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  • 1.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lindwall, Oskar
    Engkvist, Jonas
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Zhu, Xia
    Helping students to make sense of formal physics through interactive lecture demonstrations: Final report from the Council for Renewal of Higher Education project 090/G032007Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lindwall, Oskar
    Göteborg University.
    Engkvist, Jonas
    Göteborg University.
    Zhu, Xia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Making physics visible and learnable through interactive lecture demonstrations2007In: Physics Teaching in Engineering Education,2007, Delft: TU Delft , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 3. Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A theoretical approach to the learning of complex concepts2005In: ESERA 2005,2005, Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona , 2005, p. 1172-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Sampayo González, Margarita
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Interaction in Labwork - linking the object/event world to the theory/model world2005In: ESERA 2005,2005, Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona , 2005, p. 1170-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Sampayo González, Margarita
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Labwork interaction - linking the object/event world to the theory/model world2005In: Physics Teaching in Engineering Education PTEE 2005,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Lindwall, Oskar
    et al.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Berner
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Microcomputer based laboratories and interactive lecture demonstrations - characterising the differences that makes a difference2005In: ESERA 2005,2005, Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona , 2005, p. 1183-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Att hantera cellmetabolismens komplexitet: Meningsskapande genom visualisering och metaforer2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den molekylära livsvetenskapen är ett av de mest snabbväxande fälten inom naturvetenskap. Biokemi är en aktör inom detta tvärvetenskapliga fält, tillsammans med bland annat cellbiologi och genetik. En konsekvens är att läroböckerna ständigt sväller i omfång. Ett exempel är den välkända läroboken ”Molecular biology of the cell” av Bruce Alberts och medarbetare, som sedan sin första upplaga 1983 till den senaste reviderade femte upplagan ökat från cirka 1000 till 1600 sidor, en ökning på cirka 60%. Samtidigt har olika typer av representationer av de molekylära livsprocesserna ökat i betydelse såväl för forskning som för undervisning, och både den ökade kunskapen och utvecklingen inom visualiseringstekniken har gett nya möjligheter till att illustrera detta komplexa område.

    Cellmetabolismen utgör en central del av den molekylära livsvetenskapen och består av ett närmast ofattbart antal reaktioner som sker samtidigt i cellen. Representationer (både interna och externa) spelar en central roll i kommunikationen av detta komplexa område och valet av symboler och metaforer påverkar tolkningen av dessa. De kan underlätta förståelsen men även misstolkas och därigenom skapa fallgropar för studenter. ”Makrofiering” av processen påverkar därmed studenters meningsskapande. Denna ämnesdidaktiska avhandling avser att bidra till en ökad medvetenhet bland lärare om; 1) vilka lärandemål som kräver särskild omsorg i undervisning av cellmetabolismen samt 2) betydelsen av det visuella språket i exempelvis animationer för hur metabola processer tolkas och förstås.

    Man kan beskriva min avhandling som ett strategiskt arbete som startade med att jag ringade in vilka lärandemål som undervisande universitetslärare anser vara viktiga inom ett av cellbiologins och biokemins centrala områden, cellmetabolismen. Därefter fortsatte arbetet med en insnävning mot en speciell metabolisk process (ATP-syntes i den oxidativa forsforyleringen), och därefter till att kartlägga tolkningar av en specifik animation av ATP-syntas. Det som genomgående jämförs är lärarnas respektive animatörens intentioner och studenternas förståelse och tolkningar. Både konceptuell förståelse och hur ett metaforiskt/symboliskt språk kan skapa olika tolkningar av en molekylär process. Vilka meddelanden når studenterna? Hur förstår de lärarnas mål med undervisningen och animatörens sätt att förmedla processen i animationen? Vad underlättar respektive försvårar kommunikationen?

    List of papers
    1. Learning Goals and Conceptual Difficulties in Cell Metabolism: An explorative study of university lectures' views
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning Goals and Conceptual Difficulties in Cell Metabolism: An explorative study of university lectures' views
    2012 (English)In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 447-461Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development and increasing inter- and multi-disciplinarity of life sciences call for revisions of life science course curricula, recognizing (inter alia) the need to compromise between covering specific phenomena and general processes/principles. For these reasons there have been several initiatives to standardize curricula, and various authors have assessed general curricular requirements. The results have shown that teacher preferences strongly influence both topic arrangement and course content, and generating consensus among scientists and lecturers is challenging. Applying a somewhat different approach, we have focused on a limited part of the curriculum (cell metabolism). Using Delphi methodology, in four rounds of surveys we investigated phenomena that 15 experienced, practicing lecturers consider to be central aspects for students to learn in the cell metabolism module of an introductory university course.

    The overall aim was to identify learning goals of special concern, i.e. aspects considered by the teachers to be both central and difficult for students to understand. Our informants emphasized learning goals of overarching and principal type, e.g. to be able to couple different system levels (from molecules to cells to organisms) and grasp the interactions between them. However, they also expect detailed knowledge, e.g. to know the structure of central biomolecules and metabolites. The main result of the study is a ranked list of learning goals of special concern in cell metabolism. We also identified both important learning goals and difficulties that have not been previously reported (even though they are covered by most textbooks), e.g. that energy production occurs in well-regulated steps and the necessity of proximity and common intermediates for coupled reactions.

    Keywords
    Concept inventories, Big ideas, Molecular life science, Higher Education, Delphi study
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76138 (URN)10.1039/c2rp20035j (DOI)000314239700007 ()
    Available from: 2012-03-28 Created: 2012-03-28 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Assocationsverktyg som ett sätt att studera studenters diskussion kring naturvetenskapliga begrepp
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assocationsverktyg som ett sätt att studera studenters diskussion kring naturvetenskapliga begrepp
    2008 (Swedish)In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    This article aims to describe a new tool, the association tool, to collect data of students- discussions on scientific concepts. We have tested the association tool in two different situations. In the first, the association tool was used by student teachers in group-work. The students (two groups, which con- sisted of two and three students respectively) were asked to associate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a concept with which they are familiar, with other concepts. In the second situation, the association tool was used in an interview situation dealing with the concepts of energy and heat. Three student teachers were interviewed. Both situations were videotaped and the transcripts were analysed quali- tatively and quantitatively to show different ways of using the association tool. The association tool yielded rich data on the discussions of the concepts useinteractions in group-work and an interview situation.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-44567 (URN)77109 (Local ID)77109 (Archive number)77109 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Critical features in an biochemistry animation: Designer's intention and students' interpretation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical features in an biochemistry animation: Designer's intention and students' interpretation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various authors have investigated students’ interpretations of biochemistry visualizations, but none to our knowledge have compared the intentions of the visualizations’ design with students’ interpretations. This study contrasts an animator’s educational intentions for an animation visualizing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis, catalysed by the enzyme Fo/F1-ATP-synthase, with 43 university students’ interpretation of the animation. The aim was to identify symbolic expressions in the animation and assess how well they succeed or fail to communicate the intended learning object. We explored the animators’ intentions in a semi-structured interview. To analyse how the students observed and interpreted the animation we first collected individual written responses in a combined worksheet and questionnaire from the students who were using the animation as a thinking tool. Immediately thereafter we also recorded the students’ argumentation and reasoning in group discussions based on the same questions.’ In total, six key facets intentionally illustrated by the animator were successfully interpreted by the students: 1) The dynamics and movement in the protein 2) The conformational changes induced, 3) The driving force of the process (the proton gradient), 4) The causal sequence (coupling) in the process, 5) The cellular context and nature (protein) of the main actor and 6) The energy transfer. Four of the symbolic expressions chosen by the animator helped the students to interpret these facets of the process. Students’ successfully discerned the conformational change in the protein, the rotation of the catalytic part of the protein and the connection between the proton gradient and ATPsynthesis due to the transitory movement depicted in the animation. In addition, use of a ribbonmodel helped students to intuitively grasp that a protein was involved and the sub-microscopic nature of the process. However, a flash intentionally used to indicate the energy transfer associated with the formation of the phosphodiester bond, was misinterpreted by the students as a release of energy, instead of an energy transformation from mechanical to temporarily stored energy in a chemical bond. Further, only five students were able to predict the reversibility of the process from the animation.

    Keywords
    Visualizations Higher Education, Students’ misinterpretations, Student difficulties, ATP-synthase.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76139 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-03-28 Created: 2012-03-28 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    4. When metaphors come to life: at the interface of external representations, molecular processes and student learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When metaphors come to life: at the interface of external representations, molecular processes and student learning
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 563-580Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When studying the molecular aspect of the life sciences, learners must be introduced to somewhat inaccessible phenomena that occur at the sub-micro scale. Despite the difficulties, students need to be familiar with and understand the highly dynamic nature of molecular processes. Thus, external representations1 (ERs) can be considered unavoidable and essential tools for student learning. Besides meeting the challenge of interpreting external representations, learners also encounter a large array of abstract concepts2, which are challenging to understand (Orgill & Bodner, 2004). Both teachers and learners use metaphorical language as a way to relate these abstract phenomena to more familiar ones from everyday life. Scientific papers, as well as textbooks and popular science articles, are packed with metaphors, analogies and intentional expressions. Like ERs, the use of metaphors and analogies is inevitable and necessary when communicating knowledge concerning molecular phenomena. Therefore, a large body of published research related to metaphors concerns science teachers’ and textbook writers’ interpretation and use of metaphors (Harrison & Treagust, 2006). In this paper we present a theoretical framework for examining metaphorical language use in relation to abstract phenomena and external representations. The framework was verified by using it to analyse students’ meaning-making in relation to an animation representing the sub-microscopic and abstract process of ATP-synthesis in Oxidative Phosphorylation. We seek to discover the animator’s intentions while designing the animation and to identify the metaphors that students use while interacting with the animation. Two of these metaphors serve as examples of a metaphor analysis, in which the characteristics of metaphors are outlined. To our knowledge,  no strategies to identify and understand the characteristics, benefits, and potential pitfalls of particular metaphors have, to date, been presented in science education research. Our aspiration is to contribute valuable insights into metaphorical language use at the interface between external representations, molecular processes, and student learning.

    Keywords
    Affordance, Design of external representations, Higher education, Metaphors, Molecular phenomena
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76140 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-03-28 Created: 2012-03-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    When metaphors come to live – at the interface of a visualization and students’ meaning-making of dynamic chemical processes2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In molecular life science phenomena exist on a sub-micro scale and are not readily accessible for learners. Here tools, as external representations and metaphorical language, become essential for students’ learning. Metaphorical language is often used to relate abstract concepts to more familiar ideas from everyday life. For successful meaning-making students need to be familiar with the concepts being compared and know which characteristics of the metaphor are relevant and should be conveyed to the conceptual domain. There is a need for students to interpret and focus on certain given aspects and also on deviances between the two domains. Students’ prior knowledge of the real life domain as well as the scientific domain, then becomes the foundation for students’ learning. Furthermore, the metaphor itself mediates new meaning and new ways to interpret the natural world in interaction with learners, and this has an impact on students’ conceptualization of the concept the metaphor is describing. The objective of this study was, i) to explore which metaphors students tend to use while interacting with two external representations of dynamic molecular processes, and ii) to describe what connections between the scientific concept and the identified metaphors students made, both useful connections and potential pitfalls. The first representation is an animation visualizing the formation of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a metabolic process in the cell. The second is a physical model of self-assembly of a virus capsid. The empirical material analysed consisted of ten audio-recorded group discussions with university students (n=59). The students had completed basic courses in chemistry and molecular biology. A pre-formulated discussion guideline was used and the students had access to the external representation during the whole session. A qualitative analysis was performed using an inductive analytical model. The preliminary analysis showed that students used several metaphors, for example water mill, paddle wheel, ball, and chief, to create meaning to the scientific concepts while interacting with the two representations. The following analysis will examine to what degree the metaphors possess characteristics that can mislead and tempt students to use parts of the iconographic representation that are not relevant for understanding the represented phenomenon. With these results we can clarify how far the metaphors, and thereby the representations, reach and thus make valuable implications for education.

  • 9.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    When metaphors come to life: at the interface of external representations, molecular processes and student learning2012In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 563-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying the molecular aspect of the life sciences, learners must be introduced to somewhat inaccessible phenomena that occur at the sub-micro scale. Despite the difficulties, students need to be familiar with and understand the highly dynamic nature of molecular processes. Thus, external representations1 (ERs) can be considered unavoidable and essential tools for student learning. Besides meeting the challenge of interpreting external representations, learners also encounter a large array of abstract concepts2, which are challenging to understand (Orgill & Bodner, 2004). Both teachers and learners use metaphorical language as a way to relate these abstract phenomena to more familiar ones from everyday life. Scientific papers, as well as textbooks and popular science articles, are packed with metaphors, analogies and intentional expressions. Like ERs, the use of metaphors and analogies is inevitable and necessary when communicating knowledge concerning molecular phenomena. Therefore, a large body of published research related to metaphors concerns science teachers’ and textbook writers’ interpretation and use of metaphors (Harrison & Treagust, 2006). In this paper we present a theoretical framework for examining metaphorical language use in relation to abstract phenomena and external representations. The framework was verified by using it to analyse students’ meaning-making in relation to an animation representing the sub-microscopic and abstract process of ATP-synthesis in Oxidative Phosphorylation. We seek to discover the animator’s intentions while designing the animation and to identify the metaphors that students use while interacting with the animation. Two of these metaphors serve as examples of a metaphor analysis, in which the characteristics of metaphors are outlined. To our knowledge,  no strategies to identify and understand the characteristics, benefits, and potential pitfalls of particular metaphors have, to date, been presented in science education research. Our aspiration is to contribute valuable insights into metaphorical language use at the interface between external representations, molecular processes, and student learning.

  • 10.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    The importance of using visualizations as an interactive tool in science education2005In: ESERA 2005,2005, Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona , 2005, p. 1180-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Critical aspects and how students concretize their molecular understanding: benefits and potential pitfalls with an animation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effects of an animation of ATP synthesis in mitochondria on students understanding of the process. University students were exposed to the animation without narration before their introductory course in cell metabolism. Our intention was to identify any visual aspects of the animation that helped students to understand the process, and how the animation influenced their reasoning. In a mixed-method design, individual questionnaires were administered and group discussions performed. We identified three features of the animation which helped the students to understand critical aspects of the process, namely 1) molecular dynamics, 2) an explicitly visualized coupling between the flow of protons through the protein complex and ATP-synthesis 3) movements and induced conformational changes in the proteins during the process. We also observed that students showed difficulties in predicting the reversibility of the reaction. Analogies might enhance the meaningfulness and provide qualitative insights of sub-microscopic explanations. Albeit so, our preliminary analysis of the group discussions indicates that they are also sometimes misleading and can act as traps that induce erroneous chemical reasoning. 

  • 12.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Critical features in an biochemistry animation: Designer's intention and students' interpretationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various authors have investigated students’ interpretations of biochemistry visualizations, but none to our knowledge have compared the intentions of the visualizations’ design with students’ interpretations. This study contrasts an animator’s educational intentions for an animation visualizing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis, catalysed by the enzyme Fo/F1-ATP-synthase, with 43 university students’ interpretation of the animation. The aim was to identify symbolic expressions in the animation and assess how well they succeed or fail to communicate the intended learning object. We explored the animators’ intentions in a semi-structured interview. To analyse how the students observed and interpreted the animation we first collected individual written responses in a combined worksheet and questionnaire from the students who were using the animation as a thinking tool. Immediately thereafter we also recorded the students’ argumentation and reasoning in group discussions based on the same questions.’ In total, six key facets intentionally illustrated by the animator were successfully interpreted by the students: 1) The dynamics and movement in the protein 2) The conformational changes induced, 3) The driving force of the process (the proton gradient), 4) The causal sequence (coupling) in the process, 5) The cellular context and nature (protein) of the main actor and 6) The energy transfer. Four of the symbolic expressions chosen by the animator helped the students to interpret these facets of the process. Students’ successfully discerned the conformational change in the protein, the rotation of the catalytic part of the protein and the connection between the proton gradient and ATPsynthesis due to the transitory movement depicted in the animation. In addition, use of a ribbonmodel helped students to intuitively grasp that a protein was involved and the sub-microscopic nature of the process. However, a flash intentionally used to indicate the energy transfer associated with the formation of the phosphodiester bond, was misinterpreted by the students as a release of energy, instead of an energy transformation from mechanical to temporarily stored energy in a chemical bond. Further, only five students were able to predict the reversibility of the process from the animation.

  • 13.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Learning Goals and Conceptual Difficulties in Cell Metabolism: An explorative study of university lectures' views2012In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 447-461Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development and increasing inter- and multi-disciplinarity of life sciences call for revisions of life science course curricula, recognizing (inter alia) the need to compromise between covering specific phenomena and general processes/principles. For these reasons there have been several initiatives to standardize curricula, and various authors have assessed general curricular requirements. The results have shown that teacher preferences strongly influence both topic arrangement and course content, and generating consensus among scientists and lecturers is challenging. Applying a somewhat different approach, we have focused on a limited part of the curriculum (cell metabolism). Using Delphi methodology, in four rounds of surveys we investigated phenomena that 15 experienced, practicing lecturers consider to be central aspects for students to learn in the cell metabolism module of an introductory university course.

    The overall aim was to identify learning goals of special concern, i.e. aspects considered by the teachers to be both central and difficult for students to understand. Our informants emphasized learning goals of overarching and principal type, e.g. to be able to couple different system levels (from molecules to cells to organisms) and grasp the interactions between them. However, they also expect detailed knowledge, e.g. to know the structure of central biomolecules and metabolites. The main result of the study is a ranked list of learning goals of special concern in cell metabolism. We also identified both important learning goals and difficulties that have not been previously reported (even though they are covered by most textbooks), e.g. that energy production occurs in well-regulated steps and the necessity of proximity and common intermediates for coupled reactions.

  • 14.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    University Teachers View about Learning Metabolism - What are the core knowledge and which are the Students' Difficulties?2007In: ESERA,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assocationsverktyg som ett sätt att studera studenters diskussion kring naturvetenskapliga begrepp2008In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This article aims to describe a new tool, the association tool, to collect data of students- discussions on scientific concepts. We have tested the association tool in two different situations. In the first, the association tool was used by student teachers in group-work. The students (two groups, which con- sisted of two and three students respectively) were asked to associate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a concept with which they are familiar, with other concepts. In the second situation, the association tool was used in an interview situation dealing with the concepts of energy and heat. Three student teachers were interviewed. Both situations were videotaped and the transcripts were analysed quali- tatively and quantitatively to show different ways of using the association tool. The association tool yielded rich data on the discussions of the concepts useinteractions in group-work and an interview situation.

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