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  • 1.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Klasander, ClaesLinköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Ginners teknikdidaktiska handbok: några teser om teknik, skola och samhälle2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thomas Ginner has been promoting good technology education in schools in various ways for many years. In connection with his retirement we publish this so-called friend book (Swedish vänbok) with a collection of texts written by some of Thomas’ closest friends and colleagues in Sweden, Holland, Great Britain and New Zealand: The Ginner Handbook of Technology Education. The purpose of the book is to contribute with “Ginnerian” knowledge to the understanding of technology in school and society with the help of these researchers within the fields of technology and education, broadly defined – for the here and now but also for the future!

  • 2.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Technology Education for Systems Thinking and Sustainability: What Swedish Pre-Service Technology Teacher Students Know About Technological Systems2013In: PATT 27 Technology Education for the Future: A Play on Sustainability / [ed] P. John Williams & Dilani Gedera, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the history and sociology of technology in the last decades has shown that technological systems have partly different characteristics and dynamics compared to single objects and artefacts. It is therefore pivotal that technology education incorporates a systems perspective. The Swedish technology curriculum for compulsory school (ages 7-16) has integrated systems content for nearly 20 years. Although studies indicate that pupils can understand systems structure to some extent the more complex aspects are still difficult to grasp. This may be a result of high demands in the curriculum but also the fact that technology teaching is lacking in this regard, because studies show that Swedish compulsory school technology teachers do not have a very developed understanding of technological systems. Although there have been no Swedish studies of systems in relation to teacher education, there is good reason to believe that teachers’ understanding of systems at least partly has to do with their training, while it may also have to do with other factors such as prior other education. In this paper we report on a pre-study made to investigate how pre-service technology teacher students understand technological systems, their dynamics and evolution. The following research questions are posed: How do pre-service technology teacher students understand technological systems, their dynamics and evolution? What is difficult for them to understand? How can technology teacher education about systems be improved? We collect empirical material by conducting in-depth surveys with five Swedish pre-service technology teacher students and analyse the material by using a hermeneutic method. Theoretically we rely on research on technological systems within the philosophy, sociology and history of technology as well as technology education.

  • 3.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Visible Parts, Invisible Whole: Swedish Technology Student Teachers’ Conceptions about Technological Systems2017In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, no 3, p. 387-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological systems are included as a component of national technology curricula and standards for primary and secondary education as well as corresponding teacher education around the world. Little is known, however, of how pupils, students, and teachers conceive of technological systems. In this article we report on a study investigating Swedish technology student teachers’ conceptions of technological systems. The following research question is posed: How do Swedish technology student teachers conceive of technological systems? Data was collected through in-depth qualitative surveys with 26 Swedish technology student teachers. The data was analysed using a hermeneutic method, aided by a theoretical synthesis of established system theories (system significants). The main results of the study are that the technology student teachers expressed diverse conceptions of technological systems, but that on average almost half of them provided answers that were considered as undefined. The parts of the systems that the students understood were mostly the visible parts, either components, devices, or products such as buttons, power lines, hydroelectric plants, or the interface with the software inside a mobile phone. However, the ‘invisible’ or abstract aspects of the technological systems, such as flows of information, energy or matter, or control operations were difficult to understand for the majority of the students. The flow of information was particularly challenging in this regard. The students could identify the input and often the output of the systems, that is, what systems or components do, but the processes that take place within the systems were elusive. Comparing between technological systems also proved difficult for many students. The role of humans was considered important but it was mostly humans as users not as actors on a more systemic level, for example, as system owners, innovators, or politicians. This study confirms previous research in that the students had a basic understanding of structure, input and output of a technological system. Thus, the adult students in this study did not seem to have better understanding of technological systems than school pupils and teachers in previous studies, although this is in line with previous investigations on the general system thinking capabilities of children and adults. The most important implication of this study is that students need to be trained in systems thinking, particularly regarding how components work and connect to each other, flows (especially of information), system dependency, and the human role in technological systems.

  • 4.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schooner, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Definiera systemgränsen, bortom systemhorisonten: Teknikdidaktiska utmaningar för undervisning om tekniska system2018In: Teknikdidaktisk forskning för lärare: Bidrag från en forskningsmiljö / [ed] Karin Stolpe, Gunnar Höst & Jonas Hallström, Norrköping: NATDID, Nationellt centrum för naturvetenskapernas och teknikens didaktik , 2018, p. 63-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta kapitel är att beskriva några svenska lärare och lärarstudenters uppfattningar om tekniska system som en del av en teknisk allmänbildning, i synnerhet när det handlar om avgränsning av tekniska system. Utifrån dessa uppfattningar diskuterar vi också utmaningar och möjligheter kring undervisning om tekniska system. Vi har genom två studier av yrkesverksamma och blivande tekniklärare visat att de ser en utmaning med att identifiera tekniska system bland olika former av tekniska lösningar. Detta ses tydligast när lärarna och lärarstudenterna försökte identifiera gränserna mellan artefakt och system, respektive mellan systemet och dess omgivning. En viktig del i att övervinna denna utmaning är att använda sig av relevanta systemmodeller som kan beskriva de mest centrala aspekterna av tekniska system och därmed möjliggöra jämförelse mellan system i teknikundervisningen. Just jämförelsen av tekniska system blir särskilt viktig när systemhorisonten beaktas, eftersom gränsen för när en teknisk lösning blir så komplex att den måste beskrivas som ett system kan se så olika ut.

  • 5.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The Black Box and Beyond: Introducing a Conceptual Model as a Learning Tool for Developing Knowledge about Technological Systems2015In: PATT 29 Plurality and Complementarity of Approaches in Design & Technology Education, Marseille, France, April 2015 / [ed] Marjolaine Chatoney, Marseille: Presses Universitaires de Provence , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade research about technological systems in technology education has attracted increased attention. This research has pinpointed pedagogical challenges in teaching about systems, particularly how pupils are given the opportunity to learn about complex systems in a conscious progression; the components and connections in between, system boundaries, and the relation to society in general and other systems in particular. The aim of this paper is to construct a conceptual model as a learning tool for developing knowledge about technological systems. Since we base this model on previous research about technological systems, this study is a qualitative research synthesis, where we employ comparative and hermeneutic methods. Our model contains focal points for teachers and pupils to attend to in technological systems education: 1. System structure, 2. System function with single or multiple inputs, and 3.The relationship between components without and with feedback loops. Important concepts for education about technological systems are system boundary, function, flow, feedback loop, black box, consequence, and historical evolution. Finally we introduce the concept of systems horizon as the limit for what can fruitfully be analyzed as a technological system.

  • 6.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Talet om tekniska system: förväntningar, traditioner och skolverkligheter2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In our society technology is becorning increasingly complex. Technological systems are now part of our evetyday lives. To what extent is this reflected in the Technology subject?

    This dissertation concerns education and has the aim of investigating how technological systems are treated in the Swedish school system. The overarching question is: How has the Swedish compulsory school dealt with the pedagogical challenge of det'eloping miject content about technological systems?

    To answer this question, the discourse of school talk on technological systems across three different school arenas has been the focus of the study so that pedagogical challenges and historicallayers relating to the discourse can be outlined. The three school arenas are the formulation, mediation, and realisation arena. They mainly encompass national curriculae, text books and teachers work, respectively, from 1980 to 2009. On the realisation arena an interactive method has been used where the researcher collaborated with a team of teachers in a lower secondary school for two years.

    The results are presented in two ways. First, a set of offered companion meamngs found in the expressions on the arenas are presented. The compamon meamngs emanate from three kinds of rules regolating the discourse: educational focus, system languages and curriculum emphases. Second, each arena is discussed in detail. These discussions were arrived at by feeding the categories of compamon meamngs back into the analysis process as a tool to clarify themes, orders of discourse and changes over time.

    On the arenas subject content relating to technological systems has successive ly strengthened its position and can be found on several curricular levels. This shift is made possible by new descriptions of technology as a distinct field of knowledge, thus affecting the view of the school subject Technology. In a Swedish context this meant dissociation from the natural sciences. Two hegemonic discourses that make the pedagogical challenge to introduce technological systems more difficult have also been found: the hegemony of the artefact and the hegemony of science. The first relates to the subject's internal interest for small products and components. The second is based on a scientific precedence where Technology is used as an arena for the illustration of scientific laws and rules. Both hegemonies have the effect of directing the educational focus away from the systernic issues around the technology at hand. The search for answers is turned inwards and downwards in the systemic hierarchy. On the other hand, production systems and controi technology have established a position in the discourse. An emerging political and ethical theme concerned with the relation between citizenship, sustainable development and technology has forwarded a systems approach.

  • 7.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Understanding Technological Systems: Classroom Implications for a Systems Approach2004In: TERC 2004 Technology Education Research Conference,2004, Brisbane: Centre for Learning Research, Griffith University, Brisbane , 2004, p. 78-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problematising the interpretation of "a systems approach" in technology education, the text focuses on two aspects of the system concept that we find relevant to design and technology education.One is from a socio-cultural view on systems using national curricula as examples. The other has a cognitive stance with a focus on design. When studying different nation´s technology curricula we find two predominant views to a systems approach. It is strongly linked to production and seems to hold a single direction attitude of technology influencing society and environment. The role of a systems approach as a cognitive tool when designing is discussed in respekt to the understanding of structure and function of tecknological complexes. Our intention is to show how the use of a conscious systems approach facilitates both the analysis and the design of technological systems. We also argue for an anti-atomistic approach to learning technology, where the level of detail, the function and the limitations of the system are vital factors.

  • 8. Nordlöf, Charlotta
    et al.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    An explorative study of the Swedish Technology subject from the teacher’s perspective2015In: PATT 29 Plurality and Complementarity of Approaches in Design & Technology Education, Marseille, France, April 2015 / [ed] Marjolaine Chatoney, Marseille: Presses Universitaires de Provence , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study Swedish teachers’ views of the technology subject and technology teaching are examined. Investigations made the last few years show that there are deficiencies in the technology teaching in Swedish schools - e.g. lack of time in the timetable, low status, non-certified teachers and lack of materials. The subject is young, compared to other subjects, and the teachers have different backgrounds and different technological knowledge. Educational research in general tells us that the teacher has a great impact on the pupils and their learning situation. Therefore, the aim is to examine how Swedish Technology teachers experience and view the subject and its teaching.

    The study is quantitative and based on a web based inquiry. 1153 teachers participated. The participants teach, or taught, technology in Swedish compulsory schools.  The data was analysed with the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. In order to examine the teacher’s experience consisting of different underlying factors, an exploratory factor analysis was performed on 18 statements from the inquiry. The result of the analysis shows that there are four underlying factors; 1 Technology education is important, 2 Good conditions for technology education, 3 Syllabus is in focus for technology education and 4 Confidence, interest and technology education of the teacher. “Technology education is important” has the highest mean, which indicates that most of the teachers do find Technology important. The lowest mean is found in “Good conditions for technology education”, it shows that the respondents were not satisfied with the circumstances in their school. The factors are a help for a wider understanding of the teachers experience. Further investigations of the factors and the statistical material will follow, with ambitions to find out if there are some preconditions that explain why teachers have different views of the factors found in this first part.

  • 9.
    Schooner, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klasander, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Swedish Teachers’ Views of Assessing Technological Systems in Compulsory School2015In: PATT 29 Plurality and Complementarity of Approaches in Design & Technology Education, Marseille, France, April 2015 / [ed] Marjolaine Chatoney, Marseille: Presses Universitaires de Provence , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology education is regarded as a new school subject in comparison with other subjects within the compulsory school system – both nationally and internationally. As such, the practice of teaching and assessment in technology lacks the long-term experiences that other teachers within other subjects can use in their own practices. This becomes especially apparent when technology teachers assess students’ knowledge in and about technological systems. Studies have shown that technology teachers lack experience of and support for assessment. Consequently, technology teachers’ (implicit) experiences constitute a crucial factor in the making of the course design and shaping students paths to knowledge about technological systems.

    This paper describes the assessment views of five technology teachers and their elaborated thoughts on valuing systems knowledge for students aged 13 to 16 in the Swedish compulsory school through the use of semi-structured qualitative interviews. The research aim is to describe the teachers’ assessment views in terms of types of knowledge, spanning from basic to higher understanding of technological systems. Six focused areas of interest when the teachers assess knowledge about systems are presented. The teachers experienced three levels of understanding - basic, intermediate and advanced. In conclusion, the gap between basic and higher levels of understanding can be defined as a linear, uni-dimensional understanding of systems on a basic level, but a non-linear, multi-dimensional understanding on both an intermediate and advanced level.

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