensions of the Territorial Discourse in M.E. European University Institute,2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Industrial buying behavior in the Middle East: a cross national study1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tackles industrial buying behavior in a socio-cultural context. The main purpose is to explore the influence of socio-cultural forces on industrial buying behavior in the Middle Eastern selected countries: Iran, Syria and the United Arab Emirates.

    A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, called triangulation (integrative) approach is used. The empirical data upon which the study stands, consists of: 108 in-depth interviews, 7 case studies, 4 document analysis and 279 questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative analysis are carried out as complementary. Factor analysis and regression analysis are the statistical techniques used for quantitative analysis.

    A conceptual and analytical model for analysis of socio-cultural characteristics in Islamic nations has been developed. Accordingly, socio-cultural traits of Islamic nations consist of values from: tribalism, Islamic religion and westernization systems-TIW model. Each system, in turn, consists of three dimensions. Tribalism consists of macrocosmic perception, microcosmic perception and familism; Islam consists of practicality, determinism and time horizon; westernization consists of Western techniques and technology, Western life style, and male/female equality.

    A multidimensional process model for purchasing industrial capital goods has also been developed. This model includes the stages of purchasing process as well as technical, commercial and social dimensions. The process includes stages for "decision-making" and for implementation of purchasing decision.

    Socio-cultural characteristics and industrial buying behavior in the studied countries are analyzed and compared; similarities and differences are discussed. These similarities and differences are found to be related to variations of their socio-cultural traits.

    The influence of socio-cultural forces on industrial buying behavior has been examined. Tribalism has been found to have influence on all dimensions of buying behavior; westernization has influence on technical dimension. However, Islam, surprisingly proves to have limited influence on the commercial and technical dimensions. Tribalism (familisrn dimension) has dominated the social dimension. This is why business in the Middle East is generally based upon interpersonal relationships.

  • 12.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Injustice in the name of justice2002In: International Social Justice Conference,2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iran's five-year development plan: analysis, experts' comments and business opportunities1990Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The book is an analysis of the fisrt five-year development plan (1989-1994) contatining various economic sectors. It highlighted business opportunites in each sector including: oil and gas, agriculute and water, industry and mining, health and medical care, transportation and telecommunication, electricity. the possible politcial and financial risks are also adressed.  This fact book also could be a good reference showing the govermnment ambitions and policies in the said period

  • 14.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Marketing of Industrial Products in Developing Nations: A study of strategy for smaller business adaptation1983Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Marketing Progress and Buyer Behavior in the Middle East1985In: The Annual Conference of the European Marketing Academy,1985, 1985, p. 140-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Marketing Progress and Buyer Behavior in the Middle East: A deep structure approach1984Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an extension of deep structure "socio-cultural" approach ininternational marketing by:

    1- Developing methodological and conceptual tools for understanding socio-cultural characteristic of the Middle - East nations, example of Saudi Arabia; buyer behavior and buyer seller relationship.

    2- Interprating buyers actions, decision making process, imoressions ,etc. and explorin~ the Swedish businessmen's problems in adapting business dealin9 to the buyer's socio-cultura 1 terms.

    3 - Finally suggesting some tactics for making further marketing progress in Saudi Arabia.

  • 17.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    On Symbiotic Cooperation as Strategy for Interantionalization of Smaller Firms1985In: Strategic Management Society Annual Conference,1985, 1985Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Organization as a Mirror for Reflection of National Culture: A study of organizational characteristics in Islamic nations.1984In: First International Conference on Organization Symbolism and Corporate Culture,1984, 1984Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Organizational Responses to a Revolutionary Environment1987In: Scandinavian journal of management studies, ISSN 0281-7527, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 213-232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Organizational Responses to Rapidly Changing Environment1985In: EGOS Conference,1985, 1985Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Symbols, Values, Images and Organizational Responses to Revolutionary Environment1985In: Conference on Organization Symoblism and Corporate Culture,1985, 1985Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    The path to sustainable cooperation among the triple helix2006In: Workshop carried out at the Third International Congress on cooperation among university-government-industry,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 23.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Transfer of Nuclear Technology from the Economic Viewpoint of Developing Nations1977In: First International Conference on Transfer of Nuclear Technology,1977, American Nuclear Society , 1977, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alamir, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Görn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organizational Innovation Capability, Product Platform Development and Performance: The  case of Iranian API companies, TAPIC subsidiaries2011In: Proceedings QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Science 2011, 14th QMOD Conference 29st-31st August, 2011, San Sebastian, Spain: From LearnAbility & InnovaAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo and Elizabeth Viles Javier Santos, Spain: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, , p. 15p. 481-503Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to explore (examine) the relationship between organizational innovation capability and product platform development as well as organizational performance in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) producer in Iran. Accordingly, a conceptual and analytical model for examining relationship of innovation capability of a firm with product platform development as well as performance  of API producers is developed which consisting of components:  strategy, processes, Linkage, organizational structure,  learning, product platform development and performance. The model is operationalized and tested in a group of Iranian API producers.

    The data were collected from eight subsidiaries companies of TAIC which are the largest conglomerate in production, provision and distribution of API in Iran. Our database consists of 168 questionnaires and companies, internal documents. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used as complementary to each other.

    1. The results show that most of Iranian API companies buy the required technology in order to establish a new product platform. This behavior was common among in both successful and unsuccessful firms. However, they were different in using the acquired technology for developing derivative products internally. The successful API producers (high performance) because of having better innovation capability are prone to use the opportunities to develop the new product derivatives, which can increase the sale and also the profit of company as well as its performance.

    2. There is a positive relationship between the organizational innovation capability and product platform development of the companies, and the firms which are better in innovation capability are prone to develop more products (derivatives) in the existing product platform when there is opportunity to develop new products and also there is a positive relationship between the performance of the companies and their innovation capabilities too, In which the firms which have the better innovation capabilities, have the better performance.

    3. Firms with good organizational innovation capability have a great possibility to develop their product platform as well as their organizational performance. Such firms had well communicated vision and mission, clear organizational purpose, long term commitment to the main projects, effective mechanisms to implement the innovation, systematic problem solving, proper organizational context, proper working structure, reward system, effective internal and external organizational systems, close relationship with customers, supplier and partners, commitment to training and development.

  • 25.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differentiation by Improving Quality of Services at the Last Touch Point2012In: Proceedings of the 15th QMOD-ICQSS conference, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of generic system and increase number of local generic producers on one hand and hyper competition of international generic producer of drugs from low cost countries on the other hand has put Iranian pharmaceutical firms in a challenging situation. So the pharmaceutical companies are left with no other choice than differentiating themselves in forefront dealing with customers, so called “the last touch point”. Therefore, pharmacies and the quality of their service has become point of concern.

     This study was aimed to assess the quality of services provided by the community pharmacies in Tehran and suggest some improvements. Among different service quality models, SERVQUAL model was used in the survey. The data was gathered by questionnaires including 22 pair items measuring expectation and perception, followed by 32 in-depth interviews. Furthermore, the views of our expert panel/group have been identical to the study. The results of SERVQUAL survey show serious problems in all dimensions: Information, Reliability, Empathy, Appearance and Time commitment. The lowest satisfaction rate was for information which shows customers do not receive their required information by pharmacists while the highest was for tidiness of people and place. The results also confirm the necessity of some modification in SERVQUAL items and dimensions to fit better to Pharmacy services.

    The results of interviews show that the pharmacy managers are, to some extent, aware of the situation but perceived the improvements to be costly for them.  As usual they blame the others, mainly pharmaceutical firms, government, social security organizations, prescribers of drugs, etc. They also confirm that the improvement of pharmacies’ services can help pharmaceutical companies in many ways and increase patient satisfaction. Most of pharmaceutical managers understand the role of Pharmacies in differentiation of generic drugs.

  • 26.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differentiation by improving quality of services at the last touch point: The case of Tehran pharmacies2012In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 345-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of Tehran pharmacies' services and their impacts on the pharmaceutical firms, to highlight forces behind the current situation and suggest some improvements. This provides the means for pharmaceutical companies to differentiate themselves by quality of services, in the forefront of dealing with the customers, so-called the last “touch point”.

    Design/methodology/approach – After a comprehensive literature review, SERVQUAL model was chosen to be used in this study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative (integrative) methods was used for data collection and analysis. The quantitative data were gathered by questionnaires, including 22 pair items measuring expectation and perception, followed by qualitative data, including 32 in-depth interviews. Furthermore, the views of our expert panel consisting of nine experts have been identical to the study. For statistical treatment of quantitative data, SPSS software was used.

    Findings – The study reveals that Tehran community pharmacies are facing serious service quality problems. The results of quantitative data show negative gaps in perceptions and expectations of customers in all 22 SERQUAL statements and all dimensions: Information, Reliability, Empathy, Appearance and Time commitment. Comparatively, appearance dimension is ranked as the highest quality and the lowest rank belongs to information dimension. The findings show that the generic SERVQUAL scale does not properly measure the quality of pharmacies' services; therefore, the authors recommend an industry-based scale; called PHARMA-SERVQUAL. The findings show the reasons for low quality services are: low education of pharmacists' assistants, lack of proper regulation and control, pharmacies' economic problems and cost of quality improvement, the culture of blaming others and accusing pharmaceutical firms, government and social security organization. In short, pharmacists transfer their service problems to pharmaceutical firms, which have largely neglected this last touch point with the customer. The study also suggests some quality improvements and academic as well as managerial implications.

    Originality/value – The study provides empirical evidence regarding the service quality of pharmacies in a developing country (Iran) and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons behind the quality problems. This research contributes to the understanding of how pharmacies' qualities of services enhance/change the customers' perception of the pharmaceutical companies' product qualities. It suggests that the firms should differentiate themselves at the pharmacies as the “last touch point” dealing with the end-users. The study sheds light on the necessity of modifying the SERVQUAL items and dimensions to fit pharmacies' services.

  • 27.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating Export Readiness: A Framework for Analysis2011In: Conference Proceedings of the LCBR European Marketing Conference 2011 / [ed] John Philips, Frankfurt: The Lupcon Center for Business Research , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to: 1) build a comprehensive framework for assessment of export readiness of developing countries’ firms, and 2) evaluate export readiness of Iranian firms. The study database consists of 12 cases (companies) and 21 experts’ views who suggested “good export practices”. Our data includes: in-depth interviews, self-administered questionnaire and documents analysis. Both quantitative and quantitative analyses are used. By gap analysis of current and desired/accepted situation, the degrees of readiness are explored. The study is resulted in a framework, which is developed upon integration of the earlier literature and models, empirically tested and verified covers evaluation of: corporate Profile, export Awareness, export Readiness, and export Operation (PARO model).

  • 28.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ebadzadeh, Sarah
    MBA ProMA, Industrail Marketing, IEI.
    To be Involved or Not: the Role of Customer Involvement in Service Production and Quality2012In: 15th QMOD conference proceedings, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore the role of customer involvement in the service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery. The study includes four service provider cases: a general contractor, a chemical process engineer, a software developer and a language institute as well as a service buyer case- the National Petrochemical Company. The results show that even-though co-production of the customers with the service provider is a must, however, it has different effects on the quality of service produced depending on the situation and the nature of services offered. In the cases of the complex engineering services- general contractor and chemical engineering- that service requirements and technical specifications were provided by the customers, and service providers were chosen by open bidding process there were instances where the co-production could lead to malfunction of the service. This was evident in the instances when the inappropriate technical specifications and requirements were provided by the customer hindering the service provider to deliver services smoothly. On the other hand, in the cases of new software development process and language institute, it had been evident that the involvement of customers–with a sound customer involvement management-has tremendous positive effects and lead to greater productivity and customer satisfaction. In the case of petrochemical company and international service providers, educating the suppliers by the buyer, to a large extend, could solve the service quality problems in terms of on time delivery, costs and technical conformity as stressed by buyers.

    Furthermore, for an efficient co-production and the right quality of services, it is mandated to build relationship and trust amongst the customers and service providers, draw a borderline between customer “involvement” and impertinent “customer intervention”. The study shows the importance of building cooperative culture between customers and service providers by replacing “blaming culture” where each side blames the other side for the problems that occur; with a “problem solving culture” where both parties actively co-operate to overcome the problems.

  • 29.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sedigheh Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Customer involvement in Service production, delivery and quality: the challenges and opportunities2013In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 46-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore the role of customer involvement in service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery as well as customer satisfaction.

    Design/methodology/approach – Since the nature of the study is exploratory, the case study approach was adopted. The paper focusses on customer involvement in the context of service production and delivery system in service organization rather than in the context of customer organization. The authors looked at supplier involvement as well, due to the fact that a lack of sufficient information from a supplier or lack of proper training may inhibit customers' successful involvement. A detailed case study was carried out on a sample of four service providers: a general contractor, a chemical process engineer, a software developer and a language institute as well as a service buyer case – a Petrochemical Holding Company. In total the paper includes five cases.

    Findings – The study reveals that even though co-production of the customers with the service provider is a must, however, it has different effects on the quality of service produced depending on the situation and the nature of services offered. In the cases of the complex engineering services – general contractor and chemical engineering – that service requirements and technical specifications were provided by the customers, and service providers were chosen by open bidding process, there were instances where the co-production could lead to malfunction of the service. This was evident in the cases when the inappropriate technical specifications and requirements were provided by the customer hindering the service provider to deliver services smoothly. On the other hand, in the cases of new software development process and language institute, it had been evident that the involvement of customers – with a sound customer involvement management – has tremendous positive effects and lead to greater productivity and customer satisfaction. In the case of the petrochemical company and international service providers, educating the suppliers/service providers by the buyer, to a large extent, could solve the service quality problems in terms of on time delivery, costs and technical conformity as stressed by buyers.

    Originality/value – The study provides empirical evidence regarding customer involvement in the service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery as well as customer satisfaction and sheds light on the situations that customer involvement is a success or a threat. The research also contributes to the understanding of how the nature of services, the level and scope of customer involvement as well as building relationship and trust amongst the customer and the service provider affect the outcome of customer-service provider co-production.

  • 30.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Golizeh, Makan
    Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC), Iran.
    Ghasemi, Houshang
    Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC), Iran.
    Board Effectiveness in Pharmaceutical Industry: The Case of TAPIC Pharmaceutical Group2011In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, ISSN 1548-6583, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 463-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests an emperically tested modelto fit the pharmaceutical industry and the context of LDCs, especially Iran. The paper stands upon a rich database consisting of Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC) and its 11 subsidiary companies which are treated as 11 mini-cases. Data were collected by document analysis, questionnaire and interviews. The results suggest some improvements to the earlier models and show that the pattern of board effectiveness in Iranian pharmaceutical industry can be influenced by: (1) Internal factors including: (a) board members, the personality and background, (b) board composition, which is influenced by selection criteria, Tribalism, interpersonal relationship and belonging to the same ideological group, (c) board interactions, and (d) power distribution in the board, which is influenced by parenting power in holding companies. All internal factors are directly or indirectly affected by political issues as well as socio-cultural forces. (2) External factors including: (a) industrial complexity and the nature of industry, (b) industrial ethos, (c) legislation, and political forces, (d) economy, which the last two factors are influenced by international environment as well.

  • 31.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Golizeh, Makan
    Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC).
    Ghasemi, Houshang
    Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC).
    Corporate Governance in Pharmaceutical Industry: The case of TAPIC Pharmaceutical Group2010In: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2010, p. 83-93Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical industry plays a strategic role in economy of Iran. Corporate governance, in pharmaceutical companies as the very core of an organization, and the driving force of corporate leadership, plays a significant role in business success and overall productivity of the firms. As yet, the characteristics, factors causing success and failure of core governance in Iranian pharmaceutical industry have remained unsearched. Furthermore, the applicability of western theories and models to the traditional societies such as Iran are largely unknown. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of corporate governance and firm performance in Iranian pharmaceutical industry and suggests an alternative good governance model suitable to apply to less developed countries (LDC) pharmaceutical industry, with emphasis on Iranian context.

  • 32.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Javadian Arzaghi, Bahareh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Success and Failure Factors in Inter-Firm Strategic Collaboration: The Case of Strategic Alliances in Pharmaceutical Firms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the key factors that determine the success andfailure in international inter-firm strategic collaboration with focus on strategic alliances inpharmaceutical industry in Iran.

    Design/Methodology/approach: After a comprehensive literature review, combined withexpert panel’s views, 33 success factors were specified to be studied. The factors were groupedas content and process orientated variables showing the importance of considered factor instrategic and structural configuration or the process of developing an inter-firm collaboration relationship respectively. A combination of quantitative and qualitative (integrative) method was used for data collection and analysis. The quantitative data were gathered by a structured questionnaire, including questions on the respondent’s background and 33 success factors.The qualitative database consists of 21 in-depth interviews carried out with managers of nine companies, four of which were international partners. Furthermore, the views of our expert panel have been identical to the study. Due to limited experienced managers in this field in Iran, questionnaires were distributed to 100 managers at different levels in Iranian pharmaceutical manufacturer companies with 79 completed usable questionnaires returned. For statistical treatment of quantitative data, SPSS software was applied. For evaluation of reliability of study, Cronbach alpha value was used, the effectiveness of success factors on (success of) inter-firm cooperation were assessed by binominal analytical tool. The Freidman analysis was used forranking the success factors.

    Findings: The results of quantitative and quality data showed that mutual understanding of provision of agreed resources from both partners had major importance in making successful co-operations. Considering the gap between importance of each factor and its real situation in current allianceseleven failure factors were specified: the absence of precise definition of parties’ rights and duties, the absence of right contribution of partners, lack of any specified strength and resource to be delivered, low strategic flexibility (low flexibility in making strategies compatible withpartner’s one), the absence of information and coordination system, the absence of proper control on their core competence and the knowledge transfer way, lack of systematic reviewing the alliance activities (for knowing if any early benefit or for prevention of any potential conflict), showing opportunistic behavior, not trying to make joint values (looking for short term tangible results), incompatible business strategies of two partners and no commitment to partnership. The quantitative findings showed four of very important success factors are process-oriented variables; which mean process of developing an inter-organizational relationship and dealing with matters such as building trust and mutual understanding are much more important in establishing successful pharmaceutical alliances in Iran while eight of found failure factors arecontent-oriented which means most of failed alliances had difficulties in strategic and structuraldesign of the alliance. However, the qualitative data revealed that the soft aspects of alliancesuccess are very important, such as culture of collaboration, open-mindedness, relationship building ability, parties’ enough knowledge about each other’s business culture and working attitudes as well as effective communication. Furthermore, the study reveals that the local government and public institutes have significant impacts on the success of the alliances, particularly in Iran that government interfere the business significantly. Not surprising, the perception of parties on success or failure of the alliances may be different as well. That is, an alliance being perceived successful by one partner may not be perceived successful by another partner. This finding has implication on future studies.

    Originality/value: The study provides empirical evidence regarding the key success and failurefactors in international inter-firm collaboration, in pharmaceutical industry in a developingcountry (Iran) and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons behind the failures. The study sheds light on the necessity of considering both parties’ perception of success and failure.

  • 33.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Afazeli, Siamack
    MBA ProMA Program.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quality, export and domestic market performance: the case of pharmaceutical firms in Iran2015In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, no 9-10, p. 938-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance of pharmaceutical enterprises in Iran, an area which has remained largely unresearched. The study seeks to address the following three research objectives: first, to assess the export performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies; second, to assess the performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies in the domestic market; and third, to examine the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance. Although existing literature claims that local performance (rivalry) leads to export performance, this study reveals that in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, export involvement and performance enhance local market performance. The study provides empirical evidence on the relationship between export performance and domestic market performance, and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons why the traditional views did not explain the situation. A comprehensive literature review was used to build our conceptual and analytical framework upon the Export Performance (EXPERF) model for export performance evaluation. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model and assessment indicators of Innovativeness, Learning and Lean indices were used for measuring domestic performance. By using clustering, six clusters of similar companies were identified and the centroids of the six clusters chosen to verify the relationship between export performance and domestic performance. Correlation analyses confirmed that there was a significant positive relation between export performance and domestic performance. This means that export performance results in better domestic performance, and vice versa.

  • 34.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alamirhoor, Amir
    MBA ProMA Program, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Linkage between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance: The case of pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises in Iran2013In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, no 7-8, p. 819-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance in pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Iran, an area which has remained unexplored. The intensive literature review has led us to suggest an empirically tested conceptual model consisting of innovation capability, product platform and performance as well as factors/enablers shaping innovation capability in the pharmaceutical firms. Combinations of quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection and analysis. Eight Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) companies that produce about 80% of local manufactured API were studied. The results show that the Iranian firms have chosen an imitative strategy in technology and product development. The common pattern for technology sourcing was external. However, although all companies purchased technologies from well-known suppliers, they demonstrated significant differences in the variety of products produced and performance. The failure firms lacked sound absorptive capability. Furthermore, the firms with high performance used a combination of internal and external sources for technology and product development. The empirical analysis showed a positive relationship between innovation capabilities, technology platform, product platform and performance. The pre-requisite to this relationship was found to be effective innovation management and strength/abilities in strategy, organisational structure, learning, processes and linkage (relationship) with the customers, suppliers and alliances.

  • 35.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Javadian Arzaghi, Bahareh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    International strategic alliances in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry: an analysis of key success and failure factors2014In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, no 7-8, p. 812-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify key success/failure factors in international strategicalliances (ISAs) in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, an area which has remainedlargely unexamined. The literature review, and an expert panel’s views, led us tostudy 33 success factors. These factors, based upon their importance in strategic andstructural configuration of the alliance formation process, were grouped as contentand process-oriented. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches wasused for data collection and analysis. The results confirmed that all 33 factors areeffective in alliance success, which is an extension of earlier research. The studyreveals 8 of the most important success factors, and 11 of the most prevalent failurefactors. The findings also showed that six of the eight most important success factorsare process-oriented variables. This confirms that trust, mutual understanding anddeveloping strong inter-organisational relationships are extremely important in thesuccess of alliances in the Iranian Pharmaceutical industry. However, 8 of 11 failurefactors are content-oriented, which means that the failed alliances mainly hadproblems in the alliances’ strategic and structural design. The qualitative studysupports the quantitative results and adds to the high importance of the soft aspect ofthe alliances’ success including: the culture of collaboration, open-mindedness,relationship-building ability, parties’ proper knowledge of each other’s businessculture/working attitudes, and effective communication. Besides, in Iran, the localgovernment and public institutes have significant impact on the success of thealliances. One of the more significant findings that emerged from this study is that‘success’ can mean different things to different people/partners, so success andfailure should be seen from both parties’ perspectives.

  • 36.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustavsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Competition by Effective Management of Multicultural Groups1991In: Achieving Competitive Edge / [ed] Gerard H. Gaynor, New York: McGraw-Hill , 1991, p. 263-268Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Gustavsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Competition by Effective Mangement of Cultural Diversity1992In: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, E-ISSN 1558-0911, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Gustavsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Holm, E
    Mäkilä, K
    Wahlbin, C
    Int Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Structural Changes and Strategic Behavior: A microsimulation study of Swedish building sector1986In: Regional Science Association Meeting,1986, 1986Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Moberg, Claes
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Organization Culture as Seen by Outsiders: A Methodological Challenge in the Study of Organizational Culture2005In: The International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organisations,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moberg, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Törnvall, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In search of Cultural Synergy in Multicultural Organizations1999In: Meeting the Intercultural Challenge: Effective Approaches in Research, Education, Training and Business / [ed] Karlfried Knapp, Germany: Verlag Wissenschaft & Praxis , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Moberg, Claes
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Törnvall, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Remedy for Effective Management of Multicultural Organizations1999In: British Academy of Management Conference,1999, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sanaie, M
    Manufacturing and Product Development by Symbiotic Cooperation in Small Scale Industries1991In: Achieving Competitive Edge / [ed] Gerard H. Gaynor, New York: McGraw-Hill , 1991, p. 229-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sedigheh Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of export clusters in export performance of SMEs: the case of Iranian energy industry2015In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 137-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study was carried out with the aim of exploring the effects of export clusters formation on export performance of SMEs in Iranian energy industry. 

    Methodology/Approach: The study was undertaken through having three case studies, each on a different export cluster currently active within Iranian energy industry. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with both managers and members of each export cluster as well as study of their archival documents.  

    Findings: The results confirmed that all three export clusters managed to successfully identify their members’ needs and undertook certain measures within their own authority and control, to mitigate these risks. Moreover, the secondary data showed positive growth rate of export level after the establishment of these export clusters. Interestingly, the strong suits of all three export clusters were mainly related to communication and relationship aspects. These three factors were: ability to create Informal Network within members, Public Relations and Training/Consultation.  

    Research Limitation/implication: This study was limited to the export clusters in Iranian energy industry, and on a cross-sectional time horizon basis. It therefore cannot be generalized to all industries and we might witness certain changes in findings if the study is undertaken at different point in time. However, the study shed light on certain important aspects such as nature of relationships within the members of each cluster, the role of trust management and social power as well as the need to place more focus on SMEs in export clusters. 

    Originality/Value of paper: Even though there are recently many studies on the concept of export clusters and their positive impacts on the growth in export of various countries throughout the world; but so far, there had been no similar study undertaken with a focus on Iran and not enough empirical evidence had previously been provided on export clusters performance in a developing country.

  • 44.
    Gustavsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wahlbin, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structural change and strategic behaviour within the Swedish building sector: the interaction between strategy, organization and environment in individual firms1994Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book describes strategic behavior of Swedish building firms in a structural change context. The strategic behviour of the building firms in terms of strategic decisions, strategic changes, strategic development as well as influences of internal and external forces on behavior are discussed.

    A conceptual model and analytical tool for analysis of strategic behavior has been developed and suggessted. Accordingly, strategy is influenced organization properties, environmental forces, managerial perception as well as the situation and organizational capeabilites as perceived by manqagers.

  • 45.
    Hosseini, Mojtaba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Network based theories and internationalization of firms: applications toempirical studies2012In: Proceedings  of International Trade and Academic Research Conference (ITARC), 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using a topology of the most frequently used network-based theories on the firms’ internationalization; this paper is going to present some recommendations to correctly apply those theories in future internationalization studies. We have identified eight network-based theories that are broadly used in internationalization studies. These theories are Relationship Approach, Social Network Analysis and Network Mapping in American schools, and Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group (IMP) Interaction Approach, ARA-Model, Network Embeddedness,  Revised Uppsala Model and Network-based Internationalization Theory, which are developed by European universities.

  • 46.
    Hosseini, Mojtaba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The contribution of entrepreneurial orientation to the corporate performance: A deeper understanding2012In: Proceedings  of International Trade and Academic Research Conference (ITARC), 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) becomes a very popular construct among entrepreneurship researchers and studying its connection with corporate performance has been in the center of attention for three decades. In spite of its popularity, there is a little consistency about the EO-performance connection among empirical studies. To deal with this inconsistency, researchers have introduced more comprehensive models of EO-performance relationship, which includes moderator and mediator factors. Former researchers also suggested employing more complicated research methods such as multi-case study or mix design to infer a deeper understanding of the EOPerformance connection.

    In this paper, we recruit a mix research design that incorporates survey and multi-case study to examine the contribution of EO to the corporate performance. To represent a more comprehensive model of EO-performance connection, the most popular previous moderators include environment dynamism and environment hostility are considered.

    By integrating qualitative and quantitative data, a more dynamic model of EOPerformance is presented that is consist of time of enabling, business and personal networks and transmition of EO. The EO transmission mechanism is added to the model as a new mechanism that explains the transmitting of EO from a more powerful actor (supplier, costumer or competitor) to a weaker company through formal or informal contracts or partnerships.

  • 47.
    Hosseini, Mojtaba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Taxonomy of entrepreneurial firms; entrepreneurial orientation versus corporate entrepreneurship2012In: Proceedings of International Trade and Academic Research Conference (ITARC), 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With attention to insufficiencies of existing measurements and recommendations to design a more comprehensive construct to gauge the Firm Level Entrepreneurship (FLE), this paper presents a fourfold taxonomy model of entrepreneurial firms. By comparing the degree of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) that shows the tendency of firms to engage in entrepreneurial activities and their actual engagement in entrepreneurship, which determines by Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE), the model, divides the firms into four categorizes; Non Entrepreneurial (NE), Forced Entrepreneurial (FE), Latent Entrepreneurial (LE), and Actual Entrepreneurial (AE). Main characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors of each kind are explored, and they are compared based on their goals to start the business, vision, reactions to competitors, perceived environment, risk taking, implementing of innovation, renewing the organizational structure, and obstacles to entrepreneurial actions.

  • 48.
    Hosseini, Mojtaba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The role of entrepreneurial orientation on corporate performance: A moderated mediation model2013In: Conference Proceedings : Australia Centre for Entrepreneurship (ACE)Research Exchange Conference 2013, Australia Centre for Entrepreneurship, Brisbane, Australia / [ed] Per Davidsson, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial orientation (EO), corporate entrepreneurship (CE) and their connections with corporate performance attract more attention during last decades. Researchers claimed that the EO-performance relationship is very complicated. Future studies should incorporate moderator and mediator factors in their models to precisely explain that complexity. In this paper we have chosen the most common environmental characteristics include environmental dynamism and environmental hostility to investigate their moderation effects.

    In this study EO refers to tendency of firms to have entrepreneurial activities while CE points out to the their actual entrepreneurial activities. Previous studies mentioned EO as the basis and necessary condition of CE. Therefore, we have supposed a mediation role for CE in EO-performance relationship. By incorporating this mediation model with environmental moderators, the final moderated mediation model of EO-CEperformance and environmental characteristics is designed.

    Hierarchical multiple regression and Baron and Kenny (1986)’s techniques are respectively applied to testify the moderating and mediating effects.

  • 49.
    Peyrovan, Sanaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Saeedi, Mohammad Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structuring the pharmaceutical parent company organization: A value-based approach, The Case of TPICO2010In: IASK International Conference Global Management, International Association for the Scientific Knowledge, 2010, p. 471-476Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s, the parent company has the great role in managing and monitoring subsidiaries and companies and promoting their industrial activities. But, the main problem for pharmaceutical parent companies is the lack of clarity and confusion of   responsibilities between units .The successful parenting needs to create the element of 'fit' between the ways parent operates – parent characteristics and   its business characteristics. However, the main parent characteristic is parent structure and restructuring is the main challenge in changing and unstable pharmaceutical market. In fact, the parent strategy should determine how value can be added to every organizational structure and parent structure should be proportionate to its dominant value creation strategy. The value drivers are very different in pharmaceutical industry regarding fast changing technology. The aim of this study is to explore an appropriate value-creating structure for the largest pharmaceutical parent company in Iran, TPICO. This study concentrates the sources of value in this special domain and restructuring the parent company by considering the dominant value-creating strategy and pharmaceutical value drivers.

  • 50.
    Saeedi, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rapid Internationalization of SMEs from Developing Countries: A longitudinal Study of TEMAD Pharmaceutical Co2012In: Proceedings of LCBR European Marketing Conference, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In current global economy with hipper competition in home market, access to foreign markets has become a must for most of SMEs; therefore, SMEs internationalization has received great attention. However, internationalization of SMEs from developing countries in general and rapid internationalization in particular has remained largely unsearched. This longitudinal study was carried out with the aim of exploring the pattern of successful internationalization of an active pharmaceutical ingredient B2B SME from the resource based view (RBV). The study covers the company’s activities for establishment in foreign markets over a 12-year period (2000 - 2011) during which it entered 25 countries and increased its export by 20 times. The results of the study show that the internationalization behavior of the studied SME can be explained by a combination of three main critical resources such as entrepreneurial orientation, networking capability and adaptive production capability. These three resources have played crucial role as source of competitive advantage across foreign markets over time. Furthermore, although the RBV was constant during the period studied, the resources as bases for creating competitive advantages were changed from tangible to more intangible sources. The study has significant managerial and academic implications

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