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  • 1.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, Shanghai, June 19-21, 2015, 2015, 965-968 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 2.
    Bolton, Ruth
    et al.
    ASU.
    Tarasi, Crina
    Eastern Michigan.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstads universitet.
    What drives the drives of customer satisfaction? Understanding how across-channel participation and country of origin affect the drivers of customer satisfactioin2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    et al.
    Propia AB, Norrköping.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University.
    Changing from a product to a process perspective for service improvements in a manufacturing company2010In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, Vol. 22, no 1, 26-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate service improvements in a manufacturing context.

    Design/methodology/approach – Action research at the gas turbine manufacturer Siemens was performed during a five-year period. In addition, 336 fault reports sent to the service division concerning severity, cost, and occurrence were analyzed.

    Findings – When moving from a fire-fighting culture to a proactive culture, a company needs to change from a product to a process perspective. The benefit of changing from a product to a process perspective is the change in focus from reduction of internal costs to value creation through service delivery.

    Practical implications – This paper shows how feedback from dissatisfied customers can be used as a driving factor in process improvements. Based on this knowledge, a company can select the most important Six Sigma projects to improve their service processes. The change from a product to a process perspective shows that traditionally the severity of almost 50 percent of all faults is underestimated.

    Originality/value – The paper provides a number of fruitful insights on how to work with service improvements in manufacturing companies.

     

  • 4.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Ta tempen på Kvalitetsarbetet - en grund för ständiga förbättringar2007In: Att lyckas med förändringsarbete -förbättra, förändra, förnya, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2007, 155-175 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 5.
    Davidsson, Nina
    et al.
    Service Research Center, Karlstad University.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Service Research Center, Karlstad University.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Service Research Center, Karlstad University.
    Witell, Lars
    Service Research Center, Karlstad University.
    Degree of service-orientation in the pulp and paper industry2009In: International Journal of Services Technology and Management, ISSN 1460-6720, E-ISSN 1741-525X, Vol. 11, no 1, 24-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies in the process industries are seeing the advantages of services but are struggling with the changes these require as regards the offering and the organisation. This paper presents an empirical investigation within the pulp and paper industry based on a survey of Swedish manufacturing firms and a multiple case study of three case companies and their customers. To investigate whether the manufacturers active in this industry are product-oriented or are becoming more service-oriented, five themes important to the companies under study are presented and discussed: that is, finding the right mix of physical products and services, the concept of service, business models, technology-based services and organising service delivery.

  • 6.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Ganz, Walter
    Fraunhofer.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer.
    Schäfer, Adrienne
    Hochschule Luzern.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Typology-based Analysis of New Service Development2010In: ICSSI 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    New service development from the perspective of value co-creation in a service system2014In: Handbook of Service Marketing Research / [ed] Roland T. Rust, Ming-Hui Huang, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, 346-369 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New service development (NSD) is the engine of renewal to create a profitable business. Companies try to increase their competitiveness through innovative activities and interactions that create value for the involved actors, such as existing customers, potential new customers and other shareholders (for example, Edvardsson et al. 2000; Gustafsson and Johnson 2003). New service development often stems from an improved way to use existing resources to co-create value. New resources or new technologies are also sometimes used and integrated within systems that are capable of creating value. These value-creating systems or service systems constitute the basic context and enabler of value co-creation and thus the foundation for NSD. A service system is an appropriate frame for studying new service development, because it moves away from traditional perspectives "rooted in technological product inventions" (Michel et al. 2008, p. 54). Value is always co-created with the customer through the activation of sets of resources (Vargo and Lusch 2004). Service companies accordingly need to design resource integration mechanisms within the service system that support customers and other value co-creation actors to enhance NSD and innovation. Customers also co-develop value as one mode of co-creation in which they and other actors can be actively involved in fostering NSD. Customers interact and develop relationships within the system in order to exploit and enhance their own resources and to gain the benefit of those of others.

  • 8.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Innovation and Customer Co-development2010In: Handbook of Service Science / [ed] Maglio, P. Kieliszewski, C. and Spohrer, J., New York, USA: Springer, 2010, 561-578 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the service sector expands into the global economy, a new science of service is emerging, one that is dedicated to encouraging service innovation by applying scientific understanding, engineering discipline, and management practice to designing, improving, and scaling service systems.  Handbook of Service Science takes the first major steps to clarifying the definition, role, and future of this nascent field. Incorporating work by scholars from across the spectrum of service research, the volume presents multidisciplinary perspectives on the nature and theory of service, on current research and practice in design, operations, delivery, and innovation of service, and on future opportunities and potential of service research.  Handbook of Service Science provides a comprehensive reference suitable for a wide-reaching audience including researchers, practitioners, managers, and students who aspire to learn about or to create a deeper scientific foundation for service design and engineering, service experience and marketing, and service management and innovation.

  • 9.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Customer Integration in New Service Development: Experiences from Sweden2011In: Taking the Pulse of Economic Development: Service Trends / [ed] Dieter Spath and Walter Ganz, München: Carl Hanser Verlag , 2011, 25-34 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Excellent service decides about competition and survival abilities of businesses! Identifying trends and recognizing opportunities in the modern service economy with a view to actively shaping the future: This is what the various chapters of this volume set out to do. Find a collection of factual observation, empirical data and expert opinions on trends and perspectives on the future of services that can inspire strategy development and decision making in research, politics and business. The basis is the second international survey of "MARS" (International Monitoring of Activities and Research in Services). Highlights- Linking-up of economy, science and politics - Connecting to international trends- Forming-up of market and opinion leadership

  • 10.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden .
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Institute Ind Engn, Germany .
    Schaefer, Adrienne
    IBR University of Appl Science and Arts, Switzerland .
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Having a strategy for new service development - does it really matter?2013In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 24, no 1, 25-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to investigate the role of key strategic factors in new service development (NSD). In particular, the role of service development strategy, a formalised development process, integrated development teams and customer co-creation were investigated and the results were compared with managers beliefs. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign/methodology/approach - The study used a sample of more than 500 service development projects to test a NSD conceptual model. Regression analysis was used to test the relative importance of the key strategic factors, and the results were compared with managers beliefs. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFindings - The results show that managers believe that customer co-creation is most important in order to succeed with NSD. However, contrary to management belief, a service development strategy is the "missing link" in improving NSD performance. In addition, the research highlighted an interaction effect between integrated development teams and customer co-creation, which means that project managers should focus on individual competencies on the development team and how they interact with customers throughout the NSD process. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanOriginality/value - For a long time, NSD has failed to receive the attention it deserves, not just in practice but also in service research. This study shows that the number of new services put on the market and then withdrawn because of low sales remains as high as 43 per cent. This paper contributes knowledge on how to reduce the number of failures in NSD by pointing out the key strategic factors that influence NSD performance.

  • 11.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer.
    Schäfer, Adrienne
    Hochschule Luzern.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    New Service Development and Innovation2010In: 19th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, Karlstad, Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer.
    Schäfer, Adrienne
    Hochschule Luzern.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    New Service Development in Europe – Results from an empirical study2010In: AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, Porto, Portugal., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engström, Jon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Co-­‐creation and learning in healthcare service development2012In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 23, no 3, 328-343 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study has the purpose of developing and evaluating a model for patient cocreation and learning based on diaries for use in healthcare service development. In particular, we investigate the process of patient co-creation and different mechanisms through which healthcare service providers can learn from the patient.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on an action research approach. First, a development phase for patient co-creation and learning leading to a proposed model was conducted. Second, a test phase of the diary-based method was performed on 53 patients in three cases: orthopaedic care, rehabilitation care and gastroenterology care.

    Findings – We suggest a model for co-creation and learning in healthcare service development with three ways of learning. Firstly, the model may be used as a means for generating and collecting patient ideas; secondly, a single patient’s story can be illustrated, and serve as an incentive for healthcare service development and creation of patient-centred care; finally, a larger number of diaries can be analysed and combined with patient surveys to provide a deeper understanding of how the patient experiences health care services.

    Originality/value – This study extends the research on diary-based methods as an operationalisation of co-creation in two ways. Firstly, the study offers new and more diverse ways of using the rich material provided by customer diaries in the development of services. Secondly, the study suggests a co-creation approach of involving patients in healthcare service development through patient diaries.

  • 14.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gauthereau, Vincent
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Att lyckas med förbättringsarbete - förbättra, förändra, förnya2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta med ständiga förbättringar är en utmaning, men också en nödvändighet för att kunna möta konkurrens från låglöneländer. Genom att använda uppmärksamheten från vad företaget gör till hur det görs skapas det förutsättningar för att arbeta med att förbättra och förnya verksamheten. I ett lyckat förbättringsarbete involveras de anställda för att genom småskaliga och ständiga förbättringar skapa något som är bättre både för de anställda och organisationen. Denna bok förmedlar ett antal olika perspektiv på förbättringsarbete och ständiga förbättringar. Arbetet med ständiga förbättringar speglas utifrån ett teoretiskt, filosofiskt och praktiskt perspektiv. Vidare visar boken på hur förbättringsarbete kan ta olika utgångspunkter för att förändra, förbättra och förnya olika delar av en verksamhet. Boken består av två huvudsakliga delar. Den första delen behandlar olika former av ständiga förbättringar, s.k. förbättringsprogram, olika metoder och kulturella skillnader mellan olika delar av världen. I den andra delen ge en fördjupning i olika perspektiv på ständiga förbättringar med ett speciellt fokus på hur stända förbättringar används och tillämpas i svenska organisationer idag. Exempel hämtas från ett antal olika branscher och verksamheter som hälso- och sjukvård, kärnkraftsindustrin, tjänstesektorn samt tillverkningsindustrin.

  • 15.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Division of Quality Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Hellström, Andreas
    Division of Quality Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Role of Quality Managers in Contemporary Organisations2011In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 22, no 8, 795-806 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question for firms nowadays is how to organise work with quality management. This naturally includes the role of the quality managers and it appears as if the profession of quality managers is at a crossroads. Alternatives are that the role of a quality manager broadens to include quality at a strategic level in the firm and that Six Sigma specialists and Lean Production managers drive the development of quality management in the future. In this paper, we present the results from a survey of 212 quality managers in Swedish organisations. The purpose is to contribute to an understanding of how the management of quality is designed and practised in contemporary organisations. This study shows that a quality manager's operational responsibility is quite narrowly defined. The agenda of the quality manager is mainly related to quality standards, such as ISO 9000 and environmental management systems. These programmes frame the work of the quality manager, which in many cases leaves other programmes, such as Six Sigma and Lean Production, to other departments or parallel improvement structures.

  • 16.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning Karlstad universitet.
    Blomkvist, Ola
    Understanding the Role of Situational Factors when Implementing Quality Function Deployment in the Product Development Process1999In: The Tenth Symposium on Quality Function Deployment,1998, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engström, Jon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Park Dahlgaard, Su Mi
    Lunds universitet.
    Kammerlind, Peter
    Qulturum, County Council of Jönköping, Sweden.
    Solicited Diaries as a Means of Involving Patients in Development of Healthcare Services2011In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 3, no 2, 128-145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of how patients experience their health problems and how they can generate innovative ideas about health care services. The research questions that guide the present study are: how can solicited diaries be used for capturing patient ideas? What type of data is generated from solicited diaries used for generating patient ideas? And what are the potential benefits and shortcomings of using patient diaries in generating ideas for improvement of health care services?

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on an exploratory case study using patient diaries to solicit ideas about how health care services in Sweden can be improved. From the methodological viewpoint, the diaries are used as a tool for patient co-creation of health care services.

    Findings – When analyzing dairies written by patients four different types of diaries emerged from the study: brief, reporting, descriptive and reflective diaries. Furthermore, 102 ideas for improvements within nine areas were identified from the contents of dairies.

    Research limitations/implications – Adopting patients' diaries as a way to activate and promote co-creation of values is at an embryo stage, and hence more research is needed.

    Originality/value – One of the strengths of the paper includes its potential for practical implications, either clinical or methodological, by using patients' dairies. It focuses both on the content generated from the diaries for improving health services, as well as the use of the diaries for practicing the idea of patients as co-creators in health care service.

  • 18.
    Engström, Jon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of customers in the development of public organizations2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 93-108 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Engström, Jon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Service dominant logic in health care: Making sense of value2014In: Services Marketing in the New Economic and Social Landscape, American Marketing Association, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Engström, Jon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    User innovation in health care – the influence of co-creation and context2014In: User innovation in health care – the influence of co-creation and context, American Marketing Association, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Fischer, Thomas
    et al.
    University of S.t Gallen.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAVAG.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Managerial recommendations for service innovations in different product-service systems2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design / [ed] Sakao, T. and M. Lindahl, Springer , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Introduction to Product/Service-System Design" contains a collection of practical examples demonstrating how to design a PSS in industry. These recent examples are the results of applying various theories developed in different countries and therefore accommodating diverse cultural differences. Providing a useful overall guide to the state of the art in theory and practice, each chapter covers the cutting edge of a different methodology or practice. The book’s focus on design is also evident in the discussion of how to anticipate and utilize the various dynamics within each dimension. "Introduction to Product/Service-System Design" will help improve working processes and inspire creative thinking for the wide range of people involved in designing a PSS: designers, marketing professionals, sales staff, production engineers, and service engineers. It can also serve as a reference book for university students on advanced courses.

  • 22.
    Fombelle, Paul
    et al.
    Arizona State University.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet.
    Andreassen, Tor Wallin
    Norwegian School of Management, Oslo.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Give and thou shall receive: Customer Reciprocity in a Retail Setting2010In: 19th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, Karlstad, Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Guyader, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aichagui, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Green Service Innovation: The role of resource integration and service provision2014In: AMA SERVSIG 2014 PROCEEDINGS: Services Marketing in the New Economic and Social Landscape / [ed] American Marketing Association, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The importance of green services is increasing. The purpose of the research project is to develop a better understanding of the concept “green services” and its relationship to “service innovation”. The research questions are: What factors can define the green services concept? What are the distinctive characteristics of different types of green services?

     

    Methodology: A multiple case study approach is used. The cases represent companies having introduced green service innovations. Based on interviews with the innovators and customers different categories of green services are indentified and described. The empirical findings are then analyzed in the light of a literature review.

     

    Findings: By combining empirical observations and theory the authors develop a framework for green service innovations. This framework describes how innovation can be attained through emphasizing changes in resource integration (reuse waste, reduce impact on nature and improve nature) and service provision (direct service or indirect service). In this frame six categories of green services are defined: redistribution of resources, changing customer behavior, improving conditions for nature, upcycling, replacement of technology and products to improve nature.

     

    Originality/value: The majority of existing research on green service has had focus on the service companies and the change of technology in providing services. The authors here rather emphasize the customer roles, and stresses that these roles need to change to fulfill green service innovation. Moreover, the perspective here is that green services have the ability to not only mitigate negative impact on the environment but also increase the quality of nature. The term “greenovation” is proposed to emphase this.

  • 24.
    Fundin, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.
    Service transition: finding the right position on the goods-to-services continuum2012In: International Journal of Modelling in Operations Management, ISSN 2042-4094, Vol. 2, no 1, 69-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe and further develop existing models of service transition; that is, how companies position and move on the goods-to-services continuum. This study concludes that service transition can be profitable for manufacturing firms as long as they do not become stuck in a mismatch between their organisational arrangements and their offerings. The paper contributes by: providing an overview of companies' positions on the goods-to-services continuum, introducing movements on the continuum, suggesting service development as a possible engine of renewal and providing empirical evidence on the relationship between positions on the continuum and profit margins.

  • 25.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Karlstad.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Karlstad.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Karlstad.
    Match or Mismatch: Strategy Structure Configurations in the Service Business of Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 13, no 2, 184-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new trend seems to be emerging for multinational manufacturing companies to make a strategic reorientation into becoming service providers. For some companies, such as Kone and IBM, the revenues from services are 50% or more of their total sales. Despite the increasing interest in exploring various aspects of the service part of the business in manufacturing companies, existing research has not focused on the interdependencies between different service strategies and organizational designs. This article studies different service strategies in manufacturing companies and highlights the organizational design necessary for implementing each service strategy. The service strategies explored are aftersales service providers, customer support service providers, outsourcing partners, and development partners. Each service strategy is supported by organizational design factors related to the service orientation of corporate culture, the service orientation of human resource management, and the service orientation of organizational structures. This research concludes that a specific strategy-structure configuration is needed in order to succeed with a chosen service strategy.

  • 26.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Eawag Swiss Federal Institute Aquat Science and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Competitive advantage through service differentiation by manufacturing companies2011In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 64, no 12, 1270-1280 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship among the complexity of customer needs, customer centricity, innovativeness, service differentiation, and business performance within the context of companies that have made a service transition from pure goods providers to service providers. A survey of 332 manufacturing companies provides the basis for the empirical investigation. One key finding is that a strong emphasis on service differentiation can lead to a manufacturing firms strategies for customer centricity being less sensitive to increasingly complex customer needs, which can increase a firms payoff for customer centricity. In contrast, the payoff from innovativeness appears to be higher if the firm focuses its resources on either product or service innovation; that is, a dual focus does not work well. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for researchers and managers.

  • 27.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Lofberg, Nina
    Karlstad University.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service innovations in manufacturing firms2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 2, 161-175 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe certain critical dimensions related to service innovation in manufacturing firms. The paper focuses on dimensions related to the service transition, the offering and the development project. Design/methodology/approach - A multiple case study was conducted in order to trace specific service innovations and to explore critical dimensions and events throughout their development. A total of 16 interviews were held, covering service innovations in SKF, Volvo Buses, and Volvo Trucks. Findings - Each of the three service innovations studied are examples of recombinative innovations. While there are some differences in terms of what is innovative, a common theme is the bundling of technology and services. Recombinative innovation opens up the possibility to combine standardization and customization, which has been identified as a success factor for services in manufacturing companies. Originality/value - Although a large number of manufacturing firms are introducing services to utilize the entire life-cycle of the installed base, there is a shortage of literature that includes elaborate empirical accounts of service innovations in manufacturing firms. The study expands the scope for viewing service innovation by not only focusing on the offering but also taking into account service transition and the development project.

  • 28.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    A service innovation framework for manufacturing firms2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Fundin, Anders
    Volvo Construction Equipment and Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Understanding New Service Development and Service Innovation through Innovation Modes2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 2, 123-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of innovation modes in understanding challenges of integrated NSD and NPD, and the use of structured NSD processes in manufacturing firms.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on a two-stage multiple case study. The first stage is an interview study of 17 key informants representing manufacturing firms in the machine industry. The second stage is an in-depth study of three service innovations at three manufacturing firms based on 16 interviews with key informants.

    Findings – The results of the study show that NSD processes are often more structured if the service is developed separately from the product. The fact that different innovation modes benefit from varying degrees of structure in the development process means that integrated service development can be challenging. Furthermore, service innovations often follow a trajectory of innovation modes before succeeding in the market. Some innovation modes occur within the NSD process, while others occur outside the process. One success factor for NSD is the fit between the innovation modes and the NSD process, rather than the NSD process per se.

    Originality/value – This research uses innovation modes to explain why NSD in manufacturing firms is often performed on an ad hoc basis, and how service innovations go through a trajectory of innovation modes. In this way, the study contributes to theory development of service innovation, and specifically service innovations in manufacturing firms.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Aksoy, Lerzan
    Fordham University, NY 10023 USA.
    Brady, Michael K.
    Florida State University, FL 32306 USA.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sirianni, Nancy J.
    Northeastern University, MA 02115 USA.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Wuenderlich, Nancy V.
    University of Paderborn, Germany.
    Conducting service research that matters2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, 425-429 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to encourage the reader to think differently about service-related issues and to strive to conduct service research that makes a transformational impact on individuals, organizations and society. The authors suggest that service researchers are in an excellent position to develop research that matters by making stronger connections with theory and elevating purely applied research to research that is higher in both practical relevance and methodological rigor. Design/methodology/approach - This paper takes a conceptual approach, connecting pertinent literature with new ideas highlighted in this special issue. Findings - This paper proposes that service researchers look beyond traditional service applications, take a multi-disciplinary approach to problem-solving and make greater strides towards connecting theory and practice. The authors propose a Model of Rigorous and Relevant Research, and call for fresh thinking across a wide range of research areas, including enhancing the customer experience, crafting innovation, integrating technology and measuring service outcomes. Originality/value - The originality of this essay lies in its focus on revitalizing the discussion on relevance and rigor as a path forward for service research. Additionally, this paper offers new insights on core management aspects of service provision that provide a solid platform for future work in service research.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden BI Norwegian School Management, Norway .
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Sweden .
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Customer co-creation in service innovation: a matter of communication?2012In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 23, no 3, 311-327 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Customer co-creation is becoming increasingly popular among companies, and intensive communication with customers is generally seen as a determinant of the success of a new service or product. The purpose of this study is to analyze customer co-creation based on four dimensions of communication - frequency, direction, modality, and content - in order to understand the value of customer co-creation in service innovation. One of the key aims of the study is to investigate whether all dimensions of customer co-creation have an effect on product and market success, and if the effect depends on the degree of innovativeness of a development project. Design/methodology/approach - The authors conducted a study including 334 managers with experience in new service and product development to examine how development projects applied customer co-creation in terms of communication in order to address future customer needs. Data were analyzed using partial least squares (PIS). The first analysis was performed with a sub-sample of 207 development projects regarding incremental innovations. A subsequent analysis was performed with a sub-sample of 77 development projects on radical innovations. Findings - A total of three of the four dimensions of customer co-creation (frequency, direction, and content) have a positive and equally significant effect on product success when developing incremental innovations. For radical innovations, frequency has a positive effect and content has a negative significant effect on product success. These findings suggest that co-creation and innovation can be combined, but that the choice of methods for co-creation differs depending on whether incremental or radical innovations are developed. Originality/value - Despite a general consensus that co-creation with customers is beneficial, there is a lack of agreement regarding how and why. The present article addresses this shortcoming and shows that co-creation is largely about communicating with customers in order to understand their future needs. On the other hand, a company working on radical innovations may wish to limit customer input that is too concrete or solution based.

  • 32.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aichagui, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Closing the green gap: understanding why green consumers choose brown products2014In: NRWC 2014, Nordic Retail and Wholesale Association , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of in-store marketing and packaging elements on green shopping behavior, aiming to further understand the attitude-behavior Green Gap. The results of first, a choice experiment with 127 respondents and second an eye-tracking experiment with 67 respondents show implications for the retail industry.

  • 33. Hellström, Andreas
    et al.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    How to run a quality department and its effects on business results and status in a senior management team2010In: 17th International Annual Euroma Conference Managing Operations in Service Economies, 6-9 June 2010, Porto, Portugal, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Raddats, Chris
    University of Liverpool Management school.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Radical and incremental service innovation in manufacturers: The impact of customer involvement2015In: 13 th international Research Symphosium on Service Excellence in Management, Shanghai, June 19-21, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What is quality in a manufacturing firm?: Understanding the quality of products, services and solutionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and difficulties that manufacturing firms have regarding the quality of their offerings along the goods-to-services continuum. In particular, the paper identifies different quality dimensions for products, services and solutions.

    Methodology/approach − Conceptual paper.

    Findings − The paper presents a model on how a manufacturing firm can provide quality on offerings along the goods-to-services continuum. Furthermore, the paper identifies the quality dimensions that exist for products, services and solutions. For solutions, the paper identifies six quality dimensions and presents them through an empirical illustration. The six dimensions are (i) reliability, (ii) empathy, (iii) tangibility, (iv) approachability, (v) consistency and (vi) flexibility. A manufacturing firm must provide high-quality products, services and solutions, and the different types of quality might require different principles, practices and techniques.

    Research limitations/implications − The model and the six developed quality dimensions are not tested empirically.

    Originality/value − Few studies have addressed the quality of a solution provided by a manufacturing firm. The present research provides a framework for how solution quality is different from product and service quality. In addition, the paper provides an empirical illustration of how a firm can work with product, service and solution quality for the firm’s offerings.

  • 36.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Changing quality initiative - does the quality profile really change?2013In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, no 1, 79-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A firm working with quality management over time may change from total quality management to Six Sigma to lean production, but does this actually change the firm's quality profile? This paper seeks to identify specific quality profiles in service firms and how these profiles change over time. The empirical investigation is based on self-assessment studies conducted in 138 Swedish service firms. The results show that service firms often build up a specific quality profile, which they retain over time. The paper develops theoretical and managerial implications based on the research.

  • 37.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evolvement of Quality Profiles in Swedish Service Organizations2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quality Profiles of Service Firms2011In: 12th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, Ithaca, June 2-5, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    Viktoria Institute.
    Quality management evolution in service companies2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigates how a quality profile can evolve over time and how different interventions can develop and change an existing quality profile.

    Methodology/approach: Data was collected over a five-year period, including a literature review, interviews, a document study and observations to capture the quality profile and associated interventions. The study was carried out in a service organisation in the public transportation industry.

    Findings: This study shows that the quality profile can change over time due to the use of specific interventions. If a company wants to emphasise a specific quality principle, it must target the quality principle with one or more interventions. However, even if a quality principle is supported by several interventions, there is no guarantee that the quality principle will show improvement in the quality profile. Also, the quality profile becomes more even over time. This can be explained by the internal consistency of the quality principles.

    Research limitations/implications: This paper sheds light on the need to study the adoption of individual quality principles and the design and evolution of a quality profile.

    Practical implications: The results can provide insights for organisations aiming to embark on a quality programme, specifically how to design and develop a quality profile.

    Originality/value: This research implies that the quality profile is a recurring, general phenomenon in all quality management improvement programmes. In other words, successful implementation of quality management requires a cohesive quality profile. 

  • 40.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    Swedish Institute for Quality (SIQ), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Using interventions to change the quality profile of an organisation2013In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 5, no 1, 32-45 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose − The purpose of the present study is to investigate how a quality profile can evolve over time and, in particular, how different kinds of interventions can further develop or change an existing quality profile.

    Methodology/approach − Data was collected over a five-year period, including a literature review, interviews, a document study and observations to capture the quality profile and associated interventions. The study was carried out in a service organisation in the public sector.

    Findings − This study shows that the quality profile can change over time due to the use of specific interventions. If a company wants to emphasise a specific quality principle, it must target the quality principle with one or moreinterventions. However, even if a quality principle is targeted, there is no guarantee that the quality principle will show improvement in the quality profile. Also, One main finding is that the quality profile becomes more even over time due to the internal consistency of the quality principles.

    Research limitations/implications − This paper sheds light on the need to study the adoption of individual quality principles and the evolution of the quality profile of an organisation.

    Practical implications − The results can provide insights for organisations aiming to embark on a quality programme, specifically how to design and develop a quality profile.

    Originality/value − This research implies that the quality profile is a recurring, general phenomenon in all quality management improvement programmes. In other words, successful implementation of quality management requires a cohesive quality profile.

  • 41.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Why changing a quality profile is easier said than done2011In: 12th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, Ithaca, June 2-5, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden; VIT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Jonas, Julia M.
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Sorhammar, David
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Innovation in service ecosystems-Breaking, making, and maintaining institutionalized rules of resource integration2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, 2964-2971 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on service-dominant logic and institutional theory, this paper examines innovation as a process that unfolds through changes in the institutional arrangements that govern resource integration practices in service ecosystems. Four cases are used to illustrate the interdependent patterns of breaking, making and maintaining the institutionalized rules of resource integration occurring on multiple levels of institutional context. Such institutional work allows actors to cocreate value in novel and useful ways by a) including new actors, b) redefining roles of involved actors and c) reframing resources within service ecosystems. Our findings show that while the efforts of breaking and making the institutionalized rules are required for such changes to occur, at the same time, institutional maintenance is also important for these changes to institutionalize, that is, to become an integral part of the institutional structure coordinating value cocreation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internalisation or externalisation?: Examining organisational arrangements for industrial services2011In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 21, no 4, 373-391 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Manufacturing firms primarily organise service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid arrangement. This paper aims to analyse how firm-, offering-, and market-specific factors influence the way in which a firm organise its service provision. In addition, the paper analyses the specific challenges that each organisational arrangement presents for a firm.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case research design that involved seven manufacturing firms with different organisational arrangements for service provision.

    Findings – Contrary to certain explicit assumptions, few firms organise for service provision solely through an in-house organisation. Analysis of firms in a wide variety of industries has shown that the organisational arrangements (internal, external or hybrid configuration) are contingent on factors such as market strategy, customer relationships, product-service linkages, internal competences and market channel characteristics.

    Research Limitations/Implications – This article is an initial attempt to understand the strategic choices that firms make in terms of inter-organisational arrangements for service provision. The research should be extended by way of a cross-sectional survey in order to test and further validate the importance of the determinants of the organisational arrangements for service provision.

    Originality/Value – This article contributes to the service marketing and management literature by examining factors that determine whether firms organise for service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid configuration. Prior research has not explicitly addressed this issue.

    Keywords – Industrial services, Organisational arrangement, Internalisation, Externalisation, Hybrid configuration, Service partner

    Paper type – Research paper

  • 44.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internalization or externalization?: Examining organizational arrangements for industrial service provision2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Any way goes: Identifying value constellations for service infusion in SMEs2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 1, 18-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have always delivered services, by supplying spare parts, installing equipment, training employees, or performing maintenance. In competitive markets though, firms seek new ways to differentiate their business, including an increased focus on service, often referred to as service infusion. Of the studies that seek to understand this phenomenon, most focus on large multinational firms; little is known about service infusion in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study adopts an explorative approach to investigate how SMEs construct new value constellations that enable value creation through services. The findings, based on in-depth interviews with key informants from 13 SMEs, suggest that there is no predefined transition process for service infusion in SMEs, which seldom have the resources to build new organizational units or create new specialties. Instead, they differentiate themselves through new value constellations within business networks. The heterogeneity of service offerings and business networks means those value constellations take many forms.

  • 46.
    Lofberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Service manoeuvres to overcome challenges of servitisation in a value network2015In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 26, no 14-15, 1188-1197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When manufacturing firms increase the share of service revenues, managing service provision becomes challenging. This study extends previous research on servitisation in individual firms by analysing the challenges service provision creates in a value network. The challenges are identified both within the firms and in the business relationships in the value network. In addition, the paper identifies and describes service manoeuvres firms use to address challenges resulting from servitisation. This case study of a value network is based on interviews carried out at 13 firms in the automotive industry, including suppliers, original equipment manufacturers and consultancies. The research shows that service manoeuvres, such as new types of resource integration and value constellations, are used to overcome challenges in the value network.

  • 47.
    Lofberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University.
    Service strategies in a supply chain2010In: JOURNAL OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT, ISSN 1757-5818, Vol. 21, no 4, 427-440 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The paper seeks to investigate how and why service strategies differ among manufacturing companies at different positions in a supply chain. Design/methodology/approach - The research was based on a multiple case study of three original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) - a heavy truck provider, a bus provider, and a construction equipment provider - and eight of their suppliers in the automotive industry. A total of 19 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with managers, including service managers, production managers, marketing managers, and chief executive officers. Findings - A companys choice of service strategy appears to be influenced by its position in the supply chain. Whereas the OEMs were all after-sales service providers, the suppliers were either development partners or had a customer service strategy. The main reasons for the difference in strategies seem to relate to differences in customer demand, the products to which the services were related, and the size of the companies. Research limitations/implications - The paper was conducted as a multiple case study that focused on two positions in the supply chain. In order to further validate the results, future studies should include more case studies that cover additional positions in the supply chain. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the sparsely researched area of manufacturing firms as services providers. Previous research has tended to focus on the actions of OEMs. The wider scope of the supply chain, covered in this paper, shows that small suppliers are influenced by the service infusion of the manufacturing industry.

  • 48.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Two Decades of Using Kano’s Theory of Attractive Quality: A Literature Review2008In: Quality Management Journal, ISSN 1068-6967, Vol. 15, no 1, 59-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multidimensional model of quality attributes known as Kano' theory of attractive quality has over the past twenty year gained increasing acceptance among academics and practitioners alike. However, no research has provided a systematic review of subsequent development of this theory. A review of 33 papers relevant to the theory of attractive quality revealed several developments with respect to methodological issues, but many of these lack the scientific basis that would justify inclusion in the theory. Study results also provide guidance on how to incorporate the latest developments in Kano methodology in product development and customer satisfaction studies.

  • 49.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University.
    Customer Satisfaction in the First and Second Moments of Truth2008In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 17, no 7, 463-474 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Almost everything consumers buy in a store has a package. At point of purchase, the first moment of truth, the package functions as a silent salesman. Once the purchase is made, the product is consumed in the second moment of truth. The purpose of this paper is to create a better understanding of how customers evaluate different aspects of the package in the first and second moments of truth.

    Design/methodology/approach – An empirical investigation is conducted on how customers experience three different packages for everyday commodities in the first and second moments of truth. Causal modeling is used to analyze the impact of different benefits of a package onto customer satisfaction and loyalty.

    Findings – It was found that both benefits and attributes can have different roles in affecting customer satisfaction and loyalty in different parts of the consumption cycle. Furthermore, the results show that there are significant differences for the impacts of customer satisfaction on loyalty in the first moment of truth compared to the second moment of truth.

    Practical implications – By applying a consumption system approach, it is possible for managers to design a package that can attract customers in the first moment of truth and at the same time create customer satisfaction in the second moment of truth.

    Originality/value – The research shows that the role of certain benefits and attributes can be different in the purchase and use situation. Previously, this has been modeled separately but by operationalizing the first and second moment of truth in the same model the true effects of various benefits and attributes can be identified.

  • 50.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet.
    Theory of Attractive Quality and  Lifecycles of Quality Attributes2011In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 23, no 2, 235-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to shed further light on the dynamics of quality attributes, as suggested by the theory of attractive quality. The study aims to investigate the existence of the life cycle for successful quality attributes and to identify alternative life cycles of quality attributes.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on two surveys in which a total of 1,456 customers (708 in 2003 and 748 in 2009) participated in the classification of quality attributes. In particular, the study investigated how customers perceived 24 particular packaging attributes at two points in time, in 2003 and 2009.

    Findings – The study identified three life cycles of quality attributes: successful quality attributes, flavor-of-the-month quality attributes, and stable quality attributes. The research also extends the theory of attractive quality by identifying the reverse movement of certain quality attributes; that is, that a quality attribute can take a step backwards in the life cycle of successful quality attributes through, for instance, a change in design.

    Originality/value – The paper provides empirical evidence for the existence of several alternative life cycles of quality attributes. The results of the empirical investigation increase the validity of the theory of attractive quality, which is important, given the limited amount of research that has attempted to validate the fundamentals of the theory of attractive quality.

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