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  • 1.
    Adsten, M
    et al.
    Univ Uppsala, Angstrom Lab, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Joerger, R
    Univ Uppsala, Angstrom Lab, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wackelgard, E
    Univ Uppsala, Angstrom Lab, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Optical characterization of industrially sputtered nickel-nickel oxide solar selective surface2000Ingår i: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 325-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tandem absorbers are often used in the design of solar absorbers for photo thermal conversion. They consist of a thin coating, selectively absorbing in the wavelength range of the solar spectrum, on a metal substrate. The optical performance of a tandem absorber depends on the optical constants and thickness of the absorbing coating and also on the reflectivity of the underlying metal. A very high solar absorptance is achieved when the coating has a non-uniform composition in the sense that the refractive index is highest closest to the metal substrate and then gradually decreases towards the front surface. This type of composition suppresses coating interference and gives a low front surface reflection if the refractive index at the front surface is low. We report on optical analysis of a, Solar absorber with a graded index coating of sputtered nickel-nickel oxide deposited on aluminium. The optical constants have been determined from reflectance, transmittance and ellipsometry data by fitting the data to a two-layer model of the coating. The optical constants of the two layers can be regarded as effective optical constants for the lower and upper part of the graded index coating respectively. It is found that the effective refractive index of the top layer is somewhat tower than for the base layer. The extinction coefficient is higher in the lower part of the coating. Both effective refractive index and extinction coefficient of the base layer increase monotonically with increasing wavelength as for metallic materials. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Ahuja, R.
    et al.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Da Silva A.
    Ferreira Da Silva, A., Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40 210 340 Salvador, Ba, Brazil.
    Persson, C.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Osorio-Guillen, J.M.
    Osorio-Guillén, J.M., Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pepe, I.
    Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40 210 340 Salvador, Ba, Brazil.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindquist, O.P.A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Edwards, N.V.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Johansson, B.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Optical properties of 4H-SiC2002Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 91, nr 3, s. 2099-2103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical band gap energy and the dielectric functions of n-type 4H-SiC have been investigated experimentally by transmission spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry and theoretically by an ab initio full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method. We present the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions, resolved into the transverse and longitudinal photon moment a, and we show that the anisotropy is small in 4H-SiC. The measurements and the calculations fall closely together in a wide range of energies. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 3.
    Akerlind, C
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kariis, H
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optical properties and switching of a Rose Bengal derivative: A spectroscopic ellipsometry study2011Ingår i: THIN SOLID FILMS, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 519, nr 11, s. 3582-3586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical properties in terms of the complex-valued dielectric function were determined for spin-coated films of a Rose Bengal derivative using variable angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared wavelength regions. In addition, the thickness and roughness of the films were determined and related to the solution concentration of Rose Bengal. Switching between two different oxidation states of the Rose Bengal derivative was investigated. The two states were chemically induced by exposure to vapors of hydrochloric acid and ammonia, respectively. A substantial and reversible change of the optical properties of the films was observed.

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  • 4.
    Akerlind, C.
    et al.
    Swedish Def Res Agcy FOI, Div Electro Opt Systmes, SE-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hallberg, T.
    Swedish Def Res Agcy FOI, Div Electro Opt Systmes, SE-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optical Studies of White Organic Materials for Camouflage Applications in Arctic Environments2022Ingår i: TARGET AND BACKGROUND SIGNATURES VIII, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2022, Vol. 12270, artikel-id 122700DKonferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Important properties for camouflage materials can be summarized in six criteria: (1) spectrally selective reflectance, (2) low gloss, (3) low degree of polarization, (4) low infrared emissivity, (5) non-destructive effect on radar properties and (6) color adaptivity. We have studied a collection of natural materials for potential use as camouflage surfaces for the arctic region. The four first camouflage criteria are analyzed using spectrometry, scatterometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques. The materials involved in the study are diffuse white nature-inspired surfaces: Cuticles of the beetle Cyphochilus insulanus, and foams of freeze-casted cellulose nanofibrils. We present data that partly fulfills the addressed camouflage criteria. An adequate reflectance is achieved in the spectral range of 400 - 1600 nm for both samples. Scattering data show that near-Lambertian properties are achieved at 633 nm for both surfaces but at 1550 nm for only the beetle cuticle. The degree of polarization is low for unpolarized light incident near the surface normal for both surfaces.

  • 5.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Polarization effects in reflection from the cuticle of scarab beetles studied by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2012Ingår i: AES 2012, Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarization effects in reflection from the cuticle of scarab beetles studied by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry

     

    H. Arwin*, T. Berlind, J. Birch, L. Fernandez Del Rio, J. Gustafson, J. Landin,

    R. Magnusson, C. Åkerlind, and K. Järrendahl

    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden

    *corresponding author: han@ifm.liu.se

     

    Abstract- Many scarab beetles exhibit structural colors and complex polarization phenomena in reflection. These effects are characterized with spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry in our work. The polarization ellipse of reflected light as well as the degree of polarization is presented including variations with angle of incidence and wavelength. Emphasis is on beetles showing chiral effects and structural modeling of cuticle nanostructure is discussed.

     

    Background Since one hundred years it is known that some scarab beetles reflect elliptically polarized light as demonstrated by Michelson for the beetle Chrysina resplendens [1]. The handedness of the polarization is in a majority of the cases left-handed but also right-handed polarization has been found [2,3]. The ellipticity varies with wavelength and viewing angle but can be close to +1 or -1 (right or left circular polarization, respectively) and in addition these beetles may exhibit beautiful structural colors. The polarization and color effects are generated in the outer part of the exoskeleton, the cuticle. These natural photonic structures are often multifunctional and play important roles for survival of beetles, e.g. for hiding from or scaring predators, for intraspecies communication, etc. [4]. However, such structures may find use in many commercial applications and a major motivation for detailed studies of natural photonic structures is that they inspire to biomimetic applications [5,6].

    Approach Our objective is to use spectral Mueller-matrix data on scarab beetles to parameterize reflection properties in terms of polarization parameters and degree of polarization. The studied beetles all are phytophagous and include species from the Cetoniinae subfamily (e.g. Cetonia aurata and Coptomia laevis,), the Rutelinae subfamily (e.g. Chrysina argenteola and Chrysina resplendens) and the Melolonthinae subfamily (Cyphochilus insulanus). Furthermore, structural modeling is presented on Cetonia aurata and a few more beetles to demonstrate that structural parameters can be extracted by advanced modeling of Mueller-matrix data.

    Experimental A dual rotating compensator ellipsometer (RC2, J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) is used to record all 16 Mueller-matrix elements mij (i,j=1..4) in the spectral range 300 – 900 nm at angles of incidence in the range 20-70º. The elements are normalized to m11 and thus have values between -1 and +1. All measurements are performed on the scutellum (a small triangular part on the dorsal side of the beetles) with focusing optics resulting in a spot size of the order of 50-100 mm. The software CompleteEASE (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) is used for analysis.

    Results and discussion As an example, Fig. 1 shows contour plots of Mueller-matrix data measured on Cetonia aurata. This beetle has a metallic shine and if illuminated with unpolarized white light it reflects left-handed polarized green light as revealed by the non-zero Mueller-matrix elements m14 and m41 in the green spectral region for angles of incidence below about 45º. This is clearly seen in the graph to the right in Fig. 1 which shows a spectrum for Mueller-matrix element m41at 20º as well as fitted model data. A model based on a twisted lamella structure, also called Bouligand structure, is used to model the chiral nanostructure [4]. Given the complexity of the nanostructure, an excellent model fit is achieved. The obtained model parameters are the spectral variation of the refractive index of the birefringent lamellas and the pitch. The model also includes a dielectric surface layer.

     

     

     

    Fig.1. Left: Mueller-matrix data on Cetonia aurata. Each contour plot shows mij, where i and j correspond to the row and column, respectively. m11 =1 and is not shown but is replaced with a photo of the beetle. Right: Experimental and model-generated Mueller-matrix element m41at an angle of incidence of 20º.

     

    From the Mueller-matrix data one can also determine so called derived parameters including azimuth and ellipticity of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. The variations of these parameters with angle of incidence are presented for a selection of scarab beetles. Examples of both left-handed and right-handed polarization effects are shown and the importance of degree of polarization will be discussed.

    Concluding remarks Mueller-matrix spectra at oblique incidence are very rich in information about reflection properties and allows parameterization of polarization parameters of the reflected light. Both left-handed and right-handed reflected light is found in scarab beetles. Mueller-matrix data can also be used for a detailed modeling of the nanostructure of the cuticle of beetles.

    AcknowledgementsFinancial support was obtained from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation and the Swedish Research Council. The Museum of Natural History in Stockholm, the National Museum of Natural Science in Madrid, the Berlin Museum of Natural History and the Natural History Museum in London are acknowledged for loan of beetles.

     

    REFERENCES

    1. Michelson, A. A. “On Metallic Colouring in Birds and Insects,” Phil. Mag., 21, 554-567, 1911.
    2. Goldstein, D. H. “Polarization properties of Scarabaeidae,” Appl. Opt., 45, 7944-7950, 2006.
    3. Hodgkinson, I., Lowrey, S., Bourke, L., Parker, A. and McCall, M. W. “Mueller-matrix characterization of beetle cuticle polarized and unpolarized reflections from representative architectures,” Appl. Opt., 49, 4558-4567, 2010.
    4. Vukusic, P. and Sambles, J. R. “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature, 424, 852-855, 2003.
    5. Lenau, T. and Barfoed, M. “Colours and Metallic Sheen in Beetle Shells - A Biomimetic Search for Material Structuring Principles Causing Light Interference,” Adv. Eng. Mat., 10, 299-314. 2008.
    6. Parker, A. R. and Townley, H. E “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nature Nanotech., 2, 347-351, 2007.
  • 6.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johs, Blaine
    JA Woollam Co Inc, NE USA .
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cuticle structure of the scarab beetle Cetonia aurata analyzed by regression analysis of Mueller-matrix ellipsometric data2013Ingår i: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, nr 19, s. 22645-22656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since one hundred years it is known that some scarab beetles reflect elliptically and near-circular polarized light as demonstrated by Michelson for the beetle Chrysina resplendens. The handedness of the polarization is in a majority of cases left-handed but also right-handed polarization has been found. In addition, brilliant colors with metallic shine are observed. The polarization and color effects are generated in the beetle exoskeleton, the so-called cuticle. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that structural parameters and materials optical functions of these photonic structures can be extracted by advanced modeling of spectral multi-angle Mueller-matrix data recorded from beetle cuticles. A dual-rotating compensator ellipsometer is used to record normalized Mueller-matrix data in the spectral range 400 – 800 nm at angles of incidence in the range 25–75°. Analysis of data measured on the scarab beetle Cetonia aurata are presented in detail. The model used in the analysis mimics a chiral nanostructure and is based on a twisted layered structure. Given the complexity of the nanostructure, an excellent fit between experimental and model data is achieved. The obtained model parameters are the spectral variation of the refractive indices of the cuticle layers and structural parameters of the chiral structure.

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  • 7.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik.
    Boulenguez, Julie
    INSP, UMR Paris 6 and 7 University.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Bertier, Serge
    INSP, UMR Paris 6 and 7 University.
    Ellipsometric study of photonic structures in wing scales of butterflies2007Ingår i: Optik i Sverige,2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 8.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fernandez Del Rio, Lia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish Def Research Agency FOI, Div Command and Control Syst, SE-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mendoza-Galvan, A.
    CINVESTAV IPN, Mexico.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On the polarization of light reflected from beetle cuticle2017Ingår i: MATERIALS TODAY-PROCEEDINGS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 4933-4941Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Mueller matrices for studies of polarizing properties and cuticle structure of scarab beetles are partly reviewed. Specifically we show how the polarization of the reflected light can be quantified in terms of degree of polarization and ellipticity. It is also shown that sum decomposition of Mueller matrices reveals cuticle reflection characteristics in different spectral regions, e.g. in terms of mirrors and circular polarizers. With a differential decomposition of cuticle transmission Mueller matrices, we determine the spectral variation in the fundamental optical properties circular birefringence and dichroism. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Comparison and analysis of Mueller-matrix spectra from exoskeletons of blue, green and red Cetonia aurata2014Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, s. 739-743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The exoskeleton, also called the cuticle, of specimens of the scarab beetle Cetonia aurata is a narrow-band reflector which exhibits metallic shine. Most specimens of C. aurata have a reflectance maximum in the green part of the spectrum but variations from blue–green to red–green are also found. A few specimens are also more distinct blue or red. Furthermore, the reflected light is highly polarized and at near-normal incidence near-circular left-handed polarization is observed. The polarization and color phenomena are caused by a nanostructure in the cuticle. This nanostructure can be modeled as a multilayered twisted biaxial layer from which reflection properties can be calculated. Specifically we calculate the cuticle Mueller matrix which then is fitted to Mueller matrices determined by dual-rotating compensator ellipsometry in the spectral range 400–800 nm at multiple angles of incidence. This non-linear regression analysis provides structural parameters like pitch of the chiral structure as well as layer refractive index data for the different layers in the cuticle. The objective here is to compare spectra measured on C. aurata with different colors and develop a generic structural model. Generally the degree of polarization is large in the spectral region corresponding to the color of the cuticle which for the blue specimen is 400–600 nm whereas for the red specimen it is 530–730 nm. In these spectral ranges, the Mueller-matrix element m41 is non-zero and negative, in particular for small angles of incidence, implicating that the reflected light becomes near-circularly polarizedwith an ellipticity angle in the range 20°–45°.

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  • 10.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johs, Blaine
    J. A. Woollam Co., Inc..
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analysis of Mueller-matrix data from chiral structures in exoskeletons of scarab beetles2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Several species of scarab beetles exhibit extra-ordinary metallic-like structural colors. These color-generating structures also show complex polarization properties and unpolarized light can be reflected with near-circular polarization. Specimens of Cetonia aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) are here studied with a dual-rotating compensator ellipsometer using focusing probes. Mueller-matrix data are recorded with precision better than ±0.005 in the range 350 – 1000 nm for angles 20-60º. In a narrow spectral range in the green part of the spectrum, the Mueller-matrix elements m14 and m41 show large negative values and the reflected light is near-circular left-handed polarized. This effect originates from a chiral structure in the beetle exoskeleton. A twisted biaxial lamellae structure with a top dielectric layer is used in regression analysis to determine pitch of the helix and refractive indices of the chitin-based constituting materials. The applicability of this model to data from different scarab beetles is reviewed and it is found that the model show limitations for beetles with broad-band reflection, e.g. those with gold-like colors. For narrow-band optical features, the model provides an excellent fit for all 15 normalized Mueller-matrix elements over the full spectrum and angle of incidence range. Dispersion models like Cauchy, b-splines and oscillator-based models are employed for the biaxial layer and fit qualities for the tested models are compared.

  • 11.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Boulenquez, J.
    INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS, Paris 6 and Paris 7 universities, Paris, France.
    Berthier, S.
    INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS, Paris 6 and Paris 7 universities, Paris, France.
    Ellipsometry applied to natural biophotonic structures: a review2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Boulenquez, J.
    INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS, Paris 6 and Paris 7 universities, Paris, France.
    Berthier, S.
    INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS, Paris 6 and Paris 7 universities, Paris, France.
    Optical activity in the cuticle of the beetle Cetonia aurata studied by Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optical active cuticle structures in the beetle Cetonia aurata2008Ingår i: European Optical Society Meeting 2008, 2008, s. 67-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 14.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Optical activity in the cuticle of the beetle Cetonia aurata2008Ingår i: Optikdagen 2008,2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Spectral confinement of circularly polarized reflection from the cuticle of Cetonia aurata measured by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2008Ingår i: E-MRS,2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Boulenguez, J
    INSP .
    Berthier, S.
    INSP .
    Optical Activity in the Cuticle of the Beetle Cetonia Aurata2009Ingår i: 5th Workshop Ellipsometry, Zweibrücken, Germany, March 2-4 2009, 2009, s. 38-38Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring polarization features in light reflection from beetles with structural colors2015Ingår i: Proc. SPIE  9429, Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication 2015, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9429, s. 942909-1-942909-13Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Mueller matrix of a sample can be used to determine the polarization of  reflected light  for  incident light with arbitrary polarization. The polarization can be quantified  in terms of ellipticity, polarization azimuth and degree of polarization. We apply spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry at multiple angles of incidence  to study the cuticle of beetles and derive  polarization features for incident unpolarized light.  In particular we address chiral phenomena in scarab beetles,  the origin of their structural colors and the observed high degree of circular polarization is discussed. Results from beetles in the Scarabaeidae subfamilies Cetoniinae and Rutelinae are presented including specimens with broad-band silver- or gold-like colors with metallic shine as well as specimens with narrow-band green or red reflectors. The variation of polarization with angle of incidence and occurrence of both left-handed and right-handed polarization from a single species are presented. We also use Mueller-matrix spectra in electromagnetic modeling and show how to determine structural parameters including cuticle layer thicknesses and optical properties. Interference oscillations in the observed spectra are due to allowed optical modes and we show how to develop a structural model of a cuticle based on this effect. Sum decomposition of  Mueller matrices measured on a depolarizing cuticle of a beetle is briefly discussed.

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  • 18.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Mexico.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring optics of beetle cuticles with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry at variable angles of incidence is applied to beetle cuticles using a small (50 -100 μm) spot size. It is demonstrated how ellipticity and degree of polarization of the reflected light can be derived from a Mueller matrix providing a detailed insight into reflection properties. Results from Cetonia aurata, Chrysina argenteola and Cotinis mutabilis are presented. The use of Mueller matrices in regression analysis to extract structural and optical parameters of cuticles is briefly described and applied to cuticle data from Cetonia aurata whereby the pitch of the twisted layered structure in the cuticle is determined as well as the refractive indices of the epicuticle and the exocuticle.

  • 19.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Garcia-Caurel, Enric
    CNRS 91128 Palaiseau, France.
    de Martino, Antonello
    CNRS 91128 Palaiseau, FranceCNRS 91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ossikovski, Razvigor
    CNRS 91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Sum decomposition of Mueller matrices from beetle cuticles2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral Mueller matrices are very rich in information about physical properties of a sample. We have recently shown that polarizing properties like ellipticity and degree of polarization can be extracted from a Mueller matrix measured on a beetle cuticle (exoskeleton). Mueller matrices can also be used in regression analysis to model nanostructures in cuticles. Here we present the use of sum decomposition of Mueller matrices from these depolarizing biological reflectors to explore the fundamental character of these reflectors. The objective is to decompose a Mueller matrix into well- defined ideal non-depolarizing matrices corresponding to mirrors, circular polarizers, halfwave retarders etc.Generally it is possible to decompose a measured depolarizing Mueller matrix M into four (or fewer) non-depolarizing matrices according to M=λ1M1+λ2M2+λ3M3+λ4M4, where λ1, λ2, λ3 and λ4 are eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of M. Two strategies for decomposition will be discussed. A Cloude decomposition will provide the eigenvalues and also the Mi’s although the latter will contain severe noise in some spectral regions. However, a major advantage with the Cloude decomposition is that the number of nonzero eigenvalues is directly obtained, i.e. the number of contributing Mi matrices. In an alternative decomposition, the Mi’s are assumed and the eigenvalues are found by regression analysis based on M. In the case with two non-zero eigenvalues we define a model Mueller matrix MD=αRM1+βRM2 with αR+βR=1. With αR as adjustable parameter, the Frobenius norm ||M-MD|| is minimized for each wavelength in the spectral range of M. For more complex structures, the regression can be extended by adding more matrices up to a total of four. Advantages with a regression approach are its simplicity and stability compared to a Cloude decomposition.Mueller-matrix spectra of beetle cuticles are recorded with a dual rotating compensator ellipsometer in the spectral range 400 – 900 nm at angles of incidence in the range 20 - 75°. The application of decomposition on biological reflectors is demonstrated on M measured on the beetle Cetonia aurata, which represents a narrow-band chiral Bragg reflector with two non-zero eigenvalues. A decomposition in an ideal mirror and a circular polarizer is feasible. In another example, the broad-band and gold-colored beetle Chrysina argenteola, we show that more than two eigenvalues can be nonzero, especially at oblique incidence, and additional matrices are involved.

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  • 20.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Garcia-Caurel, Enric
    Laboratoire des Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France.
    Fallet, C.
    Bioaxial SAS, 40 rue de Paradis, France.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Foldyna, M.
    Laboratoire des Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France.
    De Martino, A.
    Laboratoire des Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France.
    Ossikovski, R.
    Laboratoire des Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France.
    Sum decomposition of Mueller-matrix images and spectra of beetle cuticles2015Ingår i: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 1951-1966Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral Mueller matrices measured at multiple angles of incidence as well as Mueller matrix images are recorded on the exoskeletons (cuticles) of the scarab beetles Cetonia aurata and Chrysina argenteola. Cetonia aurata is green whereas Chrysina argenteola is gold-colored. When illuminated with natural (unpolarized) light, both species reflect left-handed and near-circularly polarized light originating from helicoidal structures in their cuticles. These structures are referred to as circular Bragg reflectors. For both species the Mueller matrices are found to be nondiagonal depolarizers. The matrices are Cloude decomposed to a sum of non-depolarizing matrices and it is found that the cuticle optical response, in a first approximation can be described as a sum of Mueller matrices from an ideal mirror and an ideal circular polarizer with relative weights determined by the eigenvalues of the covariance matrices of the measured Mueller matrices. The spectral and image decompositions are consistent with each other. A regression-based decomposition of the spectral and image Mueller matrices is also presented whereby the basic optical components are assumed to be a mirror and a circular polarizer as suggested by the Cloude decomposition. The advantage with a regression decomposition compared to a Cloude decomposition is its better stability as the matrices in the decomposition are determined a priori. The origin of the depolarizing features are discussed but from present data it is not possible to conclude whether the two major components, the mirror and the circular polarizer are laterally separated in domains in the cuticle or if the depolarization originates from the intrinsic properties of the helicoidal structure.

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  • 21.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schoeche, Stefan
    JA Woollam Co Inc, NE 68508 USA.
    Effective structural chirality of beetle cuticle determined from transmission Mueller matrices using the Tellegen constitutive relations2020Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, ISSN 2166-2746, E-ISSN 2166-2754, Vol. 38, nr 1, artikel-id 014004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several beetle species in the Scarabaeoidea superfamily reflect left-handed polarized light due to a circular Bragg structure in their cuticle. The right-handed polarized light is transmitted. The objective here is to evaluate cuticle chiral properties in an effective medium approach using transmission Mueller matrices assuming the cuticle to be a bianisotropic continuum. Both differential decomposition and nonlinear regression were used in the spectral range of 500-1690nm. The former method provides the sample cumulated birefringence and dichroic optical properties and is model-free but requires a homogeneous sample. The materials chirality is deduced from the circular birefringence and circular dichroic spectra obtained. The regression method requires dispersion models for the optical functions but can also be used in more complex structures including multilayered and graded media. It delivers the material properties in terms of model functions of materials permittivity and chirality. The two methods show excellent agreement for the complex-valued chirality spectrum of the cuticle.

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  • 22.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chirality-induced polarization effects in the cuticle of scarab beetles: 100 years after Michelson2012Ingår i: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 92, nr 12, s. 1583-1599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One hundred years ago Michelson discovered circular polarization in reflection from beetles. Today a novel Mueller-matrix ellipsometry setup allows unprecedented detailed characterization of the beetles polarization properties. A formalism based on elliptical polarization for description of reflection from scarab beetles is here proposed and examples are given on four beetles of different character: Coptomia laevis - a simple dielectric mirror; Cetonia aurata - a left-hand narrow- band elliptical polarizer; Anoplognathus aureus - a broad-band elliptical polarizer; and Chrysina argenteola - a left-hand polarizer for visible light at small angles, whereas for larger angles, red reflected light is right-handed polarized. We confirm the conclusion of previous studies which showed that a detailed quantification of ellipticity and degree of polarization of cuticle reflection can be performed instead of only determining whether reflections are circularly polarized or not. We additionally investigate reflection as a function of incidence angle. This provides much richer information for understanding the behaviour of beetles and for structural analysis.

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  • 23.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mendoza-Galvan, A.
    Cinvestav IPN, Mexico.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Garcia-Caurel, E.
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Ossikovski, R.
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Structural circular birefringence and dichroism quantified by differential decomposition of spectroscopic transmission Mueller matrices from Cetonia aurata2016Ingår i: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 41, nr 14, s. 3293-3296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to the cuticle of the beetle Cetonia aurata in the spectral range 300-1000 nm. The cuticle is optically reciprocal and exhibits circular Bragg filter features for green light. By using differential decomposition of the Mueller matrix, the circular and linear birefringence as well as dichroism of the beetle cuticle are quantified. A maximum value of structural optical activity of 560 degrees/mm is found. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America

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  • 24.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mendoza-Galván, A.
    Cinvestav, Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dmitriev, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics.
    Pakizeh, T.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics.
    Käll, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics.
    Artificial Magnetism in Gold-Silica-Gold Metamaterials - an ellipsometric Study2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schoeche, Stefan
    JA Woollam Co Inc, NE 68508 USA.
    Hilfiker, James
    JA Woollam Co Inc, NE 68508 USA.
    Hartveit, Mattias
    Univ Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Juarez-Rivera, Olga Rubi
    Cinvestav Queretaro, Mexico.
    Mendoza-Galvan, Arturo
    Cinvestav Queretaro, Mexico.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optical Chirality Determined from Mueller Matrices2021Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 15, artikel-id 6742Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Featured Application The analysis of the transmission of Mueller matrices facilitates studies of optical activity in samples that also exhibit linear anisotropy and depolarization and may have a multilayered structure. Such studies are important for the development of applications in chiroptics. Optical chirality, in terms of circular birefringence and circular dichroism, is described by its electromagnetic and magnetoelectric material tensors, and the corresponding optical activity contributes to the Mueller matrix. Here, spectroscopic ellipsometry in the spectral range 210-1690 nm is used to address chiral phenomena by measuring Mueller matrices in transmission. Three approaches to determine chirality parameters are discussed. In the first approach, applicable in the absence of linear polarization effects, circular birefringence and circular dichroism are evaluated directly from elements of a Mueller matrix. In the second method, differential decomposition is employed, which allows for the unique separation of chirality parameters from linear anisotropic parameters as well as from depolarization provided that the sample is homogeneous along the optical path. Finally, electromagnetic modeling using the Tellegen constitutive relations is presented. The last method also allows structural effects to be included. The three methods to quantify optical chirality are demonstrated for selected materials, including sugar solutions, alpha-quartz, liquid crystals, beetle cuticle, and films of cellulose nanocrystals.

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  • 26.
    Bairagi, Samiran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chang, Jui-Che
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tarntair, Fu-Gow
    National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30010, Taiwan.
    Wu, Wan-Yu
    National United University, Miaoli, 36063, Taiwan.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    de Almeida, Edward Ferraz
    Federal University of the West of Bahia, Brazil.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lin, Kun-Lin
    Taiwan Semiconductor Research Institute (TSRI), Taiwan.
    Hsu, Shao-Hui
    Taiwan Semiconductor Research Institute (TSRI), Taiwan.
    Shieh, Jia-Min
    Taiwan Semiconductor Research Institute (TSRI), Taiwan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Horng, Ray-Hua
    National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30010, Taiwan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Formation of quaternary Zn(AlxGa1−x)2O4 epilayers driven by thermally induced interdiffusion between spinel ZnGa2O4 epilayer and Al2O3 substrate2023Ingår i: Materials Today Advances, ISSN 2590-0498, Vol. 20, artikel-id 100422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc aluminogallate, Zn(AlxGa1−x)2O4 (ZAGO), a single-phase spinel structure, offers considerable potential for high-performance electronic devices due to its expansive compositional miscibility range between aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga). Direct growth of high-quality ZAGO epilayers however remains problematic due to the high volatility of zinc (Zn). This work highlights a novel synthesis process for high-quality epitaxial quaternary ZAGO thin films on sapphire substrates, achieved through thermal annealing of a ZnGa2O4 (ZGO) epilayer on sapphire in an ambient air setting. In-situ annealing x-ray diffraction measurements show that the incorporation of Al in the ZGO epilayer commenced at 850 °C. The Al content (x) in ZAGO epilayer gradually increased up to around 0.45 as the annealing temperature was raised to 1100 °C, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. X-ray rocking curve measurement revealed a small full width at half maximum value of 0.72 °, indicating the crystal quality preservation of the ZAGO epilayer with a high Al content. However, an epitaxial intermediate �–(AlxGa1−x)2O3 layer (� - AGO) was formed between the ZAGO and sapphire substrate. This is believed to be a consequence of the interdiffusion of Al and Ga between the ZGO thin film and sapphire substrate. Using density functional theory, the substitution cost of Ga in sapphire was determined to be about 0.5 eV lower than substitution cost of Al in ZGO. Motivated by this energetically favorable substitution, a formation mechanism of the ZAGO and AGO layers was proposed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies revealed an increase in total thickness of the film from 105.07 nm (ZGO) to 147.97 nm (ZAGO/AGO) after annealing to 1100 °C, which were corroborated using TEM. Furthermore, an observed increase in the direct (indirect) optical bandgap from 5.06 eV (4.7 eV) to 5.72 eV (5.45 eV) with an increasing Al content in the ZAGO layer further underpins the formation of a quaternary ZAGO alloy with a tunable composition.

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  • 27.
    Bairagi, Samiran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chu, Jinn P.
    Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Tarntair, Fu-Gow
    Natl Yang Ming Chiao Tung Univ, Taiwan.
    Horng, Ray-Hua
    Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan; Natl Yang Ming Chiao Tung Univ, Taiwan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) epitaxial thin films: determination of optical properties and bandgap estimation using spectroscopic ellipsometry2022Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 12, nr 8, s. 3284-3295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic grade ZnGa2O4 epitaxial thin films were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Their thickness, roughness and optical properties were determined using a Multiple Sample Analysis based approach by the regression analysis of optical model and measured data. These samples were then compared to samples which had undergone ion etching, and it was observed that etching time up to four minutes had no discernible impact on its optical properties. Line shape analysis of resulting absorption coefficient dispersion revealed that ZnGa(2)O(4 )exhibited both direct and indirect interband transitions. The modified Cody formalism was employed to determine their optical bandgaps. These values were found to be in good agreement with values obtained using other popular bandgap extrapolation procedures. Published by Optica Publishing Group under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published articles title, journal citation, and DOI.

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  • 28.
    Bairagi, Samiran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Glancing Angle Deposition and Growth Mechanism of Inclined AlN Nanostructures Using Reactive Magnetron Sputtering2020Ingår i: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 10, nr 8, artikel-id 768Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of AlN nanostructures was performed at room temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixed gas atmosphere of Ar and N-2. The growth behavior of nanostructures shows strong dependence on the total working pressure and angle of incoming flux. In GLAD configuration, the morphology changed from coalesced, vertical nanocolumns with faceted terminations to highly inclined, fan-like, layered nanostructures (up to 38 degrees); while column lengths decreased from around 1743 to 1068 nm with decreasing pressure from 10 to 1.5 mTorr, respectively. This indicates a change in the dominant growth mechanism from ambient flux dependent deposition to directional ballistic shadowing deposition with decreasing working pressures, which is associated with the change of energy and incident angle of incoming reactive species. These results were corroborated using simulation of metal transport (SiMTra) simulations performed at similar working pressures using Ar and N separately, which showed the average particle energy and average angle of incidence decreased while the total average scattering angle of the metal flux arriving at substrate increased with increasing working pressures. Observing the crystalline orientation of GLAD deposited wurtzite AlN nanocolumns using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pole-figure measurements revealedc-axis growth towards the direction of incoming flux and a transition from fiber-like to biaxial texture took place with increasing working pressures. Under normal deposition conditions, AlN layer morphology changed from {0001} to {10 (1) over bar1} with increasing working pressure because of kinetic energy-driven growth.

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  • 29.
    Boulenguez, Julie
    et al.
    INSP - CNRS Paris 6 and 7 Universities.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berthier, Serge
    INSP - CNRS Paris 6 and 7 Universities.
    Ellipsometric study of photonic structures in wing scales of butterflies2007Ingår i: 4th International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, 2007, 2007, s. 309-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report the possibility to explore the polarization properties of the wing scales of Morpho butterflies using spectroscopic ellipsometry is presented. Measurements were performed on the dorsal sides of three species of the Morpho family, rhetenor, menelaus and sulkowskyi, to compare the polarization properties of nanostructures in the wings. In these species colouration changes under polarized light were observed and all the wing scales are flat. Their photonic structures have the same general shape; they dier, mainly in terms of size and number of layers. The instrument used is a double rotating compensator ellip- someter working in the spectral range 245 nm-1700 nm. This type of instrument can measure the Mueller matrix of a sample. The Morpho rhetenor geometrical structure is known from scanning electron micrographs. Based on this structure, a Bruggeman eective

  • 30. Broitman, E.
    et al.
    Hellgren, N.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, M.P.
    Olafsson, S.
    Radnoczi, G.
    Radnóczi, G., Res. Inst. Tech. Phys. and Mat. Sci., P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Sundgren, J.-E.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Electrical and optical properties of CNx(0=x=0.25) films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering2001Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 89, nr 2, s. 1184-1190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical and optical properties of carbon-nitride CNx films (O=x=0.25) deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering from a graphite target in mixed Ar/N2 discharges at a substrate temperature of 350°C have been investigated. Pure C films exhibit a dark conductivity at room temperature of 250 O-1 cm-1, which grows up to 250 O-1 cm-1 for CNx films with N content of 20%. For CNx films, temperature-dependent conductivity measurements suggest that two electron conduction processes exist in the investigated temperature range 130

  • 31.
    Edwards, NV
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Aspnes, DE
    NC State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 26795, USA.
    Robbie, K
    NC State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 26795, USA.
    Powell, GD
    NC State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 26795, USA.
    Cobet, C
    Institut für Festkoeperphysik, Sekr. PN6-1, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Esser, N
    Institut für Festkoeperphysik, Sekr. PN6-1, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Richter, W
    Institut für Festkoeperphysik, Sekr. PN6-1, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Madsen, LD
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Real-time assessment of selected surface preparation regimens for 4H-SiC surfaces using spectroscopic ellipsometry2000Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 464, nr 1, s. L703-L707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was used to assess the removal of overlayer material from 4H-SiC (0001) and (0001) [Si- and C-face] surfaces in real time and, in particular, the critical final step of an otherwise standard RCA cleaning regimen commonly used to prepare SiC surfaces for contact formation. The treatments selected [buffered hydrofluoric acid (HF), concentrated HF, and dilute HF] removed 4-40 Angstrom of effective SiO2 overlayer thickness from these surfaces. The concentrated HF treatment yielded the best surface, i.e. that with the most abrupt transition region between bulk and surface and with the most oxide material removed. A fourth treatment regimen (sequential application of methanol, water, and 5% HF in methanol) was also developed for comparison with the full RCA clean. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Edwards, NV
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC USA Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Festkorperphys, DE-13355 Berlin, Germany.
    Madsen, LD
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC USA Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Festkorperphys, DE-13355 Berlin, Germany.
    Robbie, K
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC USA Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Festkorperphys, DE-13355 Berlin, Germany.
    Powell, GD
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC USA Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Festkorperphys, DE-13355 Berlin, Germany.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cobet, C
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC USA Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Festkorperphys, DE-13355 Berlin, Germany.
    Esser, N
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC USA Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Festkorperphys, DE-13355 Berlin, Germany.
    Richter, W
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC USA Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Festkorperphys, DE-13355 Berlin, Germany.
    Aspnes, DE
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC USA Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Festkorperphys, DE-13355 Berlin, Germany.
    Real-time assessment of overlayer removal on 4H-SiC surfaces: Techniques and relevance to contact formation2000Ingår i: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 338-3, s. 1033-1036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We applied real-time spectroscopic ellipsometric (SE) measurements to assess the removal of overlayer material from 4H-SiC Si- and C-face surfaces in order to investigate the final step of an otherwise standard RCA cleaning regimen commonly used to prepare SiC surfaces for contact formation. The selected treatments (buffered hydrofluoric acid (HF), concentrated HF, dilute HF and 5% HF in Methanol) removed 4 to 40 Angstrom of effective SiO2 overlayer thickness from these surfaces. We also found that the concentrated HF treatment yielded the best surface, i.e. the most abrupt bulk-to-ambient transition region.

  • 33.
    Fernandes, Rui D. V.
    et al.
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Pranovich, Alina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zille, Andrea
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Hallberg, Tomas
    Div Electromagnet Warfare, Swedish Def Res Agcy FOI, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iridescence Mimicking in Fabrics: A Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy Study2024Ingår i: BIOMIMETICS, ISSN 2313-7673, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikel-id 71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) photonic crystals (PCs), with five different sizes (170, 190, 210, 230 and 250 nm), were applied onto three plain fabrics, namely polyamide, polyester and cotton. The PC-coated fabrics were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy and two UV/Vis reflectance spectrophotometric techniques (integrating sphere and scatterometry) to evaluate the PCs' self-assembly along with the obtained spectral and colors characteristics. Results showed that surface roughness of the fabrics had a major influence on the color produced by PCs. Polyamide-coated fabrics were the only samples having an iridescent effect, producing more vivid and brilliant colors than polyester and cotton samples. It was observed that as the angle of incident light increases, a hypsochromic shift in the reflection peak occurs along with the formation of new reflection peaks. Furthermore, color behavior simulations were performed with an illuminant A light source on polyamide samples. The illuminant A simulation showed greener and yellower structural colors than those illuminated with D50. The polyester and cotton samples were analyzed using scatterometry to check for iridescence, which was unseen upon ocular inspection and then proven to be present in these samples. This work allowed a better comprehension of how structural colors and their iridescence are affected by the textile substrate morphology and fiber type.

  • 34.
    Fernandez Del Rio, Lia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Polarization of light reflected from Chrysina gloriosa under various illuminations2014Ingår i: Materials Today: Proceedings, Elsevier Ltd , 2014, Vol. 1, s. 172-176Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When illuminated with unpolarized light, the scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa, reflects left-handed near-circularly polarized light for a broad range of angles of incidence and wavelengths in the visible. It is, however, known that light scattered from the sky, reflected on water or transmitted through leaves often is linearly polarized. In this study we have analysed the polarization of light reflected on this beetle when illuminated with different polarization states of light. We have also analysed how the response would be with a polarization-sensitive detector. The reflected irradiance is shown to be highest when the incident light is s-polarized or left-handed polarized and the detector is unpolarized (or vice versa). In the case in which both, the source and the detector, are polarized, the irradiance is highest when both are s-polarized. On the contrary the visibility is low when the source is s-polarized and the detector is p-polarized.

  • 35.
    Fernandez Del Rio, Lia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus2016Ingår i: PHYSICAL REVIEW E, ISSN 2470-0045, Vol. 94, nr 1, s. 012409-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties.

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  • 36.
    Fernandez Del Rio, Lía
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Polarizing properties and structural characteristics of the cuticle of the scarab Beetle Chrysina gloriosa2014Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, nr 3, s. 410-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along its elytras. The properties of light reflected on these areas are investigated using Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both areas reflect light with high degree of left-handed polarization but this effect occurs for specular reflection for the gold-colored areas and for off-specular angles for the green areas. The colors and polarization phenomena originate from reflection of light in the cuticle and a structural analysis is presented to facilitate understanding of the different behaviors of these two areas. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the cross section of beetle cuticles show a multilayered structure. On the gold-colored areas the layers are parallel to the surface whereas on the green-colored areas they form cusp-like structures. Optical microscopy images show a rather flat surface in the gold-colored areas compared to the green-colored areas which display a net of polygonal cells with star-shaped cavities in the center. Each of the polygons corresponds to one of the cusps observed in the SEM images. Atomic force microscopy images of the star-shaped cavities are also provided. The roughness of the surface and the cusp-like structure of the green-colored areas are considered to cause scattering on this area.

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  • 37.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Mueller Matrix Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Scarab Beetles of the Chrysina Genus2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The attractive shiny metallic colour of jewel scarabs is originating from the structure of the exoskeleton.For some directions and wavelengths of the incident light this structure will also cause the reflectedlight to have a large ellipticity (near-circular polarization). This is due to that the exoskeleton is ahelicoidal structure, formed by layers of chitin molecules. The reflected light is most commonly lefthandedpolarized but right-handed polarization is also observed. In this work six species of Scarabbeetles from the Chrysina genus are investigated. The complete Mueller-matrix is measured with adual rotating compensator ellipsometer (RC2, J.A.Woollam Co., Inc.). The results are presented ascontour plots where we represent different parameters as a function of incidence angle 2[25; 75]and wavelength 2[240; 1000]nm of the incident beam. Parameters of particular interest are the m41element of the Mueller-matrix, which is related to the circular polarization behaviour, the degree ofpolarization, the ellipticity and the absolute value of the azimuth angle. From ocular observationsthrough left- and right-circularly polarizing filters all specimens showed clear polarization effects interms of colour changes. However, the Mueller matrix ellipsometry measurements showed two generaltypes of polarization behaviour depending on the studied species. Chrysina macropus and Chrysinaperuviana had a smaller range of m41 values around zero. Much larger m41 variations were observedfor Chrysina argenteola, Chrysina chrysargyrea and Chrysina resplendens. Chrysina gloriosa hadboth types of polarization behaviour depending on if the measurements where made on the green orgolden parts of this striped beetle. Comparisons among samples of beetles from the same species wereconducted. For instance, different specimens of Chrysina resplendens show rather large differences inthe polarization response whereas specimens of Chrysina chrysargyrea showed very similar polarizationbehaviour. All studied specimens did in some sense reflect both right- and left-handed polarizedlight. In many cases very high ellipticities (near-circular polarization states) were observed. Modelsof structures generating the observed polarization effects as well as biological aspects will also bediscussed.Figure 257: Three pictures of C. chrysargyrea from left to right taken with aleft-circular polarizer, no filters and with a right-circular polarizer in front of thecamera. Two contour plots of m41 for C. chrysargyrea showing a large region withleft-handed near-circular polarization and C. resplendens showing a large regionwith right-handed near-circular polarization.

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  • 38.
    Gall, D
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Stadele, M
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petrov, I
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Desjardins, P
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Haasch, RT
    Lee, TY
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Greene, JE
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Electronic structure of ScN determined using optical spectroscopy, photoemission, and ab initio calculations2001Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 63, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental and ab initio computational methods are employed to conclusively show that ScN is a semiconductor rather than a semimetal, i.e., there is a gap between the N 2p and the Sc 3d bands. Previous experimental investigators reported, in agreement with band structure calculations showing a band overlap of 0.2 eV, that ScN is a semimetal while others concluded that it is a semiconductor with a band gap larger than 2 eV. We have grown high quality, single crystalline ScN layers on MgO(001) and on TiN(001) buffer layers on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition. ScN optical properties were determined by transmission, reflection, and spectroscopic ellipsometry while in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet valence band photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the density of stares (DOS) below the Fermi level. The measured DOS exhibits peaks at 3.8 and 5.2 eV stemming from the N 2p bands and at 15.3 eV due to the N 2s bands. The imaginary part of the measured dielectric function epsilon (2) consists of two primary features due to direct X- and Gamma -point transitions at photon energies of 2.7 and 3.8 eV, respectively. For comparison, the ScN band structure was calculated using an nb initio Kohn-Sham approach which treats the exchange interactions exactly within density-functional theory. Calculated DOS and the complex dielectric function are in good agreement with our ScN valence-band photoelectron spectra and measured optical properties. respectively. We conclude, combining experimental and computational results, that ScN is a semiconductor with an indirect Gamma -X bandgap of 1.3 +/- 0.3 eV and a direct X-point gap of 2.4 +/- 0.3 eV.

  • 39.
    Horng, Ray-Hua
    et al.
    Natl Yang Ming Chiao Tung Univ, Taiwan.
    Cho, Po-Hsiang
    Natl Yang Ming Chiao Tung Univ, Taiwan.
    Chang, Jui-Che
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Singh, Anoop Kumar
    Natl Chung Hsing Univ, Taiwan.
    Jhang, Sheng-Yuan
    Natl Chung Hsing Univ, Taiwan.
    Liu, Po-Liang
    Natl Chung Hsing Univ, Taiwan; Natl Chi Nan Univ, Taiwan.
    Wuu, Dong-Sing
    Natl Chung Hsing Univ, Taiwan; Natl Chi Nan Univ, Taiwan.
    Bairagi, Samiran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Cheng-Hsu
    Natl Chung Hsing Univ, Taiwan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Growth and Characterization of Sputtered InAlN Nanorods on Sapphire Substrates for Acetone Gas Sensing2024Ingår i: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for highly sensitive and selective gas sensors has been steadily increasing, driven by applications in various fields such as environmental monitoring, healthcare, and industrial safety. In this context, ternary alloy indium aluminum nitride (InAlN) semiconductors have emerged as a promising material for gas sensing due to their unique properties and tunable material characteristics. This work focuses on the fabrication and characterization of InAlN nanorods grown on sapphire substrates using an ultra-high vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy with precise control over indium composition and explores their potential for acetone-gas-sensing applications. Various characterization techniques, including XRD, SEM, and TEM, demonstrate the structural and morphological insights of InAlN nanorods, making them suitable for gas-sensing applications. To evaluate the gas-sensing performance of the InAlN nanorods, acetone was chosen as a target analyte due to its relevance in medical diagnostics and industrial processes. The results reveal that the InAlN nanorods exhibit a remarkable sensor response of 2.33% at 600 ppm acetone gas concentration at an operating temperature of 350 degrees C, with a rapid response time of 18 s. Their high sensor response and rapid response make InAlN a viable candidate for use in medical diagnostics, industrial safety, and environmental monitoring.

  • 40.
    Horvath, ZJ
    et al.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest 114, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Adam, M
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest 114, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Szabo, I
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest 114, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Van Tuyen, V
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest 114, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Czigany, Z
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest 114, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Electrical peculiarities in Al/Si/Ge/... /Ge/Si and Al/SiGe/Si structures2002Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 190, nr 1-4, s. 403-407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) behaviour of different Si/Ge multilayers and SiGe single layers prepared on p-type Si substrates by magnetron sputtering and annealing, has been studied in the temperature rang, of 80-320 K by using Al Schottky contacts as test structures. Although a significant influence of the microstructure of the Si/Ge multilayers and SiGe layers was obtained on the electrical behaviour of the structures, the structures exhibited similar specific features. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Curved-Lattice Epitaxial Growth of InxAl1-xN Nanospirals with Tailored Chirality2015Ingår i: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 294-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chirality, tailored by external morphology and internal composition, has been realized by controlled curved-lattice epitaxial growth (CLEG) of uniform coatings of single-crystalline InxAl1-xN nanospirals. The nanospirals are formed by sequentially stacking segments of curved nanorods on top of each other, where each segment is incrementally rotated around the spiral axis. By controlling the growth rate, segment length, rotation direction, and incremental rotation angle, spirals are tailored to predetermined handedness, pitch, and height.  The curved morphology of the segments is a result of a lateral compositional gradient across the segments while maintaining a preferred crystallographic growth direction, implying a lateral gradient in optical properties as well. Left- and right-handed nanospirals, tailored with 5 periods of 200 nm pitch, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, exhibit uniform spiral diameters of ~80 nm (local segment diameters of ~60 nm) with tapered hexagonal tips.  High resolution electron microscopy, in combination with nanoprobe energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and valence electron energy loss spectroscopy, show that individual nanospirals consist of an In-rich core with ~15 nm-diameter hexagonal cross-section, comprised of curved basal planes. The core is surrounded by an Al-rich shell with a thickness asymmetry spiraling along the core. The ensemble nanospirals, across the 1 cm2 wafers, show high in-plane ordering with respect to shape, crystalline orientation, and direction of compositional gradient. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the tailored chirality is manifested in the polarization state of light reflected off the CLEG nanospiral-coated wafers. In that, the polarization state is shown to be dependent on the handedness of the nanospirals and the wavelength of the incident light in the ultraviolet-visible region.

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  • 42.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Curved-lattice epitaxial growth of chiral AlInN twisted nanorods for optical applications2012Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite of using chiral metamaterials to manipulate light polarization states has been demonstrated their great potential for applications such as invisible cloaks, broadband or wavelength-tunable circular polarizers, microreflectors, etc. in the past decade [1-6], operating wavelength in ultraviolet-visible range is still a challenge issue. Since these chiral structures often consist of metallic materials, their operation is designed for the infrared and microwave regions [2-4]. Here, we show how a controlled curved-lattice epitaxial growth (CLEG) of wide-bandgap AlInN semiconductor curved nanocrystals [7] can be exploited as a novel route for tailoring chiral nanostructures in the form of twisted nanorods (TNRs). The fabricated TNRs are shown to reflect light with a high degree of polarization as well as a high degree of circular polarization (that is, nearly circularly polarized light) in the ultravioletvisible region. The obtained polarization is shown to be dependent on the handedness of the TNRs.

  • 43.
    Jansson, Roger
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Zangooie, S
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, Appl Phys Lab, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Characterization of 3C-SiC by spectroscopic ellipsometry2000Ingår i: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 218, nr 1, s. R1-R2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Johansson, Å. A.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjörvarsson, B.
    Dept. of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Intrinsic, n- and p-doped a-Si:H thin films grown by DC magnetron sputtering with doped targets1999Ingår i: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 557, s. 31-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsic, n- and p-type a-Si:H films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering and analyzed with several techniques. The films were synthesized in a reactive Ar-Ha atmosphere giving H contents in the range of 3-20 at %. The films were sputtered from pure silicon targets and doped silicon targets with 1 at % B or P. Doping by co-sputtering from composite Si/B4C targets was also explored. The doping concentrations were 3 × 1020 - 2 × 1021 cm-3 for the p-type films and 2.6-2.9 × 1019cm-3 for the n-type films. The conductivity was in the range lO'MO"4 cm-1 for p-doped films and 10-5 Cl cm-1 for the best n-doped films. Band gap estimations were obtained from dielectric function data and showed an increase with hydrogen content. A comparison to device quality PECVD-samples was also made.

  • 45.
    Juarez-Rivera, Olga Rubi
    et al.
    CINVESTAV, Mexico.
    Mauricio-Sanchez, Reina Araceli
    CINVESTAV, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mendoza-Galvan, Arturo
    CINVESTAV, Mexico.
    Quantification of Optical Chirality in Cellulose Nanocrystal Films Prepared by Shear-Coating2021Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 13, artikel-id 6191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Featured Application Chiral films are susceptible to changes in humidity enabling humidity detectors. They can also be used in optical devices due to their interesting polarization properties. Evaporation-induced-self-assembly is widely used to produce chiral cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) free-standing films reflecting left-handed polarized light. Research on supported chiral CNC films is rather scarce. The reflection and/or transmission of unpolarized light are the most common optical techniques used to characterize the selective reflection of CNC films whereas the use of techniques to quantify chiral properties is limited. Here, the fabrication of chiral CNC films supported on glass substrates by a shear-coating method, as well as a full characterization of their polarization properties, are reported. Optical chirality is evidenced in films, showing a brilliant blue structural color when viewed through a left-handed polarizer and darkness through a right-handed polarizer. Mueller-matrix data in the reflection and transmission modes are used to quantitatively characterize the structural origin of color in the films. The quantification of the linear and circular birefringence, as well as circular dichroism, is performed by analytical inversion of the Mueller matrix data in the transmission mode and regression analysis using Tellegen constitutive equations. The equivalence of the two methods to quantify the structural chirality in CNC films is demonstrated. The swelling of films in water and kinetics during drying is studied by reflection spectroscopy.

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  • 46.
    Juárez-Rivera, Olga R.
    et al.
    Cinvestav-Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Mauricio-Sánchez, Reina A.
    Cinvestav-Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Cinvestav-Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Shear-Coated Linear Birefringent and Chiral Cellulose Nanocrystal Films Prepared from Non-Sonicated Suspensions with Different Storage Time2021Ingår i: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id 2239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses are very attractive materials for creating structured films with unique optical properties using different preparation techniques. Evaporation-induced self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) aqueous suspensions produces iridescent films with selective circular Bragg reflection. Blade coating of sonicated CNC suspensions leads to birefringent CNC films. In this work, fabrication of both birefringent and chiral films from non-sonicated CNC suspensions using a shear-coating method is studied. Polarization optical microscopy and steady-state viscosity profiles show that non-sonicated CNC suspensions (concentration of 6.5 wt%) evolve with storage time from a gel-like shear-thinning fluid to a mixture of isotropic and chiral nematic liquid crystalline phases. Shear-coated films prepared from non-sonicated fresh CNC suspensions are birefringent, whereas films prepared from suspensions stored several weeks show reflection of left-handed polarized light. Quantification of linear and circular birefringence as well circular dichroism in the films is achieved by using a Mueller matrix formalism.

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  • 47.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Polarizing Natural Nanostructures2014Ingår i: Ellipsometry of Functional Organic Surfaces and Films / [ed] Hinrichs, Karsten; Eichhorn Klaus-Jochen, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 155-169Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief description of the polarizing environment we are living in and the possibilities for some animals to detect this polarization is made. This is followed by a presentation of how animals and plants generate polarized light, usually through reflection from micro- and nanostructures. Special attention is made to scarab beetles reflecting light with a high degree of circular polarization. Finally some comments on the biological aspects of polarization are made.

  • 48.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Polarizing natural nanostructures2018Ingår i: Ellipsometry of functional organic surfaces and films / [ed] Karsten Hinrichs ,Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 52, s. 247-268Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this chapter gives a brief description of the polarizing environment we are living in and the possibilities for some animals to detect this polarization. This is followed by a presentation of how animals and plants generate polarized light, usually through reflection from micro- and nanostructures. Special attention is made to scarab beetles reflecting light with a high degree of circular polarization. The use of Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry to obtain optical and structural properties of the beetle cuticle are demonstrated. Finally some comments on the biological aspects of polarization are made. 

  • 49.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafson, Johan L.I.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Polarization of Light Reflected from Chiral Structures - Calculations Compared with Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry Measurements on Natural and Synthetic Samples2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mueller matrix elements mij representing the polarization response from a nanostructured materialis determined by the constituent materials optical properties and the superstructure. Here, we investigate how chiral structures in form of helicoidally stacked uniaxial layers determine mij as a functionof polarization state, wavelength, incidence angle and azimuthal angle of the incoming light. The studied parameters include the layer materials ordinary/extraordinary optical properties, Euler angle values, and layer thickness as well as the thickness and pitch of the helicoidal superstructure. Sub- and superstructure inhomogeneity is also introduced. From the Fresnel-based calculations, mij aswell as the degree of polarization, ellipticity and azimuth of the polarization ellipse are obtained and presented as contour and trace plots to give a complete view of the polarization behavior. The results from the calculations are compared with Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of both natural and synthesized helicoidal structures. The measurements were performed with a dualrotating compensator system (RC2, J.A. Woollam Co., Inc.) for wavelengths in the range from 245 to 1000 nm and incident angles from 20 to 75°. For some measurements the azimuthal angle of the incident light was varied. The investigated natural chiral structures were exoskeletons from several beetles in the scarab subfamilies Cetoniinae and Rutelinae. As predicted from the calculations it isobserved that the reflection from these beetles can have a high degree of polarization and high ellipticity (near-circular polarization). Both left- and right-polarization was observed. The synthesized structures are helicoidal nanorods of Al1−xInxN grown on sapphire substrates with metal-nitride seedlayers using UHV magnetron sputtering. Due to an internal composition gradient (a variation of x) in the crystalline structure, the nanorods will tilt away from the substrate normal. Helicoidal structures can thus be obtained by rotating the substrate around its normal during deposition. Samples with different pitch and layer thickness with right-handed as well as left-handed chirality were grown. Also for these structures both left and right near-circular polarized light is observed. By combining calculations, ellipsometry measurements and scanning electron microscopy characterization we get agood input to build layered models of the natural and synthetic samples. After regression fitting agood agreement between calculated and measured optical data were obtained.

  • 50.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dulea, Mihnea
    Institute for Physics and Technology of Materials, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundgren, Jan- Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    X-ray diffraction from amorphous Ge/Si Cantor superlattices1995Ingår i: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 7621-7631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray measurements on Cantor superlattices are reported. Indexing and scaling laws are derived for the distribution of peaks in the diffraction spectra of perfect superlattices. The peaks are indexed by three indices and the largest scaling exponents of the intensities are proportional to the fractal dimensions of the Cantor sets. The theoretical indexing scheme of the peaks is confirmed by experiment. The influence of the absorption and sample imperfections on the scaling of the peaks is investigated by means of numerical simulations. A discussion of the nature of the diffraction spectra in the thermodynamic limit is also included.

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