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  • 1.
    Bergsten, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Li, Xun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with intentionally doped GaN buffer using propane as carbon precursor2016In: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-4922, E-ISSN 1347-4065, Vol. 55, p. 05FK02-1-05FK02-4, article id 05FK02Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on a heterostructure grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using analternative method of carbon (C) doping the buffer are characterized. C-doping is achieved by using propane as precursor, as compared to tuningthe growth process parameters to control C-incorporation from the gallium precursor. This approach allows for optimization of the GaN growthconditions without compromising material quality to achieve semi-insulating properties. The HEMTs are evaluated in terms of isolation anddispersion. Good isolation with OFF-state currents of 2 ' 10%6A/mm, breakdown fields of 70V/μm, and low drain induced barrier lowering of0.13mV/V are found. Dispersive effects are examined using pulsed current–voltage measurements. Current collapse and knee walkout effectslimit the maximum output power to 1.3W/mm. With further optimization of the C-doping profile and GaN material quality this method should offer aversatile approach to decrease dispersive effects in GaN HEMTs.

  • 2.
    Booker, Ian Don
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ul Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lilja, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karhu, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, J. Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carrier Lifetime Controlling Defects Z(1/2) and RB1 in Standard and Chlorinated Chemistry Grown 4H-SiC2014In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 4104-4110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4H-SiC epilayers grown by standard and chlorinated chemistry were analyzed for their minority carrier lifetime and deep level recombination centers using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and standard deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Next to the well-known Z(1/2) deep level a second effective lifetime killer, RB1 (activation energy 1.05 eV, electron capture cross section 2 x 10(-16) cm(2), suggested hole capture cross section (5 +/- 2) x 10(-15) cm(2)), is detected in chloride chemistry grown epilayers. Junction-DLTS and bulk recombination simulations are used to confirm the lifetime killing properties of this level. The measured RB1 concentration appears to be a function of the iron-related Fe1 level concentration, which is unintentionally introduced via the corrosion of reactor steel parts by the chlorinated chemistry. Reactor design and the growth zone temperature profile are thought to enable the formation of RB1 in the presence of iron contamination under conditions otherwise optimal for growth of material with very low Z(1/2) concentrations. The RB1 defect is either an intrinsic defect similar to RD1/2 or EH5 or a complex involving iron. Control of these corrosion issues allows the growth of material at a high growth rate and with high minority carrier lifetime based on Z(1/2) as the only bulk recombination center.

  • 3.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulations of Silicon Carbide Chemical Vapor Deposition2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the modern electronics technology is based on the semiconducting material silicon. The increasing demands for smaller electronic devices with improved performance at lower costs drive the conventional silicon technology to its limits. To meet the requirements from the industry and to explore new application areas, other materials and fabrication methods must be used. For devices operating at high powers, high temperatures and high frequencies, the so-called wide bandgap semiconductors can be used with great success. Silicon carbide (SiC) and III-nitrides are wide bandgap materials that have gained increased interest in recent years. One important technique in manufacturing of electronic devices is chemical vapor deposition (CVD), by which thin layers can be deposited. These layers may have different electrical properties, depending on the choice of material and doping. Generally in CVD, a reactive gas mixture flows through a heated reactor chamber, where the substrates are placed. Complex chemical reactions take place in the gas and on the substrate surface, leading to many intermediate species and by-products, and eventually to the desired deposition. For the growth of device quality material it is important to be able to control the properties of the grown layers. These properties generally depend on the growth conditions in the reaction chamber, and on the chemistry of the deposition process. So far, empirical trial-and-error methods have been employed in the development of growth processes. Due to the lack of basic understanding of the governing physical processes, progress is costly and time consuming. Improving and optimizing the CVD process, as well as improving the fundamental understanding of the whole process is of great importance when good quality material should be produced. For this, computer simulations of the relevant physical and chemical phenomena can provide the necessary tools. This thesis focuses on computer simulations of the CVD process, in particular CVD of SiC. Simulations can be used not only as a tool for optimizing growth processes and reactor designs, they can also give information about physical phenomena that are difficult to measure, such as the gas-phase composition or the flow paths inside the reactor.

    Heating of the CVD susceptor is a central part of the process. For the growth of high quality SiC a relatively high temperature must be used. A convenient method for heating to high temperatures is by induction. A low resistive material, such as graphite, is placed inside a coil, which is given an alternating current. The graphite is then heated by the induced currents due to ohmic resistance. In this thesis the temperature distribution inside a CVD reactor, and how it is influenced by changes in coil frequency, power input to the coil and graphite thickness, is investigated. It is shown that by changing the placement and shape of the coil and by using insulation material correctly, a more uniform temperature distribution can be obtained.

    A model for the growth of SiC is used to predict growth rates at various process parameters. A number of possible factors influencing the growth rate are investigated using this model. The importance of including thermal diffusion and the effect of etching by hydrogen is shown, and the effect of parasitic growth investigated. Simulations show a mass transport limited growth, as seen from experiments.

    An improved susceptor design with an up-lifted substrate holder plate is investigated and compared to a conventional hot-wall reactor and to a cold-wall reactor. It is shown that stress induced by thermal gradients through the substrate is significantly reduced in the hot-wall reactor, and that stress due to backside growth can be diminished using the new design. Positive side effects are that slightly higher growth rates can be achieved, and that the growth temperature can be slightly lowered in the new susceptor.

    The doping incorporation behavior is thoroughly investigated experimentally for intentional doping with nitrogen and aluminum. The doping incorporation on both faces of SiC, as well as on two different polytypes is investigated. Equilibrium calculations are preformed, giving possible candidates for species responsible for the doping incorporation. To predict nitrogen doping concentrations, a simplified quantitative model is developed and applied to a large number of process parameters. It is seen that the same species as predicted by equilibrium calculations are produced, but the reactions producing these species are relatively slow, so that the highest concentrations are at the outlet of the reactor. It is thus concluded that N2 must be the major specie responsible for the nitrogen incorporation in SiC.

    For the growth of III-nitrides, ammonia is often used to give the nitrogen needed. It is well known that ammonia forms a solid adduct with the metalorganic gas, which is used as the source for the group III elements. It would thus be beneficial to use some other gas instead of ammonia. Since purity is of great importance, N2 gas would be the preferred choice. However, N2 is a very stable molecule and difficult to crack, even at high temperatures. It is shown that hydrogen can help in cracking nitrogen, and that growth of III-nitrides can be performed using N2 as the nitrogen-bearing gas, by only small changes to a conventional hot-wall CVD reactor.

    List of papers
    1. Investigation of the temperature profile in a hot-wall SiC chemical vapour deposition reactor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of the temperature profile in a hot-wall SiC chemical vapour deposition reactor
    2002 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 235, no 1-4, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is widely used to grow epitaxial layers of silicon carbide. To meet the demands for high quality epitaxial layers, which have good morphology and a minimum variation of the doping and thickness, a good knowledge of the CVD process is essential. The present work uses a simulation tool to investigate several parameters influencing the heating of <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->a hot-wall CVD reactor. The simulations are set up as 2D axisymmetric problems and validation is made in a 2D horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor. By applying the knowledge achieved from the simulations, the temperature profile is optimized to give as large area as possible with homogeneous temperature. New susceptor and coil designs are tested. A very good agreement between the simulated and the measured results is obtained. The new design has a temperature variation of less than 0.5% over more than 70% of the total susceptor length at an operating temperature of 1650°C. In addition, the power input needed to reach the operating temperature is decreased by 15% compared to the original design. 3D simulations are performed to show that the changes made in the 2D case give similar results for the real 3D case.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ScienceDirect, 2002
    Keywords
    A1. Computer simulation, A1. Heat transfer, A3. Chemical, vapor deposition, A3. Hot-wall epitaxy, B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15064 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(01)01831-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
    3. Predicted nitrogen doping concentrations in silicon carbide epitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicted nitrogen doping concentrations in silicon carbide epitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 250, no 3-4, p. 471-478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A simple quantitative model for the surface adsorption of nitrogen has been developed to simulate the doping incorporation in intentionally doped 4H-SiC samples during epitaxial growth. Different reaction schemes are necessary for the two faces of SiC. The differences are discussed, and implications to the necessary model adjustments are stressed. The simulations are validated by experimental values for a large number of different process parameters with good agreement.

    Keywords
    A1. Doping, A1. Growth models, A3. Chemical vapor deposition, A3. Hot wall epitaxy, B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46680 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(02)02513-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Reducing stress in silicon carbide epitaxial layers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing stress in silicon carbide epitaxial layers
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 252, no 1-3, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A susceptor for the epitaxial growth of silicon carbide, with an up-lifted substrate holder, is investigated and compared to other susceptor designs both experimentally and by the use of computational fluid dynamics simulations. It is shown that the wafer bending due to temperature gradients is diminished in a hot-wall reactor compared to growth in a cold-wall reactor. The substrate backside growth is diminished using the up-lifted substrate holder, limiting the substrate bending due to the backside growth. Thereby the stress built into the epitaxial layers during growth is significantly reduced. Simulations indicate a lower effective C/Si ratio over the wafer, and a lower preferable growth temperature, as compared to the original susceptor design. In addition a slightly higher growth rate is achieved

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    A1. Computer simulation; A3. Chemical vapor deposition; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics Other Physics Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104590 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)00938-2 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Using N2 as precursor gas in III-nitride CVD growth
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using N2 as precursor gas in III-nitride CVD growth
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, no 1-4, p. 26-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed to explore the possibility of using nitrogen gas as a precursor to III-nitride growth. A chemical model for the gas-phase decomposition of N2 has been used to show that large enough amounts of reactive species can be formed under conditions not far from those used in normal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Simulations were performed in 2D for various concentrations of N2, and comparisons with the use of NH3 were made. A modified reactor design needed to achieve high enough concentrations of reactive species is suggested. The possibility to increase the growth rate and material quality in III-nitride growth is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    A1. Computer simulation; A1. Growth models; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; A3. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition; B2. Semiconducting III–V materials
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104589 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)00971-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    6. Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 236, no 1-3, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping with nitrogen of 4H- and 6H-SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The nitrogen doping dependence on the temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate and nitrogen flow has been investigated. The nitrogen incorporation for C-face material showed to be C/Si ratio independent, whereas the doping decreased with increasing C/Si ratio for the Si-face material in accordance with the “site-competition” model. The nitrogen incorporation was constant in a temperature “window” of 75°C on Si-face material indicating a mass transport limited incorporation. Increasing the growth rate resulted in a decrease of nitrogen incorporation on Si-face but an increase on C-face material. Finally, a comparison between previously published results on cold-wall CVD-grown material and the present hot-wall-grown material is presented.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ScienceDirect, 2002
    Keywords
    A1. Doping, A3. Hot wall epitaxy, B2. Superconducting materials
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15068 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(01)02198-4 (DOI)
    Note
    The status of this article on the day of the defence was: Submitted and the title of the article was "Nitrogen doping of Silicon Carbide: Effect of Process Parameters"Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    7. Aluminum doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aluminum doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, no 1-4, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping of aluminum in 4H and 6H SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The dependence of aluminum incorporation on temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate, and TMA flow has been investigated. The aluminum incorporation showed to be polarity dependent. The high aluminum incorporation on the Si-face is closely related to the carbon coverage on the SiC surface. Changes in process parameters changes the effective C/Si ratio close to the SiC surface. Increased growth rate and C/Si ratio increases the aluminum incorporation on the Si-face. Diffusion limited incorporation occurs at high growth rate. Reduced pressure increases the effective C/Si ratio, and at low growth rate, the aluminum incorporation increases initially, levels off at a critical pressure, and continues to decrease below the critical pressure. The aluminum incorporation showed to be constant in a temperature range of 50°C. The highest atomic concentration of aluminum observed in this study was 3×1017 and 8×1018 cm−3 in Si and C-face, respectively.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ScienceDirect, 2003
    Keywords
    A1. Doping; A1. Growth models; A3. Chemical vapor deposition processes; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15055 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)01045-5 (DOI)
    Note
    The status of the article on the defence day was: Submitted and the original title was "Aluminum doping of Silicon Carbide: Effect of Process Parameters".Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry , Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigation of the temperature profile in a hot-wall SiC chemical vapour deposition reactor2002In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 235, no 1-4, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is widely used to grow epitaxial layers of silicon carbide. To meet the demands for high quality epitaxial layers, which have good morphology and a minimum variation of the doping and thickness, a good knowledge of the CVD process is essential. The present work uses a simulation tool to investigate several parameters influencing the heating of <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->a hot-wall CVD reactor. The simulations are set up as 2D axisymmetric problems and validation is made in a 2D horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor. By applying the knowledge achieved from the simulations, the temperature profile is optimized to give as large area as possible with homogeneous temperature. New susceptor and coil designs are tested. A very good agreement between the simulated and the measured results is obtained. The new design has a temperature variation of less than 0.5% over more than 70% of the total susceptor length at an operating temperature of 1650°C. In addition, the power input needed to reach the operating temperature is decreased by 15% compared to the original design. 3D simulations are performed to show that the changes made in the 2D case give similar results for the real 3D case.

  • 5.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Predicted nitrogen doping concentrations in silicon carbide epitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition2003In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 250, no 3-4, p. 471-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple quantitative model for the surface adsorption of nitrogen has been developed to simulate the doping incorporation in intentionally doped 4H-SiC samples during epitaxial growth. Different reaction schemes are necessary for the two faces of SiC. The differences are discussed, and implications to the necessary model adjustments are stressed. The simulations are validated by experimental values for a large number of different process parameters with good agreement.

  • 6.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reducing stress in silicon carbide epitaxial layers2003In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 252, no 1-3, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A susceptor for the epitaxial growth of silicon carbide, with an up-lifted substrate holder, is investigated and compared to other susceptor designs both experimentally and by the use of computational fluid dynamics simulations. It is shown that the wafer bending due to temperature gradients is diminished in a hot-wall reactor compared to growth in a cold-wall reactor. The substrate backside growth is diminished using the up-lifted substrate holder, limiting the substrate bending due to the backside growth. Thereby the stress built into the epitaxial layers during growth is significantly reduced. Simulations indicate a lower effective C/Si ratio over the wafer, and a lower preferable growth temperature, as compared to the original susceptor design. In addition a slightly higher growth rate is achieved

  • 7.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth rate predictions of chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide epitaxial layers2002In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 243, no 1, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complete 3D simulations of a silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor, including inductive heating and fluid dynamics as well as gas phase and surface chemistry, have been performed. For the validation of simulated results, growth was conducted in a horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor operating at 1600°C, using SiH4 and C3H8 as precursor gases. Simulations were performed for an experimental hot-wall CVD reactor, but the results are applicable to any reactor configuration since no adjustable parameters were used to fit experimental data. The simulated results obtained are in very good agreement with experimental values. It is shown that including etching and parasitic growth on all reactor walls exposed to the gas greatly improves the accuracy of the simulations. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using N2 as precursor gas in III-nitride CVD growth2003In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, no 1-4, p. 26-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed to explore the possibility of using nitrogen gas as a precursor to III-nitride growth. A chemical model for the gas-phase decomposition of N2 has been used to show that large enough amounts of reactive species can be formed under conditions not far from those used in normal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Simulations were performed in 2D for various concentrations of N2, and comparisons with the use of NH3 were made. A modified reactor design needed to achieve high enough concentrations of reactive species is suggested. The possibility to increase the growth rate and material quality in III-nitride growth is discussed.

  • 9.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulations of SiC CVD - Perspectives on the need for surface reaction model improvements2014In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2013, PTS 1 AND 2, Trans Tech Publications , 2014, Vol. 778-780, p. 218-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations of SiC chemical vapor deposition is an excellent tool for understanding, improving and optimizing this complex process. However, models used up to date have often been validated for one particular set of process parameters, often in the silicon limited growth regime, in one particular growth equipment. With chlorinated precursors optimal growth condition is often found to take place at the border between carbon limited and silicon limited regimes. At those conditions the previous models fail to predict deposition rates properly. In this study we argue that molecules like C2H2, C2H4 and CH4, actually might react with the surface with much higher rates than suggested before. Comparisons are made between the previous model and our new model, as well as experiments. It is shown that higher reactivities of the hydrocarbon molecules will improve simulation results as compared to experimental findings, and help to better explain some of the trends for varying C/Si ratios.

  • 10.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Xun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A model for carbon incorporation from trimethyl gallium in chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor material can become semi-insulating when doping with carbon. Semi-insulating buffer layers are utilized to prevent leakage currents in GaN high power devices. Carbon is inherently present during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of GaN from the use of trimethyl gallium (TMGa) as precursor. TMGa decomposes in the gas phase, releasing its methyl groups, which could act as carbon source for doping. It is previously known that the carbon doping levels can be controlled by tuning the CVD process parameters, such as temperature, pressure and precursor flow rates. However, the mechanism for carbon incorporation from TMGa is not yet understood. In this paper, a model for predicting carbon incorporation from TMGa in GaN layers grown by CVD is proposed. The model is based on ab initio quantum chemical calculations of molecular adsorption and reaction energies. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, with a chemical kinetic model for decomposition of the precursors and reactions in the gas phase, to calculate gas phase compositions at realistic process conditions, together with the proposed model, we obtain good correlations with measurements, for both carbon doping concentrations and growth rates, when varying the inlet NH3/TMGa ratio. When varying temperature (800 – 1050°C), the model overpredicts carbon doping concentrations at the lower temperatures, but predicts growth rates well, and the agreement with measured carbon doping concentrations is good above 1000°C.

  • 11.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Physical Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shortcomings of CVD modeling of SiC today2013In: Theoretical Chemistry accounts, ISSN 1432-881X, E-ISSN 1432-2234, Vol. 132, no 11, p. 1398-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The active, epitaxial layers of silicon carbide (SiC) devices are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), at temperatures above 1,600 °C, using silane and light hydrocarbons as precursors, diluted in hydrogen. A better understanding of the epitaxial growth process of SiC by CVD is crucial to improve CVD tools and optimize growth conditions. Through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, the process may be studied in great detail, giving insight to both flow characteristics, temperature gradients and distributions, and gas mixture composition and species concentrations throughout the whole CVD reactor. In this paper, some of the important parts where improvements are very much needed for accurate CFD simulations of the SiC CVD process to be accomplished are pointed out. First, the thermochemical properties of 30 species that are thought to be part of the gas-phase chemistry in the SiC CVD process are calculated by means of quantum-chemical computations based on ab initio theory and density functional theory. It is shown that completely different results are obtained in the CFD simulations, depending on which data are used for some molecules, and that this may lead to erroneous conclusions of the importance of certain species. Second, three different models for the gas-phase chemistry are compared, using three different hydrocarbon precursors. It is shown that the predicted gas-phase composition varies largely, depending on which model is used. Third, the surface reactions leading to the actual deposition are discussed. We suggest that hydrocarbon molecules in fact have a much higher surface reactivity with the SiC surface than previously accepted values.

  • 12.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yazdanfar, Milan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulation of Gas-Phase Chemistry for Selected Carbon Precursors in Epitaxial Growth of SiC2013In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 740-742, p. 213-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations are one way to obtain a better and more detailed understanding of the chemical vapor deposition process of silicon carbide. Although several attempts have been made in this area during the past ten years, there is still no general model valid for any range of process parameters and choice of precursors, that can be used to control the growth process, and to optimize growth equipment design. In this paper a first step towards such a model is taken. Here, mainly the hydrocarbon chemistry is studied by a detailed gas-phase reaction model, and comparison is made between C3H8 and CH4 as carbon precursor. The results indicate that experimental differences, which previous models have been unable to predict, may be explained by the new model.

  • 13.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Solid State Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide2002In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 236, no 1-3, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping with nitrogen of 4H- and 6H-SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The nitrogen doping dependence on the temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate and nitrogen flow has been investigated. The nitrogen incorporation for C-face material showed to be C/Si ratio independent, whereas the doping decreased with increasing C/Si ratio for the Si-face material in accordance with the “site-competition” model. The nitrogen incorporation was constant in a temperature “window” of 75°C on Si-face material indicating a mass transport limited incorporation. Increasing the growth rate resulted in a decrease of nitrogen incorporation on Si-face but an increase on C-face material. Finally, a comparison between previously published results on cold-wall CVD-grown material and the present hot-wall-grown material is presented.

  • 14.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Solid State Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40, Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aluminum doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide2003In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, no 1-4, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping of aluminum in 4H and 6H SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The dependence of aluminum incorporation on temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate, and TMA flow has been investigated. The aluminum incorporation showed to be polarity dependent. The high aluminum incorporation on the Si-face is closely related to the carbon coverage on the SiC surface. Changes in process parameters changes the effective C/Si ratio close to the SiC surface. Increased growth rate and C/Si ratio increases the aluminum incorporation on the Si-face. Diffusion limited incorporation occurs at high growth rate. Reduced pressure increases the effective C/Si ratio, and at low growth rate, the aluminum incorporation increases initially, levels off at a critical pressure, and continues to decrease below the critical pressure. The aluminum incorporation showed to be constant in a temperature range of 50°C. The highest atomic concentration of aluminum observed in this study was 3×1017 and 8×1018 cm−3 in Si and C-face, respectively.

  • 15.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Linnarsson, MK
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Royal Institute of Technolology, Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aluminum doping of epitaxial silicon carbide grown by hot-wall CVD, Effect of process parameters2002In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, Tsukuba, 2001 / [ed] S. Yoshida, S. Nishino, H. Harima and T. Kimoto, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 203-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping of aluminum in 4H and 6H SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The dependence of aluminum incorporation on temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate, and TMA flow has been investigated. The aluminum incorporation showed to be polarity dependent. The high aluminum incorporation on the Si-face is closely related to the carbon coverage on the SiC surface. Changes in process parameters changes the effective C/Si ratio close to the SiC surface. Increased growth rate and C/Si ratio increases the aluminum incorporation on the Si-face. Diffusion limited incorporation occurs at high growth rate. Reduced pressure increases the effective C/Si ratio, and at low growth rate, the aluminum incorporation increases initially, levels off at a critical pressure, and continues to decrease below the critical pressure. The aluminum incorporation showed to be constant in a temperature range of 50°C. The highest atomic concentration of aluminum observed in this study was 3·1017 and 8·1018 cm-3 in Si and C-face, respectively.

  • 16.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M.K.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of growth parameters on the nitrogen incorporation in 4H- and 6H-SiC epilayers grown by hot-wall chemical vapour deposition2001In: Proc. of the MRS Spring Meeting 2001, 680E, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rorsman, N.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Eriksson, J.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Solid State Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and characterisation 4H-SiC MESFET structures grown by Hot-Wall CVD2001In: Proc. of the MRS 2000 Fall Meeting, 2001, p. H2.3.2-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal semiconductor field effect transistor structures have been grown in a hot-wall CVD reactor. Using trimethylaluminium and nitrogen, p- and n-type epitaxial layers were grown on semi insulating substrates. A comprehensive characterization study of thickness and doping of these multi structures has been performed by using scanning electron microscopy , secondary ion mass spectrometry, capacitance-voltage and low temperature photoluminescence. Optimisation of growth parameters has resulted in very abrupt doping profiles. The grown metal semiconductor field effect transistor structures have been processed and parts of the transistor properties are presented.

  • 18.
    Janzén, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Kakanakova-Gueorguie, Anelia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    SiC and III-nitride Growth in a Hot-wall CVD Reactor2005In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, volume 483-485, Trans Tech Publications , 2005, Vol. 483-485, p. 61-66Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Karhu, Robin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Magnusson, Bjorn
    Norstel AB, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    CVD growth and properties of on-axis vanadium doped semi-insulating 4H-SiC epilayers2019In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 125, no 4, article id 045702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly resistive homoepitaxial layers of 4H-SiC have been grown on the Si-face of nominally on-axis, n-type substrates using chemical vapor deposition. Vanadium tetrachloride has been used as the V-dopant which is responsible for the high resistivity of the epilayers. 100% 4H-polytype was reproduced in the epilayers using the optimized on-axis growth process. The upper limit of vanadium tetrachloride flow rate was also established to achieve high resistivity epilayers free of 3C polytype inclusion. A resistivity of more than 1 x 10(5) Omega cm has been achieved in epilayers with a very low concentration of V (1 x 10(15) cm(-3)). Owing to the low concentration of V, superior epilayer structural quality was achieved compared to V-doped and standard high purity semi-insulating bulk grown material of similar resistivity. Epitaxial layers with varying vanadium tetrachloride flow have also been grown to study the influence of V concentration on the polytype stability, structural quality, and optical and electrical properties of epilayers. A clear correspondence has been observed in the flow-rates of vanadium tetrachloride, the atomic concentration of V, and electrical, optical, and structural properties of epilayers. Published under license by AIP Publishing.

  • 20.
    Leone, Stefano
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nishizawa, Shin-ichi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gas-Phase Modeling of Chlorine-Based Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Carbide2012In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1977-1984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinetic calculations of the chemical phenomena occurring in the epitaxial growth of silicon carbide are performed in this study. The main process parameters analyzed are precursor types, growth temperature, Cl/Si ratio, and precursors concentration. The analysis of the gas-phase reactions resulted in a model which could explain most of the already reported experimental results, performed in horizontal hot-wall reactors. The effect of using different carbon or silicon precursors is discussed, by comparing the gas-phase composition and the resulting C/Si ratio inside the hot reaction chamber. Chlorinated molecules with three chlorine atoms seem to be the most efficient and resulting in a uniform C/Si ratio along the susceptor coordinate. Further complexity in the process derives from the use of low temperatures, which affects not only the gas-phase composition but also the risk of gas-phase nucleation. The Cl/Si ratio is demonstrated to be crucial not only for the prevention of silicon clusters but also for the uniformity of the gas-phase composition.

  • 21.
    Li, Xun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergsten, J.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rorsman, N.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 107, no 26, p. 262105-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 x 10(18) cm(-3)) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 x 10(16) cm(-3)) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 x 10(18) cm(-3)) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 22.
    Li, Xun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergsten, Johan
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Intentionally carbon doped GaN buffer layer for HEMT application: growth and device results2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of a semi-insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Here we evaluate the use of a carbon precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer. The carbon doping profile obtained from SIMS measurement shows a very uniform incorporation versus depth and no significant memory effect from carbon doping is seen, allowing for the creation of a very abrupt profile. The high carbon doping (1.5×1018 cm-3) does not influence the surface morphology. HRXRD ω rocking curve showed a FWHM of 200 arcsec of the (0002) and 261 arcsec for (10-12) reflection of the GaN, respectively. HEMT devices were processed on the epitaxial layers. An extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V was measured for a HEMT with a gate length of 0.2 𝜇m. This demonstrates the capability of growing a highly resistive buffer layer using intentional carbon doping.

  • 23.
    Li, Xun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Precursors for carbon doping of GaN in chemical vapor deposition2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 021208-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), acetylene (C2H2), propane (C3H8), iso-butane (i-C4H10), and trimethylamine [N(CH3)(3)] have been investigated as precursors for intentional carbon doping of (0001) GaN in chemical vapor deposition. The carbon precursors were studied by comparing the efficiency of carbon incorporation in GaN together with their influence on morphology and structural quality of carbon doped GaN. The unsaturated hydrocarbons C2H4 and C2H2 were found to be more suitable for carbon doping than the saturated ones, with higher carbon incorporation efficiency and a reduced effect on the quality of the GaN epitaxial layers. The results indicate that the C2H2 molecule as a direct precursor, or formed by the gas phase chemistry, is a key species for carbon doping without degrading the GaN quality; however, the CH3 species should be avoided in the carbon doping chemistry.

  • 24. Pons, M.
    et al.
    Blanquet, E.
    Dedulle, J.M.
    Wellmann, P.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ferret, P.
    di Cioccio, L.
    Baillet, F.
    Chaussende, D.
    Madar, R.
    Progress and limits of the numerical simulation of SiC bulk and epitaxial growth processes2005In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 483-485Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Stenberg, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matching precursor kinetics to afford a more robust CVD chemistry: a case study of the C chemistry for silicon carbide using SiF4 as Si precursor2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, p. 5818-5823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is one of the technology platforms forming the backbone of the semiconductor industry and is vital in the production of electronic devices. To upscale a CVD process from the lab to the fab, large area uniformity and high run-to-run reproducibility are needed. We show by a combination of experiments and gas phase kinetics modeling that the combinations of Si and C precursors with the most well-matched gas phase chemistry kinetics gives the largest area of of homoepitaxial growth of SiC. Comparing CH4, C2H4 and C3H8 as carbon precursors to the SiF4 silicon precursor, CH4 with the slowest kinetics renders the most robust CVD chemistry with large area epitaxial growth and low temperature sensitivity. We further show by quantum chemical modeling how the surface chemistry is impeded by the presence of F in the system which limits the amount of available surface sites for the C to adsorb.

  • 26.
    Stenberg, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Farkas, Ildiko
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kordina, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silicon Chemistry in Fluorinated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Carbide2017In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, no 5, p. 2711-2720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of chlorinated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chemistry for growth of homoepitaxial layers of silicon carbide (SiC) has diminished the problem of homogenous gas phase nucleation, mainly the formation of Si droplets, in CVD of SiC by replacing Si-Si bonds with stronger Si-Cl bonds. Employing the even stronger Si-F bond could potentially lead to an even more efficient CVD chemistry, however, fluorinated chemistry is very poorly understood for SiC CVD. Here, we present studies of the poorly understood fluorinated CVD chemistry for homoepitaxial SiC layers using SiF4 as Si precursor. We use a combination of experimental growth studies, thermal equilibrium calculations of gas phase composition and quantum chemical computations (i.e. hybrid density functional theory) of the surface chemistry to probe the silicon chemistry in the CVD process. We show that while growth rates on the order of 35 µm/h can be achieved with a fluorinated chemistry, the deposition chemistry is very sensitive to the mass flows of the precursors and not as robust as the chlorinated CVD chemistry which routinely yields 100 µm/h over wide conditions. By using the position for the onset of epitaxial growth along the gas flow direction as a measurable, together with modeling, we conclude that SiF is the main Si growth species with SiHF as a minor Si species contributing to growth.

  • 27.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ab Initio Study of Growth Mechanism of 4H-SiC: Adsorption and Surface Reaction of C2H2, C2H4, CH4, and CH32017In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 1249-1256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide is a semiconductor material with ideal properties for high-temperature and high-power applications. The epitaxial layer fabrication Is usually performed using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under a hydrogen rich atmosphere and high temperature. At such conditions the surface of the growing layer is expected to be passivatecl,by the abundantly present hydrogen. In this work, we use quantum chemical density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and transition state theory to study surface reactions related to the deposition of carbon on the (0001) surface of 4H-SiC. We show that it is unlikely for an adsorption to occur on a passivated, site unless the hydrogen termination is removed. We propose that unterminated sites can be effectively created during the CVD by an abstraction process. We provide details of the adsorption process of active carbon species, namely CH3, CH4, C2H2, and C2H4 gases, and their subsequent surface reactions such as desorption, abstraction of neighboring surface, hydrogens and dinner formation. The reaction rates and sticking coefficients are provided for the temperature range of 298-2500 K. Finally, entire reaction paths from adsorptions to stable surface products are presented and discussed.

  • 28.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Growth Mechanism of SiC CVD: Surface Etching by H-2, H Atoms, and HCl2018In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 122, no 9, p. 2503-2512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide is a wide bandgap semiconductor with unique characteristics suitable for high temperature and high power applications. Fabrication of SiC epitaxial layers is usually performed using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In this work, we use quantum chemical density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and transition state theory to study etching reactions occurring on the surface of SiC during CVD in order to combine etching effects to the surface kinetic model for SiC CVD. H-2, H atoms and HCl gases are chosen in the study as the most likely etchants responsible for surface etching. We consider etchings of four surface sites, namely CH3(ads), SiH3CH2(ads), SiH2(CH2)(2)(ads), and SiH(CH2)(3)(ads), which represent four subsequent snapshots of the surface as the growth proceeds. We find that H atoms are the most effective etchant on CH3(ads) and SiH3CH2(ads), which represent the first and second steps of the growth. HCl and H-2 are shown to be much less effective than H atoms and produce the etching rate constants which are, similar to 10(4) and similar to 10(7) times slower. In comparison to CH3(ads), SiH3CH2(ads) is shown to be less stable and more susceptible to etchings. Unlike the first and second steps of the growth, the third and fourth steps (i.e., SiH2(CH2)(2)(ads) and SiH(CH2)(3)(ads)) are stable and much less susceptible to any of the three etchants considered. This implies that the growth species become more stable via forming Si-C bonds with another surface species. The formation of a larger surface cluster thus helps stabilizing the growth against etchings.

  • 29.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kalered, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Growth Mechanism of SiC Chemical Vapor Deposition: Adsorption and Surface Reactions of Active Si Species2018In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 648-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide is a wide bandgap semiconductor ideally suitable for high temperature and high power applications. An active SiC layer is usually fabricated using halide-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In this work, we use quantum chemical density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and transition state theory to study adsorptions of active Si species in the CVD process on both the Si face and the C face of 4H-SiC. We show that adsorptions of SiCl, SiCl2, SiHCl, SiH, and SiH2 on the Si face likely occur on a methylene site, CH2(ads), but the processes are thermodynamically less favorable than their reverse or desorptions. Nevertheless, the adsorbed products become stabilized with the help of subsequent surface reactions to form a larger cluster. These cluster formation reactions happen with rates that are fast enough to compete with the desorption processes. On the C face, the adsorptions likely occur on a surface site terminated by a dangling bond, *(ads), and produce the products which are thermodynamically stable. Lastly, we present the Gibbs free energies of adsorptions of Si atoms, SiX, SiX2, and SiHX, for X being F and Br. Adsorptions of Si atoms are shown to be the most thermodynamically favorable among all the species in the study. Among the halide-containing species, the Gibbs free energies (ARG) from smallest to largest are observed in the adsorptions of SiX, SiHX, and SiX2, for X being the halides. The results in this study suggest that the major Si contributors in the SiC CVD process are Si atoms, SiX (for X being the halide) and SiH.

  • 30.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Revisiting the Thermochemical Database of Si-C-H System Related to SiC CVD Modeling2014In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2013, PTS 1 AND 2, Trans Tech Publications , 2014, Vol. 778-780, p. 175-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide (SiC-CVD) is a complex process involving a Si-C-H system wherein a large number of reaction steps occur. To simulate such a system requires knowledge of thermochemical and transport properties of all the species involved in the process. The accuracy of this information consequently becomes a crucial factor toward the correctness of the outcome prediction. In this work, the thermochemical data for several important growth species for SiC CVD using the SiH4/CxHy/H-2 system has been calculated. For the most part an excellent agreement is seen with previously reported data, however for the organosilicons a larger deviation is detected and in particular for the CH3SiH2SiH species which shows a stark deviation from the CHEMKIN database. Impacts of the improved database on SiC CVD modeling are presented in computational fluid dynamics calculations, manifesting the significance of an accurate database.

  • 31.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermochemical Properties of Halides and Halohydrides of Silicon and Carbon2016In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 5, no 2, p. P27-P35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomization energies, enthalpies of formation, entropies as well as heat capacities of the SiHnXm and CHnXm systems, with X being F, Cl and Br, have been studied using quantum chemical calculations. The Gaussian-4 theory (G4) and Weizman-1 theory as modified by Barnes et al. 2009 (W1RO) have been applied in the calculations of the electronic, zero point and thermal energies. The effects of low-lying electronically excited states due to spin orbit coupling were included for all atoms and diatomic species by mean of the electronic partition functions derived from the experimental or computational energy splittings. The atomization energies, enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities derived from both methods were observed to be reliable. The thermochemical properties in the temperature range of 298-2500 K are provided in the form of 7-coefficient NASA polynomials. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Yazdanfar, Milan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Finding the Optimum Chloride-Based Chemistry for Chemical Vapor Deposition of SiC2014In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 3, no 10, p. P320-P323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide with a chloride-based chemistry can be done using several different silicon and carbon precursors. Here, we present a comparative study of SiCl4, SiHCl3, SiH4+HCl, C3H8, C2H4 and CH4 in an attempt to find the optimal precursor combination. We find that while the chlorinated silanes SiCl4 and especially SiHCl3 give higher growth rate than natural silane and HCl, SiH4+HCl gives better morphology at C/Si around 1 and SiCl4 gives the best morphology at low C/Si. Our study shows no effect on doping incorporation with precursor chemistry. We suggest that these results can be explained by the number of reaction steps in the gas phase chemical reaction mechanisms for producing SiCl2, which is the most important Si species, and by formation of organosilicons in the gas phase. As carbon precursor, C3H8 or C2H4 are more or less equal in performance with a slight advantage for C3H8, CH4 is however not a carbon precursor that should be used unless extraordinary growth conditions are needed.

  • 33.
    Yazdanfar, Milan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kalered, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brominated chemistry for chemical vapor deposition of electronic grade SiC2015In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 793-801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chemistry for growth of homoepitaxial layers of silicon carbide (SiC) has paved the way for very thick epitaxial layers in short deposition time as well as novel crystal growth processes for SiC. Here, we explore the possibility to also use a brominated chemistry for SiC CVD by using HBr as additive to the standard SiC CVD precursors. We find that brominated chemistry leads to the same high material quality and control of material properties during deposition as chlorinated chemistry and that the growth rate is on average 10 % higher for a brominated chemistry compared to chlorinated chemistry. Brominated and chlorinated SiC CVD also show very similar gas phase chemistries in thermochemical modelling. This study thus argues that brominated chemistry is a strong alternative for SiC CVD since the deposition rate can be increased with preserved material quality. The thermochemical modelling also suggest that the currently used chemical mechanism for halogenated SiC CVD might need to be revised.

  • 34.
    Yazdanfar, Milan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the use of methane as a carbon precursor in Chemical Vapor Deposition of silicon carbide2014In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 390, p. 24-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally considered that methane is not a suitable carbon precursor for growth of silicon carbide (SiC) epitaxial layers by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) since its use renders epitaxial layers with very high surface roughness. In this work we demonstrate that in fact SiC epitaxial layers with high-quality morphology can be grown using methane. It is shown that a key factor in obtaining high-quality material is tuning the C/Si ratio of the process gas mixture to a region where the growth is limited neither by carbon nor by silicon supplies. From the growth characteristics presented here, we argue that the reactivity of methane with the SiC surface is much higher than generally assumed in SiC CVD modeling today.

  • 35.
    Zhang, Jie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellison, Alexandre
    Okmetic AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Royal Institute of Technology ( KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial growth of 4H SiC in a vertical hot-wall CVD reactor: Comparison between up- and down-flow orientations2002In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 241, no 4, p. 421-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CVD growth of 4H SiC is investigated in a vertical hot-wall reactor in both up-flow (the chimney reactor) and down-flow (the inverted chimney) orientations. The growth rate and the nitrogen doping are studied for comparison. Under the investigated process conditions the growth mechanism is shown to be similar in these two reactor orientations. Only slight difference is observed in the temperature effect depending on the flow direction. Both reactor types have produced epilayers with high growth rates (10–35 μm/h) and low residual n-type doping (low 1016 down to mid 1013 cm−3) with comparable morphology. Dimensionless flow numbers are used to provide a qualitative analysis of the flow and heat transfer mechanisms in the vertical hot-wall system. Two-dimensional numerical simulation in a cylindrical geometry is conducted to demonstrate the flow and temperature profile with selected process parameters. Comparison of the experimental results in the chimney and the inverted chimney is performed to give insight into the fast epitaxial hot-wall growth.

1 - 35 of 35
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