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  • 1.
    Engvall, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Strukturerad problemlösning: observationer från japanska klassrum2015In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, no 3, p. 25-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ser den japanska matematikundervisningen ut i de tidiga skolåren? Två forskare har slagit ihop sina intressen och rest till Japan för att observera och skaffa intryck från klassrum. De beskriver här vad som kännetecknar det lärare och elever gör då problemlösning är utgångspunkten för undervisning i aritmetik. De belyser också de förutsättningar för lärande som kan uppstå när undervisningen utgår från strukturerad problemlösning.

  • 2.
    Kreitz-Sandber, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Engvall, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Problem solving perspective in arithmetic classrooms: Developing mathematic learning in Japanese elementary schools2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation wants to provide knowledge on mathematics lessons in Japanese classrooms (in comparison to Swedish classrooms). We will focus on a description of arithmetic lessons in the early school years. During a study visit in Sendai and Tokyo in February 2014 we had the possibility to visit lessons in four different elementary schools and to observe teachers’ and pupils’ activities during the mathematic lessons. The ”Japanese way” of organizing mathematics teaching has been described frequently and is being characterised as organising the whole lesson around a small number of problems and with a focus on pupils learning strategies (Shimizu, 2013). In this paper we choose Shimizu and others’ analyses as a starting point and will exemplify how a problem solving perspective can guide the activities of teachers and pupils. We are especially interested in how problem solving can contribute to pupils’ understanding of mathematical terms and content in elementary school lessons early years, when addition and subtraction and related procedures are being taught.

  • 3.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning in Working Life and Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    „Andere Welten?“: Soziale Integration von Jugendlichen in Japan und Deutschland im Vergleich2002In: Jugendliche in Japan und Deutschland: soziale Integration im Vergleich / [ed] Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg, Opladen: Leske; Budrich , 2002, p. 1-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Der Beitrag leitet in die Thematik des vorliegenden Sammelbandes zur sozialen Integration von Jugendlichen in Japan und Deutschland ein. Es wird zunächst erläutert, warum sich Japan für eine vergleichende Betrachtung von Integrationsprozessen Jugendlicher in die Gesellschaft eignet und es folgt eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit dem "Beispiel Japan". Eine anschließende kurze Darstellung der wichtigsten Entwicklungen und Themen in der internationalen Jugendforschung soll die Verwurzelung sowohl deutscher als auch japanischer Jugendstudien in diesem Bereich verdeutlichen. Um zu zeigen, dass sich die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Vergleichsfall Japan für andere Bereiche der Sozialwissenschaften in der Vergangenheit als durchaus fruchtbar erwiesen hat, wird auch die Entwicklung der sozialwissenschaftlichen Japanforschung kurz skizziert. Dabei liegt der Schwerpunkt auf den Diskussionsbereichen um eine "andere Moderne", die Individualisierung der japanischen Gesellschaft und die auf Japan bezogene Wertwandeldebatte. Die vorliegende Einleitung schließt mit Überlegungen zu Möglichkeiten des Vergleichs in der Jugendforschung, die in eine kurze Darstellung der Struktur des Bandes und Hinweise auf die darin enthaltenen Beiträge münden.

  • 4.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    ‘As an educator you have to fix many things on your own’: A study of teachers’ perspectives on organizing inclusion in various welfare contexts.2015In: Rights of Children in the Nordic Welfare States: Conceptual and Empirical Enquiries / [ed] Gro Hellesdatter Jacobsen, Århus: NSU Press, 2015, p. 145-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the school and welfare systems in Japan, Germany, and Sweden are organized differently, public school teachers from each of these countries express common concerns about the possibilities and challenges of organizing inclusive educational settings in general school contexts. These results come from a comparative study based on focus group interviews with teachers in these three countries. The teachers discuss the possibilities and challenges of multiprofessional collaboration in their respective school systems. Rather than analysing differences between the systems, this chapter focuses on common needs from a teacher’s perspective. The purpose of this chapter is to describe possible dilemmas occurring in relation to the inclusion paradigm of schools in different national school systems. This chapter illustrates how taking teachers’ perspectives into account is an important precondition for developing inclusive practices in school settings. Children meet the welfare system through the teachers; with their central position in schools, teachers have the potential to facilitate the meeting between the individual and the social institutions. Accessibility of services and communication that functions well with and between different professional groups is crucial when organizing support structures. The chapter takes as its point of departure discourses on inclusion as part of a human rights agenda.

  • 5.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University.
    Book review: Metzler, Anne: Die Jugendbesserungsanstalten Japans: Erzeuger "totaler Bindung"2005In: Japanstudien, ISSN 0938-6491, Vol. 17, p. 295-302Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Children’s rights and strategies for inclusion in the context of special needs education2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “A policy of inclusion is generally understood around the world as part of a human rights agenda that demands access to, and equity in education” (Florian, 2008, p. 202). An understanding of discourses concerning inclusion in education contributes valuable information in the context of human rights and especially children’s rights in the welfare state. This paper is my contribution to discussions in circle 1 of the Nordic Summer University on “Human rights in the Nordic welfare states”. It shall also be developed into a theoretical background for my study on multi-professional cooperation in schools and the discussion of results from this study, which builds on focus groups interviews with teachers in Sweden, Germany and Japan, on which I reported early in this circle (Kreitz-Sandberg, 2010). Today’s presentation ignores both methodological questions of the empirical study, considerations on international comparisons and results from my focus group interviews. However, it takes a more extended view on possible theoretical frameworks for the study. We might consider if and in which form such a theoretical description could be part of the online anthology planned by circle 1.

  • 7.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Comparative perspectives on professional cooperation: A study on teachers’ resources for working with students in special needs2010In: The Seventh NAJS Conference on the Study of Contemporary Japanese Society, 18–19 March 2010 Oslo University, Norway, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to compare working conditions of teachers in Sweden, Japan and Germany.

    1. What kind of support do schools offer to teachers who have pupils with special needs?

    2. If there is special-needs resource personal, what kind of support do teachers get from these persons?

    The research is divided into two phases. In the first phase information and data on organisation, resources and practices regarding pupils' welfare in municipal compulsory schools in Sweden, Japan and Germany will be collected. If necessary, the review of literature and statistics will be combined with additional data from telephone interviews or questionnaires involving a certain number of prinipals or other persons responsible for school organisation. General national characteristics will be described, even if a certain diversity of practices can be expected for each of the three countries. This knowledge about structures and processes of school welfare forms the ground for the second phase aiming at an analysis of professional cooperation within school. From a teachers’ perspective the above mentioned research questions will be discussed based on focus group interviews in the second phase of the study. The interest to study interprofessional cooperation is rooted in the Swedish experience, where different professions participate in working with pupils' welfare at school. Colaboration between teachers, schoolnurses, social workers, psychologists and others have become a selfevident condition of school welfare. At the NAJS conference the focus of discussion will naturally be on the Japanese part of the study.

  • 8.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Educational Policies: Framework and Challenges2008In: The Demographic Challenge. A Handbook about Japan / [ed] Florian Coulmas, Harald Conrad, Annette Schad-Seifert and Gabriele Vogt, Leiden, Boston: Brill , 2008, p. 733-748Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Handbook explores the challenges demographic change poses to today’s Japan. The first part provides the fundamental data involved, and the subsequent two parts address the social and cultural aspects of Japan’s demographic change. Parts four and five are dedicated to the political, economic and social security aspects of demographic change.The Handbook brings together a group of international scholars of various disciplinary backgrounds to take issue with the world’s fastest demographic transition. Topics include the dynamics of gender roles, images of age, policyformation, labour market structures, pension system, living arrangements, ethical values, and many more. Against the background of Japan’s demographic change, the latest developments in these fields are being introduced, and wheneverappropriate set into a context of historical and/or international comparison. This Handbook is the first comprehensive publication in English on Japan’s demographic change.

  • 9.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Exkurs - Transkulturelle Genderforschung und interkulturelle Kompetenz. Strategien in der virtuellen Lehre aus der Perspektive von Studierenden2007In: Transkulturelle Genderforschung. Ein Studienbuch zum Verhältnis von Kultur und Geschlecht / [ed] Michiko Mae,Britta Saal, Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Publisher , 2007, p. 53-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Das Buch behandelt aus verschiedenen disziplinären und auf unterschiedliche Kulturen gerichteten Perspektiven die enge Verknüpfung der diskursiven Kategorien Kultur und Gender. Wenn in der heutigen Situation einer zunehmenden Globalisierung die Frage nach der ‚eigenen‘ Kultur in Abgrenzung zum kulturellen ‚Anderen‘ gestellt wird, kommt immer auch die Genderfrage zum Vorschein, weil die jeweilige Geschlechterordnung als eine Stütze der ‚eigenen‘ Kultur verstanden wird. Und wenn diese Geschlechterordnung in Frage gestellt wird, erscheint auch die kulturelle Identität als bedroht. Diese Verwobenheit gilt es als ein kulturübergreifendes Phänomen zu erkennen. Expertinnen aus verschiedenen Disziplinen wie Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaften, Soziologie, Sozialanthropologie und Religionswissenschaft untersuchen die unterschiedlichen sozialen und kulturellen Bedingungen der Genderverhältnisse in acht Kulturkreisen; sie zeigen, wie das kulturell ‚Eigene‘ immer durch seinen Bezug auf das kulturell ‚Andere‘ geprägt wird. Durch diese Sichtbarmachung der grenzüberschreitenden Verflechtungen kann die transkulturelle Verfasstheit von Kultur zu einem neuen Bezugspunkt für die Genderforschung werden, und die Genderverhältnisse können aus ihrer Bindung an die Definitionsmacht einer spezifischen Kultur herausgelöst werden.

  • 10.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    From gender equality to norm creativity:: Gender inclusion in university programmes for teachers in preschools and leisure time centers2016In: NERA 2016: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 115-115Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim: The purpose of this presentation is to describe ways of including gender equality and gender sensitivity in programmes for teachers in preschools and leisure-time centres. The presentation takes its point of departure in research literature on gender in higher education and teachers’ education.

    Theoretical and methodology framework: Gender sensitivity, intersectionality, diversity, norm-critical thinking and, recently, norm-creativity are only a few of the eye-catching terms in gender and education discussions. Some of them are used more descriptively while others stand for explicit theoretical paradigms. I will, in a first step investigate, which are the predominant perspectives and what do they contribute to our knowledge on gender in (preschool) teachers’ education.

    (Expected) conclusions/findings: Hopefully, the established knowledge can be applied to specific education contexts: Preschool teachers’ education and teacher in leisure-time centre programmes. These programmes are both similar and different to each other. The number of men studying to become preschool teachers has been low over the years, while programmes for teachers working in leisuretime centres attract almost equally many men and women. For our own university we know that these programmes include knowledge on gender and education into their curriculum and the teaching. However, involved teachers also voice a wish to work more strategically with gender in their programmes. The systematic literature study is expected to inspire our work with further gender inclusion into teachers’ and preschool teachers’ programmes.

    Relevance to Nordic educational research: Gender equality is nothing that comes for free and working with gender equality is a highly relevant topic for teachers’ education in Nordic countries. However, international research in the field is still in the beginning. Teacher educators in Finland have over the last decade worked strategically with gender sensitive education in teacher training programmes and also in Sweden and other Nordic countries there are a number of actors in the field. The discussion with researchers from different Nordic countries and actors from various teachers’ education programmes can stimulate our work on gender inclusion in teachers’ education and training.

  • 11.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gender and Education: Perspectives on Schooling in Japan and Comparisons from the Philippines2007In: Gender Dynamics and Globalization. Perspectives on Japan within Asia / [ed] Claudia Derichs and Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg, Muenster et al.: Lit Publisher , 2007, p. 143-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume applies a gender-sensitive perspective on Japan, discussing issues such as national identity, the changing appeal of role models, legacies of a misogynous past, gendered education policies, female imaging in the media, or working women's networks. The transnational dimension of this perspective is highlighted by comparisons drawn between Japan and other countries of the region such as Philippines and South Korea. Authors attend to concepts of gender and gendered identities as well as to actors within gendered spaces of society.Show more Show less

  • 12.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gender diversity and equity in teacher education: Stakeholders' perspectives on practical approaches2010In: Abstracts: Active Citizenship: Nordisk förening för pedagogisk forskning (NFPF/NERA), Malmö: Malmö högskola , 2010, p. 356-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how stakeholders in teacher education reflect on gender equity in teacher education. The aim is to describe a variation of perspectives on needs and possible limits of gender integration in higher education. A gender diversity approach is applied with inspiration from feminist poststructural thought. The background of the study is the ongoing reconstruction of teacher education in Sweden, which embodies a variety of contradictions and dilemmas according to gender. In order to catch the spirit of the time the author conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of various subjects, thematic skill bases and areasof competence. How do stakeholders in teacher education reflect on practical approaches according to gender integration and diversity strategies? One of the expected results is that the positions of representatives for different subjects vary in relation to “gender as form” and “gender as a content” of instruction. By presenting at the NERA- conference I would like to discuss the results of my study and their relevance at an early stage with other actors in teacher education. Understanding actors’ perspectives is a necessity in order to develop adequate strategies for gender diversity and equity in teacher education.

  • 13.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gender inclusion and horizontal gender segregation: stakeholders' strategies and dilemmas in Swedish teachers' education2013In: Gender and Education, ISSN 0954-0253, E-ISSN 1360-0516, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 444-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to our knowledge of teacher educators' strategies for, and dilemmas with, working with gender inclusion in teachers' education. It illustrates how gender is constructed and reconstructed in teachers' education. The study revealed that teachers' education is not only – as earlier described – a highly feminised field, it is also a discipline that is permeated by horizontal and vertical segregation typical of higher education. The study analyses how university teacher educators experience and handle consequences of this horizontal segregation, building on interviews with subject representatives at a Swedish university. The results exemplify how university teachers reflect on gender policies and their own roles when working with teacher students. Heteronormative patterns also become visible in strategies meant to facilitate gender equality and desegregation. The author argues for the need to include university teachers' perspectives in future strategies for developing gender inclusion in university education.

  • 14.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gender Integration at the University - Still a Relevant Topic for Teacher Education?: Contribution to Network 8 Gender and Education's  Pre-conference ”Nordic Challenges, Future Possibilities – Gender Awareness in Schools and Teacher Education”2011In: NERA's 39th Congress - Rights and Education: Faculty of Education at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, 2011, p. 14-15Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Gender Mainstreaming, Intersectionality and Inclusive Perspectives in Higher Education2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation I will discuss different ways of working with gender equality and anti-discrimination in higher education. I am arguing for a new concept of gender inclusion. This concept combines strategies of gender mainstreaming with a number of specific pedagogical and self- reflexive elements in university teaching. It also embeds working with gender into an intersectional context, where gender is understood as one feature interacting with other dimensions that risk cementing inequality. I will take up some examples on how we at Linköping University work with preparing conditions to increase equal opportunities in higher education and present results from an interview study with teacher educators. The study describes university teachers’ perceptions of strategies and dilemmas when working with gender inclusion in teachers’ education.

  • 16.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gendersensitive Pädagogik in Schweden: Vorbereitung für Geschlechtergerechtigkeit bereits im Kindergarten?2010In: Betrifft Mädchen, ISSN 1438-5295, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 31-34Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Schweden gilt gemeinsam mit anderen nordischen Nationen als ein Land, in dem die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter weit vorangeschritten ist. Nach Angaben der Vereinten Nationen belegte Schweden 2005 den vierten Platz hinsichtlich der erfolgreichen Umsetzung von Gender Mainstreaming. Schweden wird in Deutschland sowohl in Hinblick auf Gleichstellung als auch auf Bildungsideale gerne als positives Exempel präsentiert.Gleichstellung und gleiche Möglichkeiten für Mädchen und Jungen im Bildungsbereicht wurden bereits in den 60er Jahren auch in den Lehrplänen verankert. Der Lehrplan für den vorschulischen Bereich (Lpfö 98) hebt hervor, dass die Kinder ein Verständnis für Egalität aller Menschen unabhängig von sozialer Herkunft, Geschlecht, ethnischer Zugehörigkeit, Religion oder Glaubensgemeinschaft, sexueller Orientierung oder Behinderung entwickeln sollen.

  • 17.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    International comparisons - the whys and hows2007In: Nordiska Sommeruniversitet,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Erziehungswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Jugend in Japan: Eine empirische Undersuchung zur Adoleszenz in einer anderen Moderne1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jämställdhet i välfärdsstaten: En utvärdering av genusintegrering i universitetet2009In: Nordiska Sommaruniversitetet (NSU), 19-26 july 2009, Tyrifjord, Norway: Circle 1: From Welfare systems to Welfare Societies - changing perspectives of Nordic Welfare Models in times of globalization”, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Mißverstehen – reflektieren – unterscheiden – erkennen: Zur Entwicklung interkultureller Kompetenz in der japanologischen Lehre2003In: Japanstudien, ISSN 0938-6491, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 153-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intercultural communication competence is gaining increasing impor- tance in the context of globalization. For example, politics and economics rely on social and cultural exchanges between countries and within societies, where differ- ent groups and persons with diverse social backgrounds need to cooperate and act on a daily basis. Although the term „intercultural competence“ is frequently used, it is not always evident which concepts are associated with the expression. „Inter- cultural communication,“ „intercultural education,“ „intercultural exchange“ and „intercultural training“ have developed into extended fields of research in disci- plines like linguistics, foreign language teaching, educational science, psychology, international economics. In this article the author starts with a short review of per- spectives on intercultural competence in various disciplines, and discusses their implications for the field of Japanese studies, where „intercultural competence,“ it has been claimed, should also form part of the curriculum. In order to evaluate the possibilities of such concepts in the context of teaching and research in Japanese studies, empirical research on the topic was carried out by the author. Interviews have been conducted with Japanese, German, American and Swedish experts from universities, and educational and research institutions that are connected to fields of international and intercultural exchange, and with German students who had completed a study program in Japan. Their views are integrated into a discussion of students‘ international experiences, the role of misunderstandings in communi- cation, the importance of reflecting on the concepts of culture and the possibilities of developing „intercultural competence“ in the context of Japanese studies. The author suggests important factors for the development of the field of Japanese studies as an outstanding area to develop and experience „intercultural compe- tence,“ a subject that offers many interdisciplinary research possibilities. The con- clusion reveals the possibility of integrating more didactic elements into university education in order to gain capacities to transform misunderstandings through self- reflection into a field where students learn to identify different cultural perspec- tives. Students need to learn at a well-informed level, with a methodological intro- duction of theory, to reach a complex ability in (inter)cultural understanding.

  • 21.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Multiprofessionelle Zusammenarbeit an der Schule: Strategien zur Inklusion in Schweden, Japan und Deutschland2010In: Programheft zur Tagung: Inklusion in Bildungsinstitutionen – eine Herausforderung an die Heil- und Sonderpädagogik / [ed] Universität Bielefeld Fakultät für Erziehungswissenschaft, DGfE – Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft Sektion Sonderpädagogik, 2010, p. 11-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    In diesem Beitrag möchte ich Ergebnisse der ersten Phase eines international vergleichenden Forschungsprojektes vorstellen. Dabei stehen inklusive Ansätze pädagogischer Organisation im Vordergrund. Welche Unterstützung in Form von Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Professionsgruppen können Schulen ihren Lehrkräften anbieten, wenn sie Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten oder Verhaltensauffälligkeiten unterrichten? Charakteristika der Organisation im schwedischen, japanischen und deutschen Schulsystem werden mit Hinblick auf Teilnahme, Voraussetzungen und Beitrag verschiedener Berufsgruppen im Kontext multiprofessioneller Zusammenarbeit in der Schule beschrieben. Die Diskussion soll Möglichkeiten und Grenzen dieser Form der Unterstützung für Lehrer aufgreifen.

  • 22.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Multiprofessionelle Zusammenarbeit in der Schule: Inklusive Ansätze sonderpädagogischer Organisationen in Schweden2011In: Inklusion in Bildungsinstitutionen: Eine Herausforderung an die Heil- und Sonderpädagogik / [ed] Birgig Lütje-Klose, Marie-Therese Langer, Björn Serker & Melanie Urban, Bad Heilbrunn: Verlag Julius Klinkhardt , 2011, p. 185-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Der Themenkomplex Integration und Inklusion bewegt die wissenschaftliche Heil- und Sonderpädagogik seit vielen Jahren, mit der Umsetzung inklusiver Ideen und Praktiken verbinden sich gleichwohl noch immer erhebliche Herausforderungen für die sonderpädagogische Disziplin und Profession. In der Folge der UN-Charta über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen hat die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Inklusionsanspruch eine neue Aktualität im Fachdiskurs gewonnen, die sich in den Beiträgen dieses Tagungsbandes widerspiegelt. Die Texte bieten einen Einblick in aktuelle Theoriediskurse und Forschungsergebnisse zur Inklusion in Bildungsinstitutionen. Eine theoretische und philosophische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Inklusionsbegriff und seinen Implikationen wird unter anderem aus gerechtigkeitstheoretischer und systemtheoretischer Perspektive geführt. Das Professionsverständnis von Heil- und SonderpädagogInnen im Kontext von Inklusion wird im Zusammenhang mit Fragen der Lehreraus- und -weiterbildung sowie mit der Schul- und Unterrichtsentwicklung erörtert. Aktuelle empirische Studien aus den Feldern der frühkindlichen Bildung und Schule sowie des Übergangs in die berufliche Bildung werden präsentiert.

  • 23.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Perspektiv på genusintegrering: En intervjustudie med universitetslärare inom lärarprogrammets inriktningarna2010In: Nordic Summer University – Summersession, 24 – 30 July 2010 . Marvik, Finland: Circle 8: Køn i Norden / [ed] NSU, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Genusfrågan ska komma in som en självklar del av verksamhets- och kursplanering” (Dnr LiU-2008-04713) och genuslektorns uppdrag är att verka för detta inom Linköping universitet (LiU). En intervjustudie kring universitetslärarnas perspektiv på genusintegrering i lärarprogrammets inriktningar visar att lärarnas medvetenhet om betydelsen av och möjligheterna kring att integrera genus som innehåll och form i undervisning är stor. LiU ska vara en plats där studenterna kan hämta ett genusmedvetet förhållningssätt i undervisningspraktiken, detta beskriver universitetslärare som ett viktigt mål att uppnå för lärarprogrammet och utbildningen av framtidens lärare. Samtidigt finns en stor spridning i hur lärarna beskriver sin undervisningspraktik, där någon jobbar konsekvent med genus-, mångfalds- eller maktperspektiv medan andra visar upp mer genusblinda förhållningssätt. Undersökningen visar också att lärarna är mycket upptagna med att balansera en ojämn könsfördelning inom lärarprogrammet som helhet och sina olika inriktningar i synnerlighet. Resultat från intervjusamtal visar på fortsatt diskussionsbehov eftersom ”två dikotoma könskategorier alltid redan förutsätts och att risken därför är överhängande att uppdelningen återskapar de problem som jämställdhetsarbete syftar till att lösa” (Bondestam, 2010). Undersökningen ska bidra som underlag för att utveckla genuslektorns arbete mot inriktningarna inom utbildningsvetenskap.

  • 24.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Research on Japan in Germany: Scientific upswing with economic decline2005In: NIAS-nytt : Asia insight, ISSN 0904-4337, no 1, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Results Concerning Gender Dynamics in Globalisation2007In: Gender Dynamics and Globalization. Perspectives on Japan within Asia / [ed] Claudia Derichs and Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg, Muenster et al.: Lit Publisher , 2007, p. 177-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume applies a gender-sensitive perspective on Japan, discussing issues such as national identity, the changing appeal of role models, legacies of a misogynous past, gendered education policies, female imaging in the media, or working women's networks. The transnational dimension of this perspective is highlighted by comparisons drawn between Japan and other countries of the region such as Philippines and South Korea. Authors attend to concepts of gender and gendered identities as well as to actors within gendered spaces of society.

  • 26.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    School Projects on Gender Sensitive Education in Japan and the Philippines: Questions of Relevance for Nordic Educational Science?2009In: Nordic Educational Research Association: Abstract book: NERA’s 37th Congress Trondhem 5-7 march 2009, Trondheim: NERA , 2009, p. 93-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Gender and education is a global topic and questions about equality in school are vital in school systems all over the world. The study on gender and especially gender sensitive education in other countries can contribute to an informed understanding about specifics, similarities and common claims. Expectedly different cultural contexts can contribute an excellent research ground for the study of patterns, mechanism and norms according to gender in education.

    Aim of the study and research questions

    The aim of this presentation is to discuss how international studies on gender in education can contribute to Nordic discourses on gender and education and the development of studies on equality in education. For this I shall introduce a study on school projects in Japan and the Philippines and discuss the following questions.

    - How do gender studies in different Asian nations introduce possibilities and hindrances of gender sensitive education at school?

    - How do teachers address gender matters at school according to these sources?

    - In which way are schools being described as gendered institutions?

    Theoretical perspective and conceptual framework

    The study on Gender in the two Asia countries was rooted within social science Japanese studies, the area in which I did my research for about a decade. The theoretical background were studies on gender within Japanese sociology of education. By including findings on the Philippines I aimed at opening the perspective on Japan by contributing information on another Asian reality.

    Method

    The study builds on a secondary analysis of field and evaluation studies on gender sensitive school projects. Interest in other parts of the world does not necessarily mean that we have to conduct own field studies in foreign countries. Much information is available if we have access to local studies.

    Findings

    The results show that gender is a relevant issue of study in Japanese and Philippinian primary education. The projects are concerned about gender consciousness of teachers and students. Gender stereotypes for example in study materials are analysed. Possibilities of crossing gender roles are to some extent encouraged. Teachers discuss even their responsibility in relation to the students’ family context. In Japan standardisation of gender roles is one of the problems being tackled. The results from the Philippines show that more attention must be paid to the intersection of gender and class.

    Relevance for Nordic Educational research

    The discussion I want to initiate is if and in which way international studies on gender and education can stimulate discussions on a gender perspective and equality in education in Nordic countries.

  • 27.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    School welfare in comparison: Teachers’ perspectives on interprofessional cooperation2010In: Nordic Summer University – Winter session, 28 – 30 January 2010, Københavns Universitet, Danmark: Circle 1: From Welfare systems to Welfare Societies – changing perspectives of Nordic Welfare Models in times of globalization , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to compare working conditions of teachers in Sweden, Japan and Germany. The research is divided into two phases. In the first phase information and data on organisation, resources and practices of pupils’ welfare in municipal compulsory schools in Sweden, Japan and Germany will be collected. Special focus is placed on interprofessional cooperation as regards pupils’ welfare at school. Collaboration between teachers, schoolnurses, social workers, psychologists and others has become a selfevident condition of school welfare in Sweden and many studies have been conducted to investigate the work of pupil welfare teams. However, a teacher’s perspective is often neglected. What kind of support do schools offer to teachers who have pupils with special needs? If necessary, the review of literature and statistics will be combined with additional data from telephone interviews or quesionnaires involving a certain number of prinipals or other persons responsible for school organisation. The knowledge about structures and processes of school welfare forms the ground for the second phase aiming at an analysis of interprofessional cooperation within school. If there is special-needs resource personnel, what kind of support do teachers get from these persons? This question will be elaborated on the basis of focus group interviews in the second phase of the study.

    The study is designed as an international comparison. In phase 1 general national characteristics will be described, even if a certain diversity of practices can be expected for each of the three countries. Phase 2 has a more analytical comparative focus, where effects of interprofessional cooperation will be scrutinized from a teacher’s perspective.

    As I am in the beginning of this research I want to discuss the research design and possibilities of applying a comparative perspective in this study on school welfare and interprofessional cooperation. For the meeting in Copenhagen I will describe the reality in Swedish schools and their so-called ”elevvård”. This can be a starting point for the discussion of the two-phased research design.

  • 28.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Suizid bei Jugendlichen in Japan und Deutschland: Ein Beitrag zur kulturvergleichenden Jugendforschung1996In: Japanstudien, ISSN 0938-6491, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 287-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide among Japanese adolescents is a popular topic in the media. However, a comparison of data and research from both countries, tracking the changes from the 1950s to the 1990s, shows that Japan's present per capita rate of juvenile suicide is lower than that of Germany. Therefore, it seems that cultural interpretations of suicide are responsible for the impression of high suicide rates among Japanese adolescents. This article reviews several recurring arguments about the context of juvenile suicide; for example, suicide as a reaction to a rigid social system or to pressure in the schools. The recently discussed connection between suicide and bullying (ijime) will be given special attention. Different types of media, such as newspapers, popular publications, and scientific reports, address suicide in specific ways. There is a conformity among the international perspectives which is clarified by a review of the research papers. Such a review also elucidates the irrelevance of national stereotypes.

  • 29.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teacher Educators' Strategies and Dilemmas ConcerningGender Segregation and Inclusion2013In: Disruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education: Abstract book, 2013, p. 82-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to our knowledge of teacher educators’ strategies for, anddilemmas with, working with gender inclusion in teachers’ education. It illustrateshow gender is constructed and reconstructed in teachers’ education. The studyrevealed that teachers’ education is not only – as earlier described – a highlyfeminised field, it is also a discipline that is permeated by horizontal and verticalsegregation typical of higher education. The study analyses how university teachereducators experience and handle consequences of this horizontal segregation,building on interviews with subject representatives at a Swedish university. Theresults exemplify how university teachers reflect on gender policies and their ownroles when working with teacher students. Heteronormative patterns also becomevisible in strategies meant to facilitate gender equality and desegregation. Theauthor argues for the need to include university teachers’ perspectives in futurestrategies for developing gender inclusion in university education.

  • 30.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teaching in different welfare regimes: Support structures in Swedish, German and Japanese schools2010In: Nordic Summer University – Summersession, 24 – 30 July 2010, Marvik, Finland: Circle 1: From Welfare systems to Welfare Societies – changing perspectives of Nordic Welfare Models in times of globalization, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Ten Steps to a Better Understanding of Gender Dynamics in Globalisation2007In: Nordic Association for the Study of Contemporary Japanese Society NAJS,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The influence of sociocultural and environmental factors on the adolescents' life and development: Japanese youth from a Western readers perspective2008In: Asia Europe Journal: Intercultural Studies in the Social Sciences and Humanities, ISSN 1610-2932, E-ISSN 1612-1031, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 499-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an analysis of phenomena of youth in Japan by means of a literature review. A rich literature on Japanese youth has been published during the last decade, which provides us with information on a variety of topics. By focussing on sources published in Western languages a selection is drawn to research presented as relevant to Western readers. Japan is known as a highly dynamic society. How do children and youth adjust to the ever-changing social and cultural environment? And how can we identify and analyse the most relevant sociocultural and environmental factors and their relationships to each other, which obviously have a strong influence on the adolescents' life and development? These questions can guide us when structuring the available information according to Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development. I will illustrate findings from recent journal articles on central topics like the school to work transition, recent educational reforms and youth culture and discuss these on the background of context knowledge on Japanese youth from former theoretical and empirical studies. © Springer-Verlag 2007.

  • 33.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Transcultural Gender Studies and Intercultural Competence. Strategies for distance learning from a student perspective2007In: The Second Nordic Conference on Adult Learning ¿Meaning, Relevance and Variation¿,2007, Linköping: IBLCD , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Youth Deviance in Japan. Class Reproduction of Non-Conformity: by Robert Stuart Yoder. Melbourne2006In: Journal of Japanese Studies, ISSN 0095-6848, E-ISSN 1549-4721, p. 451-455Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Derichs, Claudia
    Gender Dynamics and Globalization. Perspectives on Japan within Asia2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume applies a gender-sensitive perspective on Japan, discussing issues such as national identity, the changing appeal of role models, legacies of a misogynous past, gendered education policies, female imaging in the media, or working women's networks. The transnational dimension of this perspective is highlighted by comparisons drawn between Japan and other countries of the region such as Philippines and South Korea. Authors attend to concepts of gender and gendered identities as well as to actors within gendered spaces of society.

  • 36.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Derichs, ClaudiaHildesheim University, Germany, Department of Political Science.
    Gender Dynamics and Globalization: Perspectives on Japan within Asia2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume applies a gender-sensitive perspective on Japan, discussing issues such as national identity, the changing appeal of role models, legacies of a misogynous past, gendered education policies, female imaging in the media, or working women’s networks. The transnational dimension of this perspective is highlighted by comparisons drawn between Japan and other countries of the region such as Philippines and South Korea. Authors attend to concepts of gender and gendered identities as well as to actors within gendered spaces of society.

  • 37.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Engvall, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Observations in Early Primary Mathematics Lessons in Japan: Implications for Swedish classrooms?2015In: NERA 2015: The 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association 4-6 March 2015, The University of Gothenborg, Department of Education and Special Education, 2015, p. 84-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The main purpose of this study is to investigate and describe typical actions that can be identified in teacher-pupil interactions during Mathematics lessons in early primary school. In this presentation we will focus on observations from Japanese classrooms and compare the results with earlier studies in Swedish primary classrooms (Engvall 2013). We also want to raise the question whether and how the Japanese example can contribute to the Swedish discussion on mathematics education. Method: The study builds on ethnographical observations in Japanese and Swedish primary classrooms. In Japan, 18 mathematics lessons in four schools (1st-6th grade) were observed in February 2014. The classroom observations were combined with teacher interviews (individual and in groups). In Sweden a total number of 26 lessons were videotaped in five different classes (2nd and 3rd grade, in 2009) while the same mathematical content was taught (addition and subtraction). After transcription, a thematic analysis was accomplished. Findings: With focus on the teacher-pupil interactions we will describe a number of phenomena that became apparent in the Japanese classrooms. Teachers pay, for example, much attention to pupils' problem solving strategies. Other observed phenomena are the slow pace of teaching and the well-structured teacher instructions. Mathematical concepts were clearly reflected in classroom communication. We will discuss these phenomena in the light of our knowledge on teacher-pupil interactions in Swedish mathematics primary classrooms. Relevance to Nordic educational research: It is well known that international comparative research offers unique opportunities to gain insight to quality aspects of classroom practices, especially when combined with adequate theoretical knowledge in the respective discipline. Japanese pupils perform well in international studies on mathematics and science (TIMMS). Studying Japanese mathematics classes can therefore help us to discern important aspects that could be possible to develop also in Swedish mathematics classrooms. According to the Swedish National Agency for Education, there are several problems to be overcome in Swedish mathematics education. One of these is the dominance of students' individual work with the textbook. This is in total contrast to the Japanese classroom where the whole class discussion is given a lot of time.

  • 38.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jedeskog, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Strategies and obstacles for inclusion: International experiences2011In: NERA's 39th Congress: Rights and Education / [ed] NFPF, Jyväskylä: NERA , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries all over the world have signed the Salamanca declaration (Unesco 1994) and inclusion has become a key phrase in relation to schooling. However, the organisation of school-based health care and multi professional cooperation varies widely according to structures of the national and regional school systems. It is expected that the overall welfare regimes (Esping-Andersen, 1990) influence the organisation of multi professional cooperation at school.

    In this paper we will present some results from our international comparative study on multi professional cooperation in a teachers’ perspective. We have gathered materials and carried out focus interviews in Sweden, Germany and Japan. On the basis of these data we will discuss strategies and obstacles for inclusion. The analysis combines knowledge about structures and processes of multi professional cooperation. It builds on reviews of literature and statistics, which is guided by expert talks with researchers, principals and other persons responsible for school organisation. Teachers’ voices from the respective countries highlight what kind of support they receive if they have students with special needs.

    By introducing observations from non-Nordic countries we hope to contribute some original topics to the discussion on inclusion, its obstacles and hopefully also some inspiring strategies. Although organisations differ substantially teachers seem to have also some common claims and see similar problems in the process of working with other professional groups in school.

  • 39.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pernrud, Björn
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att ta hänsyn till eller bortse från kön?: Ett nationellt nätverk kring genus och jämställdhet i lärarutbildningar2013In: Venue, ISSN 2001-788XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ofta hörs påståenden som ”vi behandlar alla lika” eller ”jag vill bara ta hänsyn till individens behov”. Samtidigt visar ett stort antal studier att pojkar och flickor trots sådana ambitioner behandlas olika. De beter sig också olika och i skolan presterar de olika. Spridningen pojkar respektive flickor sinsemellan är samtidigt mycket stor och en förenklande kategorisering gör mera skada än nytta, när det gäller att skapa jämställda förutsättningar i utbildningen. Även rekryteringen till olika delar av utbildningsväsendet är ojämn mellan kvinnor och män och i den internationella forskningen talas ofta om en feminisering av förskollärar- och läraryrket (Murray och Maguire 2007). Artikeln handlar om hur vi gemensamt kan möta de utmaningar som vi ställs inför, i arbetet med att skapa skolor och lärarutbildningar där alla elever, studerande och lärare får jämlika förutsättningar för sin utveckling.

  • 40.
    Nord, Anette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Svensson, Leif
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hult, Hakan
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Effect of mobile application-based versus DVD-based CPR training on students practical CPR skills and willingness to act: a cluster randomised study2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 4, p. e010717-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim was to compare students practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and willingness to perform bystander CPR, after a 30 min mobile application (app)-based versus a 50 min DVD-based training. Settings: Seventh grade students in two Swedish municipalities. Design: A cluster randomised trial. The classes were randomised to receive app-based or DVD-based training. Willingness to act and practical CPR skills were assessed, directly after training and at 6 months, by using a questionnaire and a PC Skill Reporting System. Data on CPR skills were registered in a modified version of the Cardiff test, where scores were given in 12 different categories, adding up to a total score of 12-48 points. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014. Participants: 63 classes or 1232 seventh grade students (13-year-old) were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Primary end point was the total score of the modified Cardiff test. The individual variables of the test and self-reported willingness to make a life-saving intervention were secondary end points. Results: The DVD-based group was superior to the app-based group in CPR skills; a total score of 36 (3338) vs 33 (30-36) directly after training (pamp;lt;0.001) and 33 (30-36) and 31 (28-34) at 6 months (pamp;lt;0.001), respectively. At 6 months, the DVD group performed significantly better in 8 out of 12 CPR skill components. Both groups improved compression depth from baseline to follow-up. If a friend suffered cardiac arrest, 78% (DVD) versus 75% (app) would do compressions and ventilations, whereas only 31% (DVD) versus 32% (app) would perform standard CPR if the victim was a stranger. Conclusions: At 6 months follow-up, the 50 min DVD-based group showed superior CPR skills compared with the 30 min app-based group. The groups did not differ in regard to willingness to make a life-saving effort.

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