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  • 1.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholms universitet.
    Konsumentbeteende: Klassiska & samtida perspektiv2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marknadsföring: vetenskap och praktik2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknadsföring har alltid spelat en stor roll i samhället. Men spelplanen har förändrats och i dag har marknadsföring fått en delvis ny innebörd. Det har tillkommit nya dimensioner, såsom ekologisk och social hållbarhet, som företag måste förhålla sig till. Den här boken innehåller inte bara grund­stenarna i ämnet, utan även nya teorier och handfasta verktyg. Resonemangen förklaras och fördjupas genomgående med exempel och praktikfall. Boken genomsyras av kritisk analys. Författarna poängterar att marknadsföring framför allt handlar om att fördjupa förståelsen för kunder, användare och annat som påverkar marknaden. Vilket problem har kunden egentligen, det vill säga vilken nytta borde företaget skapa? Hur ser konkurrenternas lösningar ut? Vilka faktorer påverkar kundens preferenser och köpkraft? Genom att svara på sådana frågor kan man framgångsrikt välja väg för hur produktkonceptet bör designas och hur företaget ska kommunicera och interagera med sin omvärld.

  • 3.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parment, Anders
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen,Stockholms universitet.
    Controlling the Unmanageable?: On Management Control in a Knowledge-intensive OrganisationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores and conceptualises the management of knowledge-intensive organisations by focusing on the interplay between classical top-down (cybernetic) management control forces, and the (bottom-up) control created by codes of conduct that guide knowledge workers in carrying out their work.

    The emerging Management Control as a Package framework, a hitherto relatively unexplored concept, is applied to a case study of a Swedish government agency. With this perspective, the interplay between several horizontal and vertical management control dimensions is in focus, something that has been researched by interviewing knowledge workers in various organisational positions.

    The findings indicate that, contrary to a wide-spread assumption of knowledge workers being difficult to manage, various aspects of control may intermix in a manner that makes a certain degree of top-down control feasible. The idea of management control as a package articulates opportunities to create a mutual reinforcement between top-down imposed cybernetic controls and bottom-up cultural controls where the knowledge workers are allowed to act in accordance with their personal interests while still conforming to the overriding goals of the organisation. Few explicit attempts to normative control were found. The results underline the role of clans and origination structure in sustaining certain values in the organisation.

  • 4.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Car distribution organization: strategic issues in four configurations2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with car distribution organization, a context characterized by overcapacity, intense competition, and manufacturers heavily focusing on brands. In the study, different distribution solutions are investigated through applying a framework of four strategic issues. First, the pressure to keep distribution costs low while conveying a clear brand message gives rise to decisions on solus or multi franchising; second, the choice of either selling through one channel that is likely to be committed to the brand, or through multi channels competing with each other; third, the choice of selling the products through own outlets or through independent dealers, the latter giving rise to conflicting interests; fourth, the choice of mechanisms for coordinating channel members' efforts and knowledge exchange.

    The empirical part of the study contains slightly more than 100 interviews with manufacturers, importers, dealers and experts in Sweden, Germany, the UK, Spain and Australia.

    The study reveals that, among other forces in the distribution setting, industry overcapacity appears to undermine efforts to create constructive relationships between channel members. Order-to-delivery systems and systems to feed back market knowledge are superseded by the pressure to sell pre-produced cars. Particularly volume brands suffer from fierce competition, while a premium brand provides some protection from competitive forces.

    The findings of the study are synthesized as four distribution chain configurations. In the brand-based chain, channel members' efforts create a consistent brand experience throughout the chain. The efficiency-based chain is focused on keeping costs low without neglecting other demands, e.g. the ability to handle industry overcapacity. The flexibility-based chain is led by a powerful dealer group who manages a portfolio of brands and dealerships. As new opportunities in the market emerge, the dealer group restructures the portfolio accordingly. The premium aspiration chain, finally, represents an inferior strategy by trying to be a premium brand while lacking an attractive product, thus creating a situation of confused customers and excessive distribution costs.

  • 5.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Distribution Strategies for Volume and Premium Brands2006In: Conference on Recent Advances in Retailing and Services Science,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with distribution strategies in the car industry. As markets mature and competition gets tougher, numerous industries have become subject to substantial overcapacity and a simultaneous pressure to keep costs low while at the same time emphasizing immaterial values. Thus, manufacturers, middlemen and retailers have to work with cost-efficiency in both manufacturing and distribution at the same time as tough competition forces actors to strengthen the brand. This study on distribution strategies is based on extensive case studies of car distribution chains in Sweden, the UK, Germany, Spain and Australia. Slightly more than 100 interviews were carried out with manufacturers, importers, dealers and industry experts. The interviews were semi-structured in order to give room for interviewees- thoughts and unreservedness, thus reflecting an exploratory approach. The theoretical assumptions of the study embrace business strategy, corporate identity, brand management, distribution theory, and channel ownership, i.e. direct vs. indirect channels. In the empirical material, a clear pattern emerges: volume and premium brands are found to be guided by fundamentally different mechanisms. While distribution activities may be shared amongst channel members in a channel selling volume brands, there is a high need for coordination in channels selling premium brands to secure premium values that reflect the brand-s raison d-être and justify its price premium. On the other hand, premium brands evince a number of important characteristics that reflect high brand attractiveness. Substantial differences between volume and premium brands were found as regards cost vs. brand focus, channel control, channel coordination, customer behaviour and the potential of indirect sales channels.

  • 6.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Distribution strategies for volume and premium brands in highly competitive consumer markets2008In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 250-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with distribution strategies for volume and premium brands in the automobile industry. Like some other consumer markets, the car market has become subject to substantial overcapacity in the last decade and subject to a pressure to keep costs low, while at the same time manufacturers emphasize immaterial values and attempt to strengthen the brand to get an advantage over competitors. A number of theoretical themes are related to extensive case studies carried out in Sweden, the UK, Germany, Spain and Australia. One hundred and nine interviews were carried out with manufacturers, importers, dealers and industry experts. Theories used in the study emerge from two research traditions. First, perspectives on corporate identity and brand management are applied to distribution channels. Second, theories on channel structure, i.e. the choice of selling through one channel or dual-multi-distribution, solus- and multi-franchising, and channel ownership, i.e. direct and indirect channels are applied. Theories are woven together in a concluding analysis of distribution strategies for volume and premium brands. Some conclusions on the brand's influence on distribution strategies emerge in the study. The findings suggest that while distribution activities may be shared among channel members in a channel selling volume brands, there is a great need for coordination in channels selling premium brands to secure premium values that reflect the brand's raison d'être and justify its price premium. Anchorage in the local market is crucial for motivating the volume brand dealer, and also critical for volume dealers to stay viable and competitive. Identification with the local dealer appears to be crucial in designing distribution strategies for volume brands. A premium brand is less related to the local market: Rather, its competitive advantage is based on strong brand identification and the consumer is likely to be attracted by the image of the premium brand than by the local dealer. Creating a consistent brand experience is thus decisive for premium brands whose content to a great extent is global and goes beyond the influence of local dealers and cultures. Moreover, an understanding of the brand is suggested to be indispensable in analysing push-pull mechanisms. While pull systems are associated with higher channel efficiency, the study suggests that pull systems are unlikely to work for volume brands: high manufacturing overcapacity is beyond the influence of individual manufacturers, thus industry overcapacity forces volume brand manufacturers to push cars to the market. Premium brands, with demand in reasonable balance with supply, may restrict the use of push systems without losing sales volume. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Distributionsstrategier. Kritiska val på konkurrensintensiva marknader.2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens marknader karakteriseras av intensiv konkurrens, aktiva och välinformerade kunder samt ett tydligt fokus på varumärken. Mitt i detta finns distributionssystemet, som inte bara skall distribuera produkten fysiskt och marknadsföra den, utan även hantera komplexa krav från producenten på att förmedla varumärket, och från konsumenter som kräver att de löften som producent och återförsäljare ger omsätts i god service och en kundorienterad attityd. Denna bok visar på distributionens centrala betydelse i att skapa konkurrenskraft. Under de senaste decennierna har distributionsstrategier fört en ganska undanskymd tillvaro i marknadsföringslitteraturen. Områdets relevans Distributionsstrategier - kritiska val på konkurrensintensiva marknader - är dock större än någonsin, vilket denna bok aktualiserar. I boken beskrivs utveckling från 1960-talets marknader med ständigt ökande efterfrågan, till dagens marknader med intensiv konkurrens och en besvärande överkapacitet i många branscher. Valet av distributionsstrategier är en kärnfråga för producenter som vill säkra sitt varumärke. Lika viktigt är det för återförsäljare att hantera distributionsbeslut rätt, för att säkra sin egen ställning i distributionssystemet. Boken tar sin utgångspunkt i företagets varumärke och produktutbud, och beskriver hur olika distributionsbeslut kan leda till att varumärket stärks eller undermineras. Området distribution sätts in i ett större sammanhang, och betydelsen av att ha en distribution som matchar produktutbud, profilering och varumärke lyfts fram. Mot bakgrund av intensiv konkurrens, en ökad mångfald av produkter samt ökade krav på distributionssystemet förs en diskussion kring kritiska val, som måste göras i beslut kring distributionsstrategier.

  • 8.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Ekonomistyrningens möjligheter och problem2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken går igenom ekonomistyrningens grundläggande modeller. Bokens utgångspunkt är att ekonomistyrningen är central i att länka samman organisationens strategiska inriktning med den operativa verksamheten. En metod för att åstadkomma detta är balanserade styrkort. Bokens perspektiv innebär dels att boken har ett strategiskt angreppssätt, dels att ekonomistyrningen ses som en viktig del i att säkerställa att organisationens strategier implementeras. Boken går igenom grundläggande modeller och teorier, men ger också perspektiv genom att problematisera ekonomistyrningens roll och peka på specifika möjligheter och problem. Exempel från flera branscher illustrerar tillämpningen av modellerna.

  • 9.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Generation Y - framtidens konsumenter och medarbetare gör entré2008 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Omfattande förändringar pågår i företag och organisationer: 40-talisterna går i pension och in kommer Generation Y - 80-talisterna som vill göra skillnad. Det här är en generation konsumenter och medarbetare som har vuxit upp i ett samhälle med många möjligheter och val, ständig kommunikation och stora sociala nätverk.Läs merMånga organisationer upplever Generation Y som besvärliga och uppkäftiga, men i själva verket kan de vara kreativa, kompetenta, bildade och världsvana. I den här boken utmanas det etablerade tänkandet kring marknadskommunikation, konsumentbeteende och rekrytering, genom att Generation Y:s karaktärsdrag analyseras. Lär känna Generation Y och ta vara på de möjligheter som de för med sig!Om författarnaAnders Parment är ek. dr och verksam vid Linköpings universitet samt som strategikonsult och föreläsare.Recensioner"Detta är en lättläst och mycket tankvärd bok med många illustrativa exempel. Den bygger på en blandning av vetenskaplig undersökning och erfarenhetsbaserade åskikter. Boken ger en bra möjlighet att förstå Generation Y och ta till vara på de möjligheter som detta för med sig." Bengt Klefsjö för Kvalitetsmagasinet, mars 2010.

  • 10.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Management Compensation Systems in Diversified Companies2003In: EAA European Accounting Association,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diversified companies offer fundamentally different products. Within the same company, different units may have different strategies and success factors. Considerable differences in price sensitivity, target customer groups and work methods may call for different management compensation principles in order to implement the company-s strategy appropriately. At the same time as the units may need different management compensation systems for implementing the unit-s strategy, the management compensation principles in each unit need also be consistent with the company-s overall strategy. Companies and units develop and change gradually through adaptation to the environment. As different units require and attract individuals with different characteristics, backgrounds and education, different cultures tend to evolve in different units. This paper analyzes whether differences in technology, organizational structure and work assignment across units in diversified companies motivate a differentiated management compensation system. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives from different units in a multinational auditing firm. The company embraces three fundamentally different lines of business, each of which has fundamentally different success factors. Each unit-s task assignments and way of using management compensation to implement the strategies was mapped according to a number of management accounting criteria. The cultural diversification was found to be significant, manifested in actors- fundamentally different views of and attitudes towards the management compensation system, its use and effects on performance. A framework for analyzing the need for and design of a differented management compensation system is proposed. If differences in culture and technology are significant there will be a need for differentiating some parts of the management compensation system. Decisions in this matter should be balanced by taking the company-s overall strategy into account. In the framework, a number of essential issues that are found to be of importance in management compensation decisions are proposed.

  • 11.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Performance Measurement in Car Distribution Chains2003In: EAA European Accounting Association,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research reported in this paper focuses on Performance Measurement Systems (Performance Measurement System) in car distribution chains in Sweden, Germany, Spain, Australia and the UK. Slightly more than 100 in-depth interviews were conducted with manufacturers, importers and dealers in order to identify strategic issues in framing a Performance Measurement System. In a pre-study, it was found that car distribution is subject to ambiguous changes and contradictory views. Distribution and retailing are strategic factors that car manufacturers cannot neglect. Car distribution has for a long time been organized through franchised dealer networks. In the last years, this system has been challenged by a number of changes, e.g. the Internet, changed legislation and pressure on distribution costs. Through the emergence of the Internet, the manufacturer controls all communication channels except the dealer. In the traditional system, the customer gains information from the local dealer. Most customers now use the Internet as the primary information channel. As market communication becomes more globalized, it becomes increasingly important for car manufacturers to control dealers. This new environment calls for new ways of managing the dealer network. Manufacturers particularly need to consider systems that make it possible to gear dealers towards manufacturers- goals. The Performance Measurement System is the primary tool for accomplishing this task. Although manufacturers and dealers share the goal of maximizing profit and sales, they have different interests and extensive communication problems have been identified across actors in car distribution chains (Köhler and Meffert, 1998). Goal divergence between manufacturers and dealers gives rise to conflicts. Suitable Management Control and Performance Measurement Systems may improve performance and minimizing conflicts. Rafer et al (1997) argue that the design and implementation of effective incentive programmes help the car manufacturer to establish proper control of the distribution chain. A framework that identifies strategic issues in framing a Performance Measurement System is proposed. The framework takes a number of contingency variables into account: ownership (privately owned or manufacturer-owned), number of brands represented (solus, dual or multi franchising) and geographical area characteristics. To the extent that dealers find the Performance Measurement System fair, it is an indispensable tool for implementing manufacturers- interest of controlling the distribution chain. Without dealers- commitment to the Performance Measurement System, lack of legitimity may hinder the manufacturer from controlling activities carried out in the distribution chain.

  • 12.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Performance Measurement to Coordinate Distribution Chains2005In: 3nd Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The car market is characterized by heavy overcapacity and an interest in strengthening brands, and at the same time minimizing distribution costs. The study identifies a number of inconsistencies created by the complex pressure from overcapacity and intentions to meet increasing customer demands. Performance measurement systems have been implemented by car manufacturers to turn focus from sales volume to a complex set of measures to identify dealer performance, including quality and customer satisfaction. On the one hand, car manufacturers encourage dealers to sell customized vehicles built to order in order to increase customer satisfaction. On the other hand, manufacturers stock the channels with pre-produced cars which are forced on dealers by means of economic incentives. Distribution chains on the car market are characterized as heavily dominated by manufacturers (Hoffmeister et al, 1998; Rafer et al, 1997), who sell their products either through franchised dealers or own outlets. Franchised dealers are associated with motivational advantages (Coughlan et al, 2001) and higher performance (Arruñada and Vázquez, 1998) compared to manufacturer-owned outlets, since dealers receive the residual income of the business. Both manufacturers and dealers strive for maximizing profits, but this inherent tension is not the end of the story. Manufacturers and dealers are found to have fundamentally different views on retailing, which makes cooperation and coordination difficult. Manufacturers want dealers to provide high-level facilities in order to secure a brand-specific retail experience, while dealers see investments as a burden. Through performance measures and economic incentives, manufacturers try to implement their ideas at the retail level. However, the study reveals that the thinking behind the performance measures is not accepted by dealers, who experience less freedom. Thus, the performance measurement system may produce confusion and negative attitudes which dealers convey to the customers. The performance measurement systems are found to be heavily focused on numbers, which mirrors strategies to reduce complexity in order to facilitate control. Lack of feedback in terms of market knowledge and performance at the retail level may restrict the manufacturer-s knowledge of what is happening at the retail end. It even appears that the performance measurement systems may not identify negative attitudes created by the system itself, thus the intention to coordinate channel members- interests may be counterproductive. In order to get a broad understanding of the issue, 102 in-depth interviews were conducted with manufacturers, importers and dealers across five European countries, including Australia. The study proposes a number of strategies to find a balance between control and motivation, e.g. through highlighting communication problems instead of disowning them. In securing the efficiency of the performance measurement system, there is a limit to the extent of variation and complexity that the system is able to handle in producing performance improvements at a low control cost.

  • 13.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Premium-, volym- eller budgetmärke? Lär känna ditt varumärkes potential2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad karaktäriserar ett premiumvarumärke, ett volymvarumärke och ett budgetvarumärke? Vad är styrkorna och svagheterna? Vad händer om ett varumärke ligger mellan två kategorier? Kan man utveckla ett varumärke så att det går från en kategori till en annan? Hur marknadsför man ett budgetmärke, ett volymmärke respektive ett premiummärke? De här och många andra frågor besvarar boken. Boken tar sin utgångspunkt i varumärkets profil och exklusivitet, och visar hur olika typer av varumärken kan bli starka med hjälp av olika metoder och strategier. Den visar att vägen till ett starkt och konkurrenskraftigt varumärke är olika, beroende på organisationens förutsättningar. Varje företag eller organisation måste lära känna sig själv för att kunna avgöra vilken typ av varumärke man är och bör vara. Ett antal områden - hur varumärket uppfattas idag, organisationens identitet och resursbas samt produktutbudet - analyseras för att avgöra potentialen i varumärket. För varje område visar boken faktorer som karakteriserar premium-, volym- och budgetmärken, och som är centrala i att avgöra varumärkets potential. Genomgående ges exempel på företag som har lyckats i respektive kategori. För att lyckas bygga ett starkt varumärke måste man känna sin profil och målgrupp. Boken är lika angelägen för den som jobbar med ett volymmärke som för den som jobbar med ett premiummärke eller ett budgetmärke. Boken integrerar på ett lättillgängligt sätt kunskaper om grundläggande marknadsföringstänkande - såsom segmentering, kundbeteende och varumärkesstrategi - mot bakgrund av de senaste årens förändringar i marknader och kundbeteende. Därmed är boken en naturlig bas för att utveckla tänkandet kring varumärken - både för beslutsfattare som arbetar med varumärken, för andra som behöver en uppdatering av vad som händer inom området och för ekonomiutbildningar.

  • 14.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The retailer's role in car distribution: a study of competitiveness, market communication, and knowledge in a changing context2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis, entitled The Retailer's Role in Car Distribution, deals with three areas important to the understanding of retail strategies and the retailer's role in the distribution of cars. First of all, different views on competitiveness are analyzed. Second, market communication and brand issues, which have gained increased interest in the last years, are investigated. Third, the processing of market knowledge is examined - retailers are bearers of market knowledge, which might be used for developing products and customer services. Retail strategies for metro, city, and rural areas are proposed, influenced by the emergence of new distribution arrangements. The emerging multitude of distribution arrangements makes it important for the retailers to be aware of and develop their competitive advantages. The choice of brand separation or dual franchising strategies is discussed - the former ensures brand-specific experiences whereas the latter means lower costs. The analysis is concluded with three scenarios, each describing a possible future development of car distribution.

  • 15.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    What Distribution Does that Logistics Does Not2006In: Conference on Recent Advances in Retailing and Services Science,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1950s and 1960s, distribution emerged as an important theoretical field. The influential distribution theories introduced by e.g. Alderson provided the foundation of marketing theories. Some authors even denoted distribution chains marketing channels. Over the decades, distribution has lost its role as a core theory in marketing thinking, and the attention paid to distribution in marketing textbooks and business studies, e.g. MBA programs, has diminished. Instead, logistics has emerged as an important field primarily dealing with cost-efficiency in the physical distribution of goods. Logistics theorists study distribution systems with the aim to optimize flows and minimize costs under a given set of conditions, thus applying a rather narrow framework which does not take the broader marketing perspective into account. Part of the explanation why distribution has lost its authority is the compartmentalization of research in the field of distribution. Rather than focusing on distribution from the perspective of strategic management or the customer, a lot of research has been conducted on specific fields such as channel conflict, relationships between channel members, and franchising. Today, managers and business consultants talk a lot about logistics, but they rarely talk about distribution alone. Distribution is rather seen as one of a set of marketing variables - typically pricing, promotion, package and distribution - that need to be elaborated, thus reflecting a perspective with the 4 Ps not being the core of marketing thinking. The article proposes some explanations to this focus shift, e.g. managers prefering to deal with issues that entail cost-efficiency calculations to more vague trade-offs between strategic criteria in a distribution system. The article makes clear that distribution is an essential area for any business firm by referring to numerous changes in the market and society since the early distribution theories emerged, half a decade ago. Particularly consumer industries with customers basing their purchase decisions on emotional criteria need to emphasize distribution. By comparing the scope of distribution and logistics, respectively, the article emphasizes the integrative and strategic role of distribution. Finally, a framework for integrating the current thinking about distribution is proposed, reflecting an endeavour to reposition distribution as theoretical field.

  • 16.
    Parment, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Nehler, Henrik
    EKI LiU.
    Market Knowledge Processing in MCSs. A Study of Car Retailers' Acquisition, Exchange, and Use of Market Knowledge2001In: Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control,2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the integration of management control systems and market knowledge processing, which means increasing organizational learning for the purpose of improving products and services. Competitiveness and profitability reasonably should benefit when knowledge processing is appropriately integrated in the firm-s structures and processes. The important concept of market knowledge is not treated very much in either management control literature nor marketing literature. Reports in the management and business literature indicate an increased interest in the role of knowledge in a firm-s competitiveness (e.g. Blackler, 1995; Menon and Varadarajan, 1992; Sinkula, 1994; Spender, 1996). In the resource-based view (Grant, 1991, 1996), a competence-based view of the firm is linked to its environment. This approach is appealing since it enables treatment of market characteristics as well as internal factors within the same framework. Macdonald (1995) criticizes the existing theories- concentration on structure and control, thus neglecting the importance of information stored in the minds of the individual employees and information acquired from outside the organization. Tsoukas (1996) views the firm as a knowledge system, lacking an overseeing -mind-. A number of studies show that market orientation is positively associated with superior performance (e.g. Day and Nedungadi), contradicting the proposition made by core competence theorists that firms should focus on their core competencies independent of the prevailing market conditions (e.g. Prahalad and Hamel, 1994). Day (1994) argues that the most distinctive features of market-driven organizations are their mastery of the market sensing and customer linking capabilities. This study deals with car retailer-s role in acquiring, exchange, and using market knowledge. The retailer plays an important role in establishing and maintaining long-term customer relationships through its direct interaction with customers. There is reason to assume that the retailer is an important bearer of market knowledge. For the acquired knowledge to be of valuable use, it must be processed, stored and retrieved (Hellefloid and Simonin, 1994). 43 in-depth interviews were conducted at retailers and general agents. Audi, BMW, and Saab are represented. The study indicates that market feedback systems are in many cases slow and non-effective regarding treatment of customer views, preferences, and behavior. This view is supported by Kaplan and Norton (1996), who argue that conventional performance measurement systems are commonly considered lag indicators in that performance measurement and market feedback are slow. Accordingly, it does not constitute a satisfactory basis for decision-making . In this study, it is proposed that knowledge processing and feedback systems should be an essential part of a company-s MCS. A number of specific techniques for integrating knowledge processing and MCSs are proposed. For instance, some retailers participate in committees, which have been established for processing market knowledge, that is to establish bidirectional, vertical communication between the retailer, the general agent, and the car manufacturer. The knowledge processing system has the potential to increase the market knowledge absorption capacity of the management control systems substantially.

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