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  • 1.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms2012In: : European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy – now introduces a new series of events, focusing on, Papendal Hotel and Conference Centre, Arnhem, The Netherlands 11–14 September 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments in energy efficient technologies. This paper investigates to what extent energy management practices influence firms estimation of energy efficiency potentials. Further it investigates two Swedish policy programs that promote industrial energy management practices: The Programme For improving Energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (PFE) and the energy audit program and whether these have increased energy management practices in Swedish firms. A multiple case study has been conducted in order to investigate energy practices in firms in different industrial sectors. Employment of energy management varies between firms. The firms estimate equal energy efficiency potentials from implementation of energy efficient technology as for energy management practices. In total the firms estimate energy efficiency potentials of 12 %. The study shows that firms that have participated in the programs work more actively with energy management. This can be illustrated by the fact that 75 % of the firms that have not participated in any of the programs lack a person responsible for energy management and 50 % also lack a long term energy strategy. For firms that have participated in the programs the corresponding figures are 30 % and 33 %. The results indicate an untapped potential of energy efficiency measures that could be reached through increased energy management in Swedish industries.

  • 2.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Extending the Energy efficiency gap2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 392-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.

  • 3.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Parment, Anders
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Consumer Behavior: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer Behavior: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives provides a basic understanding of the subject of consumer behavior. A better understanding in terms of why and how people consume is particularly relevant in today’s society since consumption has become an increasingly important part of people’s lives.

    This book differs from most previous textbooks by describing the subject of consumer behavior based on two comprehensive theoretical fields: theories concerning consumer psychology and decision-making, and theories concerning consumer culture and practices. These two perspectives complement one another and contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of consumption. Furthermore, the book has a sustainability perspective. The impact of consumption on the environment is important to highlight, not least with regard to future generations. The book also has a consumer perspective in that the consumer is not seen as a passive recipient of offers, but rather as an active actor who must be given the opportunity to make his or her voice heard. A better understanding of consumers’ different living conditions and the situations they encounter will give companies and other organizations a better chance to reach out to consumers and meet their needs.

    Consumer Behavior is also available in Swedish, published by Studentlitteratur.

  • 4.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Guyader, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aichagui, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Green Service Innovation: The role of resource integration and service provision2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference: Services Marketing in the New Economic and Social Landscape / [ed] Tsiotsou R.H. & Hajidimitriou Y., 2014, Vol. "Building Sustainability in Services", article id 208Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The importance of green services is increasing. The purpose of the research project is to develop a better understanding of the concept “green services” and its relationship to “service innovation”. The research questions are: What factors can define the green services concept? What are the distinctive characteristics of different types of green services?

    Methodology: A multiple case study approach is used. The cases represent companies having introduced green service innovations. Based on interviews with the innovators and customers different categories of green services are indentified and described. The empirical findings are then analyzed in the light of a literature review.

    Findings: By combining empirical observations and theory the authors develop a framework for green service innovations. This framework describes how innovation can be attained through emphasizing changes in resource integration (reuse waste, reduce impact on nature and improve nature) and service provision (direct service or indirect service). In this frame six categories of green services are defined: redistribution of resources, changing customer behavior, improving conditions for nature, upcycling, replacement of technology and products to improve nature.

    Originality/value: The majority of existing research on green service has had focus on the service companies and the change of technology in providing services. The authors here rather emphasize the customer roles, and stresses that these roles need to change to fulfill green service innovation. Moreover, the perspective here is that green services have the ability to not only mitigate negative impact on the environment but also increase the quality of nature. The term “greenovation” is proposed to emphase this.

  • 5.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aichagui, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Closing the green gap: understanding why green consumers choose brown products2014In: NRWC 2014 The 4th Nordic Retail and Whole Sale Conference, November 5th to 6th of November, 2014, Nordic Retail and Wholesale Association , 2014, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of in-store marketing and packaging elements on green shopping behavior, aiming to further understand the attitude-behavior Green Gap. The results of first, a choice experiment with 127 respondents and second an eye-tracking experiment with 67 respondents show implications for the retail industry.

  • 6.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Identifying the resource integration processes of green service2019In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of green service. In particular, the focus is on identifying homopathic and heteropathic resource integration processes that preserve or increase the resourceness of the natural ecosystem.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Through an extensive multiple case study involving ten service providers from diverse sectors based on a substantial number of interviews, detailed accounts of green service are provided.

    Findings

    Six resource integration processes were identified: reducing, recirculating, recycling, redistributing, reframing and renewing. While four of these processes are based on homopathic resource integration, both reframing and renewing are based on heteropathic resource integration. While homopathic processes historically constitute a green service by mitigating the impact of consumption on the environment, heteropathic resource integration increases the resourceness of the natural ecosystem through emergent processes and the (re)creation of natural resources.

    Research limitations/implications

    The present study breaks away from the paradigm that “green service” is about reducing the negative environmental impact of existing services, toward providing a green service that expands biological diversity and other natural resources.

    Originality/value

    Transformative service research on environmental sustainability is still in its infancy. The present study contributes through conceptualizing green service, redefining existing resource integration processes (reducing, recirculating, recycling) and identifying new resource integration processes (redistributing, reframing, renewing).

  • 7.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identifying enabling mechanisms for the implementation of market orientation2016In: Extending Value Through Product, Service and Platform Innovations, 2016, p. 1-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus on market orientation in order to improve firm performance has during the last decades been both well, and widely, accepted as a necessity for remaining competitive. Even though the concept has been the focus of much research, recent studies suggest that practitioners find it difficult to interpret the market orientation concept and, subsequently, find it hard to implement in their organizations. The actual implementation of market orientation is also a relatively unexplored area within marketing. The majority of research around market orientation has instead tended to focus on other issues such as to measure and link performance to the development of the actual concept rather than implementation aspects and processes.This article identifies four enabling mechanisms for the implementation of market orientation. It forwards a framework to advance understanding of the actual implementation and effects of market orientation. The framework – consisting of issues focusing on effects on an internal, a customer, and a market level – aims to increase the understanding of how a successful implementation of market orientation can be achieved.Findings are developed through an in-depth longitudinal case study of a B2B firm implementing market orientation. As such, the findings are well grounded in, and provide insights into, managers’ real challenges, as well as offering opportunities to generate new insights for academia. By studying the market orientation implementation process, four mechanisms that enable the implementation is, among other things, identified; 1) Top management as a change champion, 2) A coordinating ICT platform, 3) The redesign of the offering structure (portfolio), and 4) A multi-layered organizational structure.

  • 8.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Local and regional energy companies offering energy services: Key activities and implications for the business model2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 171, p. 491-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services play a key role in increasing energy efficiency in the industry. The key actors in these services are the local and regional energy companies that are increasingly implementing energy services as part of their market offering and developing service portfolios. Although expectations for energy services have been high, progress has so far been limited, and many companies offering energy services, including energy companies, are experiencing difficulties in implementing energy services and providing them to the market. Overall, this research examines what is needed for local and regional energy companies to successfully implement energy services (and consequently provide them to the market). In doing this, a two-stage process is used: first, we identify key activities for the successful implementation of energy services, and second, we aggregate the findings to the business model level. This research demonstrates that to succeed in implementing energy services, an energy company may need to renew parts or all of its existing product-based business model, formulate a new business model, or develop coexisting multiple business models. By discussing two distinct business model innovation processes, this research demonstrates that there can be different paths to success.

  • 9.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Unraveling firm-level activities for shaping markets2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 68, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the marketing literature increasingly construes markets as malleable entities, research studies of ‘marketshaping’strategies have gained increasing attention in recent years. Those are proactive, deliberate initiativeswhich a firm takes with the aim of re-shaping an operating environment comprising direct customers, customers'customers, and other actors such as its competitors. Our study derives a theoretical framework for marketshapingfrom the existing literature and an in-depth case study of one market-leading firm in the steel industry,which has been working actively in the shaping of a market. Analysis of the responses of a range of experiencedexecutive staff to unstructured and semi-structured interviews shows, among other things, that in order to shapethe market, the firm performed many individual and aggregated activities at three levels of influence – system,market offer and technology – with various actors in the market in focus. These findings are the basis of aproposed activity framework for the proactive shaping of a market: that is, what firms can do in order to shapean existing market, drive growth and create sustainable competitive advantage.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-21 17:00
  • 10.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ensuring protection and competitiveness: Characteristics of market formation for biogas2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and research question

    Presenting possible solutions to environmental problems such as air quality, greenhouse gases, nutrient recirculation, organic waste and wastewater management, biogas is highly relevant for sustainability transitions. Besides biogas producers, the production and use of biogas engages actors from several sectors, including energy and gas distribution, waste management and wastewater treatment, agriculture, vehicles and transport.

    The formation of markets for biogas depends on policy interventions at different levels, from the local municipality via the national government to the EU commission. By contrast to other European countries, which tend to subsidize biogas production, the Swedish government has the intention to stimulate demand and to favor the use of purified biogas (biomethane) as a vehicle fuel. While biomethane currently has a strong position as an alternative to fossil fuels in certain niches (notably public transport buses), the Swedish biogas sector faces challenges to reach beyond these narrow market segments.

    Adopting a market constructivist perspective, this paper will analyze the formation of markets for biogas in Sweden. The following research question will guide the analysis: What characterizes market formation in this case and based on that, what is possible to learn about market formation in relation to sustainability transitions? 

    Theory

    Marketing scholars increasingly consider market formation as on-going processes, which a multitude of actors influence through their strategies, activities and capabilities. To understand market formation it is therefore necessary to analyze activities among a wider array of actors than merely producers and their (potential) customers.

    Following a constructivist perspective, the offer is a core element in market formation. The offer describes the meanings and qualifications that actors impose on the object that is for sale. These meanings and qualifications constitute boundaries between actors and goods. Different actors engage to define the object, as well as its meanings, qualifications and potential value. Without a clear view of what is being exchanged, market formation will be difficult. Market formation also includes institutions that set boundaries and rules for the market. These are neither static, nor pre-conceived; instead, they are shaped and acted upon. Actors influence institutions through dynamic and interactive processes. 

    Method

    The paper combines quantitative and qualitative sources of data to study the Swedish biogas sector. The paper presents detailed data on production and use of biogas in Sweden 2010-2017. This quantitative data is complemented by qualitative data from interviews with representatives from key actors as well as secondary data from industry reports and other written sources. 

    Findings

    The multitude of actors involved complicates market formation for biogas. Different meanings and qualifications are attributed to the offer. Whereas it is possible to perceive biogas as a relatively simple product – a fuel – it is also possible to perceive it as a complex system that may help solving various societal and environmental problems. Different perceptions of the offer have different implications for market formation. Depicting biogas as a complex system implies that the offer will comprise a number of different qualifications. The realization of such a complex system depends on the bonding of various actors. Once established, the bonds will protect biogas from competition. By contrast, depicting biogas as a fuel means that the value of biogas will be assessed in relation to fuel prices. Qualification will thus depend on cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other fuels.

    Our analysis suggests that although the contrasting perceptions of biogas cause tensions between the actors involved, the different qualifications complement each other in the market formation process. Various environmental and societal benefits makes it possible for actors argue for institutional reforms to help biogas become cost competitive, and increased competitiveness makes it attractive to establish new biogas systems.

  • 11.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Industrial ecology and the boundaries of the manufacturing firm2019In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions on organizational boundaries are critical aspects of manufacturing firms’ business strategies. This article brings together concepts and findings from industrial ecology and business strategy in order to understand how manufacturing firms engage in initiatives to facilitate recycling of process wastes. Based on a distinction between waste recovery and use of the recovered resources, the article introduces a typology of four different strategies: Closed, Outsourcing, Diversification, and Open. Each strategy has a unique set of organizational boundaries and is associated with different motives and benefits for the manufacturing firm. The typology of strategies provides a conceptual contribution to assist industrial managers in strategic decision-making, and to support further studies on organizational boundaries in industrial ecology research.

  • 12.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgren, Maja
    Energimyndigheten, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden2014In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, 2014: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 711-719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming accentuates the need for reducing anthropogenic emissions of GHG (Green House Gases). Improved energy efficiency in industry represents one of the most important means of reducing this threat. Furthermore, improved energy efficiency and cutting energy costs may be key factors for individual enterprises’ long term survival and success because of increased environmental legislation and rise of energy prices. Despite the fact that extensive potentials for improved energy efficiency exists in industry, a large part remains unexploited explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The research on barriers is well-developed and regards the non-investment of cost-effective technical measures that improve energy efficiency. In these studies, the actual investment decision is the analysing variable. However, if one extends the system boundary, there are indications that not only the actual reduction of energy cost but also other potential benefits should be taken into account in energy-efficiency investments. Including such factors, named non-energy benefits (NEBs), in the investment calculation mean the investment may have a considerably shorter pay-back period. The aim of this paper is to study if NEBs are considered and measured in energy-efficiency related investments in Swedish industry, and to study factors inhibiting the inclusion of NEBs in investment calculations. Results of this study indicate that NEBs seems to exist in the Swedish industrial companies participating in this study, but only few of the mentioned NEBs were included in investment calculations, explained by among other factors, the hidden cost of monetizing the NEB.

  • 13.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Between industrial modernity and ecological modernization?: The Swedish forest industry’s response to increased environmental demands regarding electricityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the Swedish forest industry’s response to the higher environmental demands regarding the electricity resource from 1990 to 2009. These changes are viewed as part of a wider transition in Sweden’s energy and environmental policy, from industrial modernity to ecological modernization. This paper examines how an electricity-intensive industry has responded to changes involving considerable governmental intervention by means of laws, rules, and public policy instruments to reduce the environmental impact of electricity use and production. The analysis reveals that the Swedish forest industry is currently caught between industrial modernity and ecological modernization due to its divided production processes.

  • 14.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Material resources in strategy formation processes: Translations of electricity and forest assets in three Swedish forest industry companies, 1990-2008Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the process whereby resources, long perceived as static, are reconstructed as increasingly dynamic in their characteristics, uses, and values, and considers how this process can be analyzed and understood theoretically. The paper examines how three energy-intensive Swedish forest industry companies have managed their electricity and forest resources. The author argues that Barney and Hesterley’s (2005) VRIO criteria treat resources as static, and that constructivist actor–network theory may be a more productive way of understanding the ongoing process of resource management. This study demonstrates how the management of electricity and forest resources changed not only between companies in the industry, but also within single firms, over the studied period.

  • 15.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Opposition and Adjustment to Industrial‘Greening’: The Swedish Forest Industry’s (Re)Actions regarding Energy Transition – 1989-20092011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses how the Swedish forest industry has (re)acted regarding the energy transition and, in particular, regarding the reconstruction of the electricity and forest resources in Sweden during the 1989–2009 period. The thesis consists of four papers that analyse how the Swedish forest industry by means of energy management practices at individual pulp and/or paper mills, in corporate strategies performed by CEOs and boards of directors, and via its industry association, has dealt with mounting political and public demands for the industry to become ‘greener’. At the heart of the thesis are issues related to the industry’s substantial use and management of electricity and forest resources.

    This thesis focuses on the patterns of conflict and reconstruction that various forest industry representatives (e.g., CEOs) and entities (e.g., mills and resources) have experienced in relation to opposing and/or adjusting to the energy transition. The Swedish forest industry constitutes an illuminating case in a wider research context of how an industry (re)acts regarding increasing environmental and energy-related demands concerning its strategic resources. By using multidisciplinary theoretical concepts when analysing industrial change, this thesis demonstrates the industry’s wider embeddedness in science, policy, and material resources.

    List of papers
    1. Exploring energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: Volume 3
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: Volume 3
    2009 (English)In: Act! Innovate! Deliver! Reducing energy demand sustainably / [ed] Christel Broussous and Corisande Jover, eceee , 2009, p. 1051-1058Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pulp- and paper industry is a considerable user of energy, accounting for about 50 percent of the Swedish industrial energy use and 2 percent of the EU-25 industrial energy use. Its high energy use makes this industry particularly important in terms of energy efficiency. Previous research has emphasised the need for companies’ to have well functioning energy management practices in order to increase energy efficiency. This paper describes and analyses energy management practices in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. A questionnaire was sent out to the person in charge of the energy issue at all Swedish mills and 40 replies were received, a response frequency of 68 percent. The results show that the energy issue has been given increasingly higher priority over the past 10 years. However, in spite of this, overall results from the questionnaire show that there is still potential for improving energy management in the studied industry. More than 20 percent of the studied mills lack a long-term energy strategy, and less than half of the studied mills have an energy strategy covering at least five years. These results indicate that the implementation of a long-term energy strategy in this energy intensive industry, in combination with other means, could be of utmost importance for increasing energy efficiency. In conclusion, based on the research results presented in this paper, a different energy policy design for the industry seems to be needed, which could be very fruitful if it focuses on establishing more efficient energy management practices and includes all energy carriers. Moreove, the fact that more than 20 percent of the studied mills lack a long-term energy strategy and the fact that the Swedish EMS standard does not require such a strategy to be formulated indicates the need for further studies regarding a plausible inclusion of a long-term energy strategy in the EMS standard.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    eceee, 2009
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52032 (URN)978-91-633-4454-1 (ISBN)
    Conference
    eceee 2009 Summer Study : Act! Innovate! Deliver! Reducing energy demand sustainably, 1–6 June, La Colle sur Loup, France
    Available from: 2009-11-30 Created: 2009-11-30 Last updated: 2011-03-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Material resources in strategy formation processes: Translations of electricity and forest assets in three Swedish forest industry companies, 1990-2008
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material resources in strategy formation processes: Translations of electricity and forest assets in three Swedish forest industry companies, 1990-2008
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the process whereby resources, long perceived as static, are reconstructed as increasingly dynamic in their characteristics, uses, and values, and considers how this process can be analyzed and understood theoretically. The paper examines how three energy-intensive Swedish forest industry companies have managed their electricity and forest resources. The author argues that Barney and Hesterley’s (2005) VRIO criteria treat resources as static, and that constructivist actor–network theory may be a more productive way of understanding the ongoing process of resource management. This study demonstrates how the management of electricity and forest resources changed not only between companies in the industry, but also within single firms, over the studied period.

    Keywords
    resource-based view; VRIO, resources; actor–network theory; translation; forest industry
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66264 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2011-03-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Between industrial modernity and ecological modernization?: The Swedish forest industry’s response to increased environmental demands regarding electricity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between industrial modernity and ecological modernization?: The Swedish forest industry’s response to increased environmental demands regarding electricity
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the Swedish forest industry’s response to the higher environmental demands regarding the electricity resource from 1990 to 2009. These changes are viewed as part of a wider transition in Sweden’s energy and environmental policy, from industrial modernity to ecological modernization. This paper examines how an electricity-intensive industry has responded to changes involving considerable governmental intervention by means of laws, rules, and public policy instruments to reduce the environmental impact of electricity use and production. The analysis reveals that the Swedish forest industry is currently caught between industrial modernity and ecological modernization due to its divided production processes.

    Keywords
    forest industry, electricity, ecological modernization, industrial modernity, business associations
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66265 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2011-03-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Configuring the ‘industrial collective’: a controversyon the use of Swedish forests, 1989–2009
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuring the ‘industrial collective’: a controversyon the use of Swedish forests, 1989–2009
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a theoretical vocabulary highlighting a neglected area in industrial change theory, the outsider role. Industries cannot be fully examined without considering the influence of concerned groups, i.e. actors concerned with the industrial activity. Our empirical focus is a mature, stable, and highly homogeneous industrial sector, namely, the Swedish forest industry. We identify, analyse, and discuss the development and configuration of various truth claims and standpoints regarding the characteristics and potential uses of Sweden’s forest resources, 1989–2009. We follow the translation of the forest industry from producing solely pulp and paper products to producing electricity, heat, and bio-fuels. We argue that, without the pressure of concerned groups and ‘industrialists in the wild’ on the industry, forest industrial activity would never have been reconfigured.

    Keywords
    industrial collective; translation; concerned groups; confined industry; forest industry; industrialists in the wild; bio-energy
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66266 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2011-03-10Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skogsindustrin och energiomställningen2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk skogsindustri är världens näst största exportör av papper, massa och sågade trävaror, och samtidigt Sveriges största enskilda användare av el. Branschen var länge skeptisk till förnyelsebar energi och storskalig biobränsleproduktion. Idag står dock biobränsle och torv för en femtedel av den totala energimängd som tillförs Sverige, och skogsindustrin har blivit en betydande biobränsleproducent.

    I den här skriften beskrivs den omvälvande energiomställning som skogsbranschen har genomgått under de senaste tjugo åren. Mikael Ottosson lyfter fram den centrala roll som aktörer utanför branschen har spelat i omvandlingen. Forskare, miljöorganisationer, politiker och andra experter har, med hjälp av vetenskapliga belägg och affärsmässiga kalkyler, vunnit inflytande och direkt påverkat industrin. Han kallar denna process för industrialism i det vilda och menar att den har varit avgörande för att få till stånd en förändring i en så mogen och homogen bransch som skogsindustrin.

  • 17.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Är begreppet hållbar marknadsföring hållbart?2013In: Paper till FEKIS-konferensen ”Företagsekonomi för en hållbar värld”, Ekonomihögskolan, Lunds universitet, 23–24 oktober 2013. Session: ”Hållbar marknadsföring och konsumtion”, 2013, p. 1-6Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Galis, Vasilis
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Multiplicity justifies corporate strategy: The case of Stora Enso, 1990-20082011In: Journal of Cultural Economy, ISSN 1753-0350, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 455-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study conducts an analysis of the relationship between strategic theory, industry- or marketwide practices, valuation metrics, and justification rhetoric in performing strategic practice. Indoing this, we refer to Michel Callon on the performativity of economics and Boltanski andThe´venot on the justification of strategic action. The paper introduces an analytical framework forstudying the corporate strategy pragmatics of a forest industry company Stora Enso over the19902008 period. The authors argue that Stora Enso’s corporate strategy is justified by andrepresents the outcome of multiple performances that coexist and interact with each other. Thesemultiple performances, ranging from general strategic management conceptual theories toindustry-wide practices and valuation metrics, may lead to conflict when creating successfulbusinesses.

  • 19.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Galis, Vasilis
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Configuring the 'industrial collective':: A controversy on the use of Swedish forests, 1989–20092011In: Paper presented at the 27th EGOS Colloquium Gothenburg 2011: Sub-theme 17: Markets Inside the Ecological Revolution. / [ed] Fabian Muniesa, Peter Karnoe, and Petter Holm, 2011, p. 1-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a theoretical vocabulary highlighting a neglected area in industrial change theory, the outsider role. Industries cannot be fully examined without considering the influence of concerned groups, i.e. actors concerned with the industrial activity. Our empirical focus is a mature, stable, and highly homogeneous industrial sector, namely, the Swedish forest industry. We identify, analyse, and discuss the development and configuration of various truth claims and standpoints regarding the characteristics and potential uses of Sweden’s forest resources, 1989–2009. We follow the translation of the forest industry from producing solely pulp and paper products to producing electricity, heat, and bio-fuels. We argue that, without the pressure of concerned groups and ‘industrialists in the wild’ on the industry, forest industrial activity would never have been reconfigured.       

  • 20.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Galis, Vasilis
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Configuring the ‘industrial collective’: a controversyon the use of Swedish forests, 1989–2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a theoretical vocabulary highlighting a neglected area in industrial change theory, the outsider role. Industries cannot be fully examined without considering the influence of concerned groups, i.e. actors concerned with the industrial activity. Our empirical focus is a mature, stable, and highly homogeneous industrial sector, namely, the Swedish forest industry. We identify, analyse, and discuss the development and configuration of various truth claims and standpoints regarding the characteristics and potential uses of Sweden’s forest resources, 1989–2009. We follow the translation of the forest industry from producing solely pulp and paper products to producing electricity, heat, and bio-fuels. We argue that, without the pressure of concerned groups and ‘industrialists in the wild’ on the industry, forest industrial activity would never have been reconfigured.

  • 21.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring Proactive Niche Market Strategies in the Steel Industry: Activities and Implications2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 55, no 2016, p. 119-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature has often proposed a niche market strategy as the means by which producers of commodity-based products (e.g. steel, pulp and paper, and petrochemicals) can counter increasing competition, particularly from low-cost, low-price competitors. That strategy has primarily been viewed as defensive, i.e. the weaker producer builds protective barriers around its product to fend off competition. This paper proposes, on the contrary, that niche marketing can also be used as a proactive, or even aggressive, strategy to enable a firm to outperform competitors in both profitability and growth. The use of a proactive niche market strategy in practice is examined in case studies of three global Swedish steel firms that have achieved above-average profitability over time. We propose, as a result of our analysis, the concept of the proactive niche market strategy as one that employs a mix of five key activities: focusing on the customers' customers; making the effort to become a preferred supplier early in the process; interacting with customers at multiple levels; extending the product offering by adding services; and focusing on the development of “adjacent” products, markets, and applications.

  • 22.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Socio-technical regimes and heterogeneous capabilities: the Swedish pulp and paper industry's response to energy policies2013In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 355-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a study of policy-induced changes in the Swedish pulp and paper industry, this paper follows a process of socio-technical regime destabilisation. Results from the study show that in industries where established firms have significant power, processes of endogenous renewal are more likely to destabilise established regimes than processes based on niche solutions. Further, the study shows how policy measures aimed to destabilise the current regime may result in different responses, owing to the different capabilities of individual firms. The analysis suggests that heterogeneous capabilities within established industries provide possibilities for policy makers to initiate change.

  • 23.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Risk- och krishantering i lokala tekniska system kring IT och energi: En forskningsöversikt kring krishantering relaterat till systemberoende, aktörer och samordning2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

         Denna forskningsöversikt utgör det inledande arbetet i forskningsprojektet ”Krisberedskap för teknisk infrastruktur – regionala och kommunala strategier för samverkan och implementering” som finansieras av Krisberedskapsmyndigheten (KBM) 2006-2008. Denna översikt utgör en introduktion och syftar till att orientera deltagande forskare i det internationella forskningsläget kring lokal och regional krishantering beträdande IT och energi.

    Denna forskningsöversikt har genomförts av projektledare FD Elin Wihlborg vid avdelningen för Statsvetenskap, Ekonomiska institutionen och FD Jenny Palm tema Teknik och Social förändring och pol.mag. Mikael Ottosson som nu är doktorand inom Program Energisystem. Alla är verksamma vid Linköpings universitet.

  • 24.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Parment, Anders
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Hållbar marknadsföring: hur sociala, miljömässiga och ekonomiska hänsynstaganden kan bidra till hållbara företag och marknader2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för hållbarhetsfrågor i allmänhet och hållbara företag i synnerhet har ökat avsevärt under de senaste åren, och idag fångar hållbarhetsfrågor intresset hos konsumenter, företagsledare, politiker, journalister, studenter och andra grupper. Det har hittills saknats vetenskaplig litteratur som speglar hållbarhetsdimensionens teori, analysmodeller och praktik från ett marknadsföringsperspektiv - och särskilt gäller detta litteratur som speglar svenska förhållanden.

    Denna bok försöker fylla det tomrummet genom att ge insikter kring hur man som konsument, företagsledare eller student kan leva och få sina behov tillfredsställda utan att äventyra kommande generationers möjligheter att tillfredsställa sina behov. Särskilt inom marknadsföringsområdet är detta angeläget, då hållbarhet till sin natur är integrerat med t.ex. affärsmodeller, varumärken och marknadskommunikation.

  • 25.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Parment, Anders
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Sustainable marketing: How social, environmental and economic considerations can contribute towards sustainable companies and markets2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we as consumers, company leaders or students have our needs met without adventuring the possibilities of future generations having their needs met?During recent years, the interest in sustainability issues in general and sustainable companies in particular has increased considerably, among consumers as well as company leaders, politicians, journalists and other groups.

    So far, there has been a lack of scientific literature reflecting a marketing perspective on the sustainability dimension. This book is the authors" attempt to fill that void and contribute to making sustainability an integral part of marketing, for instance in business models, brands, and marketing communication.

    Honourable mention - Marketing Book of the Year 2014The Swedish version of the book was rewarded a special prize in The Swedish Marketing Foundation"s annual distinction Marketing Book of the Year in 2014.

  • 26.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 472-483Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

  • 27.
    Parment, Anders
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marknadsföring och distribution: strategiska vägval avseende marknadskanaler2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bilden i såväl marknadsföringslitteratur som bland många beslutsfattare är att distributionsbeslut primärt handlar om att styra ett flöde av varor och tjänster på ett mer kostnadseffektivt sätt än konkurrenterna.

    I denna bok är utgångspunkten istället att distribution har blivit så integrerat i erbjudandet att det är svårt att isolera från produkten och varumärket. Företag som känner till detta samband arbetar inte slentrianmässigt med sin distribution utan förstår dess strategiska betydelse för framgång i en alltmer konkurrensintensiv och mättad marknad där konsumenter är krävande, emotionellt styrda och generellt trötta på företags marknadskommunikation.

    Genom studier av svenska och internationella företag och varumärken som Stiga, Fenix Outdoor, Svenssons i Lammhult, Nike, Samsung och Starbucks exemplifieras och fördjupas förståelsen för distributionens betydelse.

    Boken lämpar sig som komplement till introduktionsboken i grundläggande marknadsföringskurser vid universitet och högskolor samt som fördjupningslitteratur. Den vänder sig också till yrkesverksamma som arbetar med eller kommer i kontakt med marknadsföring och distribution.

  • 28.
    Schulze, Mike
    et al.
    EBS Universität für Wirtschaft und Recht, EBS Business School, Strascheg Institute for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (SIIE), Rheingaustraße 1, 65375 Oestrich-Winkel, Germany.
    Nehler, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management in industry: a systematic review of previous findings and an integrative conceptual framework2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 3692-3708Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research points to a large energy efficiency potential in industry which is still left unexploited. One of the most promising means of reducing energy consumption and related energy costs is implementing an energy management. This paper provides a systematic review of existing academic journal publications on energy management in industry. Five essential key elements of an energy management based on overarching themes are identified within the body of literature (strategy/planning, implementation/operation, controlling, organization and culture) and the specific findings relating to each key element are synthesized. Subsequently a conceptual framework of an energy management is developed which illustrates that a comprehensive approach is necessary in order to effectively exploit the existing energy efficiency potential. Finally implications for further research are described.

  • 29.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Johanna
    Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Socio-Techincal Aspects of Potential Future Use of Excess Heat from Kraft Pulp Mills2009In: 22nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: August 31 – September 3, 2009, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest energy users in Sweden and in 2007 2.2 TWh of heat was delivered from pulp mills, mainly to district heating systems. In this study, two market kraft pulp mills and two energycompanies (ECOs) have been interviewed about their views on excess heat, energy efficiency and energy strategies.The interviews have been brought together with results from previous optimization studies concerning kraft pulp millexcess heat by the authors and results from other related work in a socio-technical synthesis that aims to provide amore comprehensive view on the factors that influence the utilization of kraft pulp mill excess heat than achieved inprevious studies. The results show that the kraft pulp mills are more positive towards sales of excess heat than theECOs, which can be related to the fact that the ECOs take a greater risk when entering a heat cooperation. Anotherbarrier to co-operations is the already existing utilities in the ECOs that compete with excess heat for the position asbase load in the district heating systems. Both internal and external use of excess heat can benefit from policymeasures. Other important factors are the view on energy-related investments in the mill, the level of communicationbetween the parties, and the goodwill qualities obtained through energy-efficient solutions.

  • 30.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Jönsson, Johanna
    Värmeteknik och maskinlära Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Överskottsvärme från kemiska massabruk-En socioteknisk analys av interna och externa användningspotentialer2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten beskrivs och analyseras utifrån ett sociotekniskt perspektiv möjligheter och begränsningar för utnyttjande av överskottsvärme vid kemiska avsalubruk. Både internt och externt utnyttjande av värmet studeras. Särskilt fokuseras på relationer samt eventuella konflikter, både rent teknisk/ekonomiska och samhälleliga, mellan olika interna och externa användningsområden. Projektet, och därmed även rapporten, antar med dess breda frågeställningar formen av en förstudie inför kommande forskningsprojekt. Mer konkret ställs forskningsfrågor som: Vilka sociotekniska förutsättningar styr avvägningen mellan internt utnyttjande och externt utnyttjande, i form av fjärrvärme, av industriellt överskottsvärme vid kemiska avsalubruk och hur påverkar befintliga politiska styrmedel dessa förutsättningar? Vilka hinder och drivkrafter existerar för utnyttjande av industriellt överskottsvärme från kemiska avsalubruk? Hur påverkas möjligheter och begränsningar för utnyttjande av industriellt överskottsvärme av olika systemsyn och systemavgränsningar? På vilket sätt inkluderas nyttjande av industriellt överskottsvärme i de olika företagens strategier? Rapporten består i huvudsak av tre delar. I de första kapitlen presenteras forskningsproblemet samt tidigare forskning på området. I kapitel 5 presenteras resultaten från den tekniska studien och i kapitel 6 analyseras dessa resultat tillsammans med resultaten från 5 intervjuer som genomförts med nyckelpersoner vid energibolag samt kemiska massabruk. Studiens resultat pekar bland annat på att det finns, enligt den tekniska studien, en viss konkurrens om överskottsvärmet när det har en relativt hög temperatur eftersom det då kan användas även internt i bruket. I intervjuerna framkommer dock att varken industrin eller energibolagen upplever någon konflikt eller konkurrens om värmet. De hinder för externt nyttjande av överskottsvärme i form av fjärrvärme som har identifierats är både av social och av ekonomisk karaktär. Hinder av teknisk/ekonomisk karaktär är bland annat vilka anläggningar som redan finns (eller planeras) i systemet, och som därmed konkurrerar med överskottsvärmet om att nyttjas för produktion av fjärrvärme, elcertifikatsystemet, risken för driftsstörningar i industrin med påföljande leveransavbrott samt det fysiska avståndet mellan industrin och fjärrvärmenätet. Vidare framkommer att i en kommun där det finns avfallsbaserad värmeproduktion blir det inte vare sig ur ett helhetsperspektiv eller sett enbart från energibolagets håll lönsamt att köpa in överskottvärme från massabruket. På samma sätt gynnar inte ett energisystem baserat på elcertifikatberättigad biobränslekraftvärme externt nyttjande av överskottsvärme. Genom att dra systemgränsen kring enbart sitt eget system finns det, förutom en risk för suboptimeringar, en risk för att tekniskt, ekonomiskt och miljömässigt hållbara lösningar blir förbisedda. När en region står inför nyinvesteringar i energisystemet är det viktigt att överväga alla de möjligheter som finns. Vid intervjuerna framkom dessutom att energifrågans status hos bruken har ökat kraftigt i takt med att priserna på el och bränslen har stigit. Bruken tror även att den rådande situationen kommer att vara mer eller mindre bestående och de måste därför utveckla ett -energiben- att stå på, för att även i framtiden kunna vara lönsamma och konkurrenskraftiga på den internationella marknaden.

  • 31.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    An energy-efficient Swedish pulp and paper industry: exploring barriers to and driving forces for cost-effective energy efficiency investments2008In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 21-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, which is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates whether this holds for the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and if so, investigates the barriers inhibiting and the driving forces stressing cost-effective energy efficiency investments. By so, this case study covers about 2% of the EU-25 industrial end-use of energy. The overall results from a questionnaire show that there is an energy efficiency gap in the sector and that the largest barriers were technical risks such as risk of production disruptions, cost of production disruption/hassle/inconvenience, technology inappropriate at the mill, lack of time and other priorities, lack of access to capital, and slim organization. As regards the driving forces for energy efficiency, the highest ranked driving forces were cost reductions resulting from lower energy use, people with real ambition, long-term energy strategy, the threat of rising energy prices, the electricity certificate system, the PFE. The results show that many of the barriers and driving forces were not solely market-related, e.g., lack of time or other priorities, slim organization, other priorities for capital investments, lack of staff awareness, and long decision chains indicate that firm-specific barriers plays an important role. These barriers may not be overcome by market-related public policy instruments but is rather a consequence of how the energy issue is organized within the firms. The second and the third largest driving forces, people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy further support this.

  • 32.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Drivkrafter för industrins energianvändning - En litteraturstudie2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att ge en överblick av kunskapsläget beträffande vilka faktorersom påverkar industrins energianvändning. Syftet kan delas upp i fyra temaområden:Energipriser och råvaror, Ekonomisk utveckling, Skatter och styrmedel,samt Energieffektivisering. Inom ramen för dessa fyra teman omfattar studien fyraunderkategorier: industrin generellt inklusive internationell forskning inom fältet,svensk industri, järn- och stålindustrin generellt inklusive internationell forskninginom fältet, samt svensk järn- och stålindustri.Den huvudsakliga metoden för uppdragets genomförande har varit en litteraturstudie,där vetenskapliga artiklar i internationella tidsskrifter granskats. För att säkrahög vetenskaplig kvalité har endast ISI-rankade vetenskapliga artiklar valts ut förläsning. Totalt omfattas studien av cirka 240 vetenskapliga artiklar mellan åren 2000till 2012. Initialt granskades artiklarna utifrån titel, och nyckelord, och typ av tidsskrift,för att avgränsa icke relevanta artiklar. Därefter valdes cirka 100 artiklar utför en djupare granskning av primärt artiklarnas sammanfattningar. Totalt valdesutifrån detta cirka 50 artiklar ut för genomläsning och kritisk granskning. Av dessaansågs 30 vara av så stor relevans att de beskrivs mer utförligt i underliggande rapport,se tabell 1. Notera att en artikel kan återfinnas under flera kategorier.I kapitel 8 presenteras en sammanfattning av de studerande artiklarna. Beträffandefaktorer som påverkar svensk järn- och stålindustris energianvändning kan noterasatt inga träffar erhölls enligt studiens sökkriterier och endast två artiklar återfannsbland internationell järn- och stålindustri. Detta accentuerar vikten av framtidaforskning inom området.

  • 33.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy management practices in Swedish energy-intensive industries2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1125-1133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies point out a large (untapped) potential for energy efficiency in industry through the adoption of energy management practices. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze energy management practices in two different Swedish energy-intensive industries: the pulp and paper industry and the foundry industry. The results show that one third of the studied mills and about two fifths of the studied foundries do not allocate energy costs by means of sub-metering, which probably contributes to reinforce the split incentive problem. Moreover, about one fifth of the mills and about half of the foundries lack a long-term energy strategy. The results also show that only about 40% and 25% respectively of the studied mills and foundries may be categorized as successful when it comes to energy management practices. If energy management is not fully prioritized even in energy-intensive industries - such as the studied foundry and pulp- and paper industry it will, in all probability, not be prioritized in less energy-intensive industrial sectors or countries either, indicating a large untapped potential in regard to cleaner, more environmentally sound, production in the industrial sector.

  • 34.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy related outsourcing: - The case of ESCOs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2011In: First International Technology Management Conference, IEEE , 2011, p. 329-337Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is stated as a major means of reducing the threat of increased global warming, caused by human use of fossil fuels. Energy service companies (ESCOs) have been expected to play an important role in promoting energy efficiency in different sectors of the economy, including industry. Energy related outsourcing in the complex energy intensive pulp and paper industry, with a continuous production process, represents one of the more challenging types of industrial outsourcing. This paper studies the role of ESCOs as a method to promote energy efficiency in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. A questionnaire was used, complemented by in-depth interviews with mill executives in order to gain more knowledge of the issue. The main conclusion from this paper is that the utilization of ESCOs in the pulp and paper industry is higher in activities with a lower level of energy integration in the production process, and on the contrary, the utilization of ESCOs is lower with a higher level of energy integration in the production process. Since the PPI is a mature industry with a globally well-known and well-spread technique, results from this paper, may plausibly be generalized for PPIs in other countries as well.

  • 35.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: Volume 32009In: Act! Innovate! Deliver! Reducing energy demand sustainably / [ed] Christel Broussous and Corisande Jover, eceee , 2009, p. 1051-1058Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pulp- and paper industry is a considerable user of energy, accounting for about 50 percent of the Swedish industrial energy use and 2 percent of the EU-25 industrial energy use. Its high energy use makes this industry particularly important in terms of energy efficiency. Previous research has emphasised the need for companies’ to have well functioning energy management practices in order to increase energy efficiency. This paper describes and analyses energy management practices in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. A questionnaire was sent out to the person in charge of the energy issue at all Swedish mills and 40 replies were received, a response frequency of 68 percent. The results show that the energy issue has been given increasingly higher priority over the past 10 years. However, in spite of this, overall results from the questionnaire show that there is still potential for improving energy management in the studied industry. More than 20 percent of the studied mills lack a long-term energy strategy, and less than half of the studied mills have an energy strategy covering at least five years. These results indicate that the implementation of a long-term energy strategy in this energy intensive industry, in combination with other means, could be of utmost importance for increasing energy efficiency. In conclusion, based on the research results presented in this paper, a different energy policy design for the industry seems to be needed, which could be very fruitful if it focuses on establishing more efficient energy management practices and includes all energy carriers. Moreove, the fact that more than 20 percent of the studied mills lack a long-term energy strategy and the fact that the Swedish EMS standard does not require such a strategy to be formulated indicates the need for further studies regarding a plausible inclusion of a long-term energy strategy in the EMS standard.

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