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  • 1.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer.
    Learning Molecular Interaction Concepts through Haptic Protein Visualization2008Ingår i: Proceedings of SIGRAD 2008 / [ed] Kai-Mikael Jää-Aro and Lars Kjelldahl, Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008, s. 17-19Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of haptics is growing in the area of science education. Haptics appears to convey information to students in a manner that influences their learning and ways of thinking. This document outlines examples of how haptics has been employed in science education contexts and gives a more detailed description of an education oriented evaluation of a haptic protein-ligand docking system. In molecular life science, students need to grasp several complex concepts to understand molecular interactions. Research on how haptics influences students' learning show strong positive affective responses and, in the protein-ligand docking case, that reasoning with respect to molecular processes is altered. However, since many implications of using haptics in education are still unknown, more research is needed.

  • 2.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Visuella och haptiska modeller för underlättad förståelse för molekylers struktur och interaktioner2007Ingår i: 10:e Universitetspedagogiska konferensen vid Linköpings universitet: Pedagogiska utmaningar i tiden / [ed] Helene Hård af Segerstad, 2007, s. 43-47Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för medicinsk cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ainsworth, Shaaron
    Learning Sciences Research Institute, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär Bioteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Designing and Evaluating a Haptic System for Biomolecular Education2007Ingår i: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, 2007. VR '07. / [ed] Sherman, W; Lin, M; Steed, A, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2007, s. 171-178Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an in situ evaluation of a haptic system, with a representative test population, we aim to determine what, if any, benefit haptics can have in a biomolecular education context. We have developed a haptic application for conveying concepts of molecular interactions, specifically in protein-ligand docking. Utilizing a semi-immersive environment with stereo graphics, users are able to manipulate the ligand and feel its interactions in the docking process. The evaluation used cognitive knowledge tests and interviews focused on learning gains. Compared with using time efficiency as the single quality measure this gives a better indication of a system's applicability in an educational environment. Surveys were used to gather opinions and suggestions for improvements. Students do gain from using the application in the learning process but the learning appears to be independent of the addition of haptic feedback. However the addition of force feedback did decrease time requirements and improved the students understanding of the docking process in terms of the forces involved, as is apparent from the students' descriptions of the experience. The students also indicated a number of features which could be improved in future development.

  • 4.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär Bioteknik.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Use of Chemical Force Feedback for Multisensory Insights into Ligand Docking2007Ingår i: VII European Symposium of The Protein Society: From Proteins to Proteome, 2007, s. 151-151Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cooper, Matthew D.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Improved Feature Detection over Large Force Ranges Using History Dependent Transfer Functions2009Ingår i: Third Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems, WorldHaptics 2009, IEEE , 2009, s. 476-481Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a history dependent transfer function (HDTF) as a possible approach to enable improved haptic feature detection in high dynamic range (HDR) volume data. The HDTF is a multi-dimensional transfer function that uses the recent force history as a selection criterion to switch between transfer functions, thereby adapting to the explored force range. The HDTF has been evaluated using artificial test data and in a realistic application example, with the HDTF applied to haptic protein-ligand docking. Biochemistry experts performed docking tests, and expressed that the HDTF delivers the expected feedback across a large force magnitude range, conveying both weak attractive and strong repulsive protein-ligand interaction forces. Feature detection tests have been performed with positive results, indicating that the HDTF improves the ability of feature detection in HDR volume data as compared to a static transfer function covering the same range.

  • 6.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Naturvetenskap - medicin - estetik - kommunikation (NMEK).
    Visualization and Haptics in Molecular Life Science - A Multi-sensory Representation of Proteins2006Ingår i: Third Scandinavian Symposium on Research in Science Education, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Using Force Feedback Virtual Reality Technology as a Tactile Gateway to Understanding of Biomolecular Interactions2006Ingår i: 9th JURE conference of EARLI, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Cooper, Matthew D.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ainsworth, Shaaron
    Learning Sciences Research Institute University of Nottingham.
    Reasoning through Touch? Using Haptics in Life Science Education2007Ingår i: EARLI 2007 12th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, 2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär Bioteknik.
    Evaluating the Effectiveness of Haptic Visualization in Biomolecular Education - Feeling Molecular Specificity in a Docking Task2006Ingår i: 12th IOSTE Symposium, Universiti Science Malaysia , 2006, s. 745-752Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the molecular life sciences extensive use is made of visual representations, ranging from sketches to advanced computer graphics, often used to convey abstract knowledge that is difficult for the student to grasp. This work evaluates a new visual and haptic (tactile/kinetic) tool for protein docking in an in situ learning situation by combining qualitative and quantitative methods, performing tests and interviews with students; all aiming at a proper inclusion of visualization tools into biomolecular education. Preliminary results indicate time gains, strong positive affective responses and learning gains from the tasks, however the influence of haptics needs further investigation.

  • 10.
    Bivall, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Touching the Essence of Life: Haptic Virtual Proteins for Learning2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents research in the development and use of a multi-modal visual and haptic virtual model in higher education. The model, named Chemical Force Feedback (CFF), represents molecular recognition through the example of protein-ligand docking, and enables students to simultaneously see and feel representations of the protein and ligand molecules and their force interactions. The research efforts have been divided between educational research aspects and development of haptic feedback techniques.

    The CFF model was evaluated in situ through multiple data-collections in a university course on molecular interactions. To isolate possible influences of haptics on learning, half of the students ran CFF with haptics, and the others used the equipment with force feedback disabled. Pre- and post-tests showed a significant learning gain for all students. A particular influence of haptics was found on students reasoning, discovered through an open-ended written probe where students' responses contained elaborate descriptions of the molecular recognition process.

    Students' interactions with the system were analyzed using customized information visualization tools. Analysis revealed differences between the groups, for example, in their use of visual representations on offer, and in how they moved the ligand molecule. Differences in representational and interactive behaviours showed relationships with aspects of the learning outcomes.

    The CFF model was improved in an iterative evaluation and development process. A focus was placed on force model design, where one significant challenge was in conveying information from data with large force differences, ranging from very weak interactions to extreme forces generated when atoms collide. Therefore, a History Dependent Transfer Function (HDTF) was designed which adapts the translation of forces derived from the data to output forces according to the properties of the recently derived forces. Evaluation revealed that the HDTF improves the ability to haptically detect features in volumetric data with large force ranges.

    To further enable force models with high fidelity, an investigation was conducted to determine the perceptual Just Noticeable Difference (JND) in force for detection of interfaces between features in volumetric data. Results showed that JNDs vary depending on the magnitude of the forces in the volume and depending on where in the workspace the data is presented.

    Delarbeten
    1. Designing and Evaluating a Haptic System for Biomolecular Education
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Designing and Evaluating a Haptic System for Biomolecular Education
    Visa övriga...
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, 2007. VR '07. / [ed] Sherman, W; Lin, M; Steed, A, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2007, s. 171-178Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an in situ evaluation of a haptic system, with a representative test population, we aim to determine what, if any, benefit haptics can have in a biomolecular education context. We have developed a haptic application for conveying concepts of molecular interactions, specifically in protein-ligand docking. Utilizing a semi-immersive environment with stereo graphics, users are able to manipulate the ligand and feel its interactions in the docking process. The evaluation used cognitive knowledge tests and interviews focused on learning gains. Compared with using time efficiency as the single quality measure this gives a better indication of a system's applicability in an educational environment. Surveys were used to gather opinions and suggestions for improvements. Students do gain from using the application in the learning process but the learning appears to be independent of the addition of haptic feedback. However the addition of force feedback did decrease time requirements and improved the students understanding of the docking process in terms of the forces involved, as is apparent from the students' descriptions of the experience. The students also indicated a number of features which could be improved in future development.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE, 2007
    Nyckelord
    Haptic Interaction, Haptics, Virtual Reality, Computer-assisted instruction, Life Science Education, Protein Interactions, Visualization, Protein-ligand docking
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39934 (URN)10.1109/VR.2007.352478 (DOI)000245919300022 ()51733 (Lokalt ID)1-4244-0906-3 (ISBN)51733 (Arkivnummer)51733 (OAI)
    Konferens
    IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, Charlotte, NC, USA, 10-14 March 2007
    Anmärkning

    ©2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Petter Bivall Persson, Matthew Cooper, Lena Tibell, Shaaron Ainsworth, Anders Ynnerman and Bengt-Harald Jonsson, Designing and Evaluating a Haptic System for Biomolecular Education, 2007, IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2007, 171-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2007.352478

    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-10 Skapad: 2009-10-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-05-04Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Improved Feature Detection over Large Force Ranges Using History Dependent Transfer Functions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Improved Feature Detection over Large Force Ranges Using History Dependent Transfer Functions
    Visa övriga...
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Third Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems, WorldHaptics 2009, IEEE , 2009, s. 476-481Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a history dependent transfer function (HDTF) as a possible approach to enable improved haptic feature detection in high dynamic range (HDR) volume data. The HDTF is a multi-dimensional transfer function that uses the recent force history as a selection criterion to switch between transfer functions, thereby adapting to the explored force range. The HDTF has been evaluated using artificial test data and in a realistic application example, with the HDTF applied to haptic protein-ligand docking. Biochemistry experts performed docking tests, and expressed that the HDTF delivers the expected feedback across a large force magnitude range, conveying both weak attractive and strong repulsive protein-ligand interaction forces. Feature detection tests have been performed with positive results, indicating that the HDTF improves the ability of feature detection in HDR volume data as compared to a static transfer function covering the same range.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE, 2009
    Nyckelord
    Haptics, Virtual Reality, Scientific Visualization
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Interaktionsteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-45355 (URN)10.1109/WHC.2009.4810843 (DOI)81912 (Lokalt ID)978-1-4244-3858-7 (ISBN)81912 (Arkivnummer)81912 (OAI)
    Konferens
    Third Joint EuroHaptics conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems. World Haptics 2009.Salt Lake City, UT, USA, 18-20 March 2009
    Projekt
    VisMolLS
    Anmärkning

    ©2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Petter Bivall Persson, Gunnar E. Höst, Matthew D. Cooper, Lena A. E. Tibell and Anders Ynnerman, Improved Feature Detection over Large Force Ranges Using History Dependent Transfer Functions, 2009, Third Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems, WorldHaptics 2009, 476-481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WHC.2009.4810843

    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-10 Skapad: 2009-10-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-05-04Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Do Haptic Representations Help Complex Molecular Learning?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Do Haptic Representations Help Complex Molecular Learning?
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 95, nr 4, s. 700-719Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored whether adding a haptic interface (that provides users with somatosensory information about virtual objects by force and tactile feedback) to a three-dimensional (3D) chemical model enhanced students' understanding of complex molecular interactions. Two modes of the model were compared in a between-groups pre- and posttest design. In both modes, users could move and rotate virtual 3D representations of the chemical structures of the two molecules, a protein and a small ligand molecule. In addition, in a haptic mode users could feel the interactions (repulsive and attractive) between molecules as forces with a haptic device. Twenty postgraduate students (10 in each condition) took pretests about the process of protein--ligand recognition before exploring the model in ways suggested by structured worksheets and then completing a posttest. Analysis addressed quantitative learning outcomes and more qualitatively students' reasoning during the learning phase. Results showed that the haptic system helped students learn more about the process of protein–ligand recognition and changed the way they reasoned about molecules to include more force-based explanations. It may also have protected students from drawing erroneous conclusions about the process of protein–ligand recognition observed when students interacted with only the visual model.

    Nyckelord
    Haptic learning, multimodality, molecular interactions, protein-ligand docking
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Didaktik Biokemi och molekylärbiologi Medieteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60354 (URN)10.1002/sce.20439 (DOI)
    Projekt
    VisMolLS
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-10-12 Skapad: 2010-10-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12
    4. Using logging data to visualize and explore students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual model of protein-ligand docking
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Using logging data to visualize and explore students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual model of protein-ligand docking
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual model of biomolecular recognition. Twenty students assigned to a haptics or no-haptics condition performed a protein-ligand docking task where interaction was captured in log files. Any improvement in understanding of recognition was measured by comparing written responses to a conceptual question before and after interaction. A log-profiling tool visualized students’ traversal of the ligand while multivariate parallel coordinate analyses uncovered trends in the data. Students who experienced force feedback (haptics) displayed docked positions that were more clustered in comparison with no-haptics students, coupled to docking profiles that depicted a more focused traversal of the ligand. Students in the no-haptics condition employed double the amount of behaviours concerned with switching between multiple visual representations offered by the system. In the no-haptics group, this visually intense processing was associated with ‘fitting’ the ligand closer distances to the surface of the protein. A negative relationship between high representational switching activity and learning gain as well as spatial aptitude was also revealed. From an information-processing perspective, visual and haptic coordination could permit engagement of each perceptual channel simultaneously, in effect offloading the visual pathway by placing less strain on visual working memory.

    Nyckelord
    Interactive learning environments; multimedia systems; pedagogical issues; postsecondary education; virtual reality
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60355 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-10-12 Skapad: 2010-10-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-05-04
    5. Haptic Just Noticeable Difference in Continuous Probing of Volume Data
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Haptic Just Noticeable Difference in Continuous Probing of Volume Data
    2010 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Just noticeable difference (JND) describes how much two perceptual sensory inputs must differ in order to be distinguishable from each other. Knowledge of the JND is vital when two features in a dataset are to be separably represented. JND has received a lot of attention in haptic research and this study makes a contribution to the field by determining JNDs during users' probing of volumetric data at two force levels. We also investigated whether these JNDs were affected by where in the haptic workspace the probing occurred. Reference force magnitudes were 0.1 N and 0.8 N, and the volume data was presented in rectangular blocks positioned at the eight corners of a cube 10 cm3 in size. Results showed that the JNDs varied significantly for the two force levels, with mean values of 38.5% and 8.8% obtained for the 0.1 N and 0.8 N levels, respectively, and that the JND was influenced by where the data was positioned.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. s. 19
    Serie
    Technical reports in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1654-7233 ; 6
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58011 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-07-16 Skapad: 2010-07-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-10-12Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 11.
    Bivall, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ainsworth, Shaaron
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, U.K..
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Do Haptic Representations Help Complex Molecular Learning?2011Ingår i: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 95, nr 4, s. 700-719Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored whether adding a haptic interface (that provides users with somatosensory information about virtual objects by force and tactile feedback) to a three-dimensional (3D) chemical model enhanced students' understanding of complex molecular interactions. Two modes of the model were compared in a between-groups pre- and posttest design. In both modes, users could move and rotate virtual 3D representations of the chemical structures of the two molecules, a protein and a small ligand molecule. In addition, in a haptic mode users could feel the interactions (repulsive and attractive) between molecules as forces with a haptic device. Twenty postgraduate students (10 in each condition) took pretests about the process of protein--ligand recognition before exploring the model in ways suggested by structured worksheets and then completing a posttest. Analysis addressed quantitative learning outcomes and more qualitatively students' reasoning during the learning phase. Results showed that the haptic system helped students learn more about the process of protein–ligand recognition and changed the way they reasoned about molecules to include more force-based explanations. It may also have protected students from drawing erroneous conclusions about the process of protein–ligand recognition observed when students interacted with only the visual model.

  • 12.
    Bivall, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haptic Just Noticeable Difference in Continuous Probing of Volume Data2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Just noticeable difference (JND) describes how much two perceptual sensory inputs must differ in order to be distinguishable from each other. Knowledge of the JND is vital when two features in a dataset are to be separably represented. JND has received a lot of attention in haptic research and this study makes a contribution to the field by determining JNDs during users' probing of volumetric data at two force levels. We also investigated whether these JNDs were affected by where in the haptic workspace the probing occurred. Reference force magnitudes were 0.1 N and 0.8 N, and the volume data was presented in rectangular blocks positioned at the eight corners of a cube 10 cm3 in size. Results showed that the JNDs varied significantly for the two force levels, with mean values of 38.5% and 8.8% obtained for the 0.1 N and 0.8 N levels, respectively, and that the JND was influenced by where the data was positioned.

  • 13.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Methods for investigating students’ learning and interaction with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2010Ingår i: Contemporary Science Education Research: International Perspectives / [ed] M.F. Taşar & G. Çakmakcı, Ankara: Pegem Akademi , 2010, s. 115-121Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although immersive haptic virtual technologies are emerging rapidly in modern education, few methods exist for delivering data on the pedagogical merits of such models in the molecular life sciences. This paper reports on a selection of methods that we have used to obtain and analyse data on students’ learning and interaction with a haptic virtual model of protein-ligand docking, previously designed by author PBP. The methods have been developed and employed during four consecutive years in which the model has been part of an advanced biomolecular interactions course. In this regard, we present data-collection methods that include written items, interviews, think-aloud tasks and automated time-stamped logs and, corresponding quantitative and qualitative analytical procedures such as pre/posttest statistical comparisons, word usage analysis and, visualised profiling of students’ interaction with the model. Our results suggest that these methods are useful for generating valuable information on students’ learning gain, changes in conceptual understanding, reasoning processes and patterns of interactivity with the model. Dissemination of such methods could provide an empirical contribution to the dearth of research instruments in this domain. Future research will develop these methodologies to explore the relationship between using the model and students’ conceptual and embodied learning.

  • 14.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bivall, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring relationships between students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2011Dataset
  • 15.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bivall, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring relationships between students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2011Ingår i: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 2095-2105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores tertiary students’ interaction with a haptic virtual model representing the specific binding of two biomolecules, a core concept in molecular life science education. Twenty students assigned to a haptics (experimental) or no-haptics (control) condition performed a “docking” task where users sought the most favourable position between a ligand and protein molecule, while students’ interactions with the model were logged. Improvement in students’ understanding of biomolecular binding was previously measured by comparing written responses to a target conceptual question before and after interaction with the model. A log-profiling tool visualized students’ movement of the ligand molecule during the docking task. Multivariate parallel coordinate analyses explored any relationships in the entire student data set. The haptics group produced a tighter constellation of collected final docked ligand positions in comparison with no-haptics students, coupled to docking profiles that depicted a more fine-tuned ligand traversal. Students in the no-haptics condition employed double the amount of interactive behaviours concerned with switching between different visual chemical representations offered by the model. In the no-haptics group, this visually intense processing was synonymous with erroneously ‘fitting’ the ligand closer distances to the protein surface. Students who showed higher learning gains tended to engage fewer visual representational switches, and were from the haptics group, while students with a higher spatial ability also engaged fewer visual representational switches, irrespective of assigned condition. From an information-processing standpoint, visual and haptic coordination may offload the visual pathway by placing less strain on visual working memory. From an embodied cognition perspective, visual and tactile sensorimotor interactions in the macroworld may provide access to constructing knowledge about submicroscopic phenomena. The results have cognitive and practical implications for the use of multimodal virtual reality technologies in educational contexts.

  • 16.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bivall, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Using logging data to visualize and explore students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual model of protein-ligand dockingManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual model of biomolecular recognition. Twenty students assigned to a haptics or no-haptics condition performed a protein-ligand docking task where interaction was captured in log files. Any improvement in understanding of recognition was measured by comparing written responses to a conceptual question before and after interaction. A log-profiling tool visualized students’ traversal of the ligand while multivariate parallel coordinate analyses uncovered trends in the data. Students who experienced force feedback (haptics) displayed docked positions that were more clustered in comparison with no-haptics students, coupled to docking profiles that depicted a more focused traversal of the ligand. Students in the no-haptics condition employed double the amount of behaviours concerned with switching between multiple visual representations offered by the system. In the no-haptics group, this visually intense processing was associated with ‘fitting’ the ligand closer distances to the surface of the protein. A negative relationship between high representational switching activity and learning gain as well as spatial aptitude was also revealed. From an information-processing perspective, visual and haptic coordination could permit engagement of each perceptual channel simultaneously, in effect offloading the visual pathway by placing less strain on visual working memory.

  • 17.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ainsworth, Shaaaron
    University of Nottingham, Learning Sciences Research Institute School of Psychology.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haptic Influences on Reasoning and Learning in Protein Education2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education: Planning science instruction: From insight to learning to pedagogical practices. Theme 4: Pedagogical practices / [ed] Allyson Macdonald, Science Education Research Group, School of Education, University of Iceland , 2008, s. 165-168Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging viewpoint of cognition suggests that the body has a central role in shaping the mind and that cognitive processes are deeply rooted in the body´s interaction with the world that, “embodied cognition or learning”. If so, the documented difficulties for learners to grasp and to engage in molecular sciences might, at least in part, explained by the lack of direct experience of the micro world. The term haptics encompasses the tactual sensation and the human interaction with the external environment through touch. When integrated as part of a computer-based virtual environment, haptics refers to the artificial tactual sensation used to simulate the experience of actually touching or feeling a real object that occur in response to user movements.  The present work aims to evaluate the gains of a haptic element from a learning perspective, when haptics is added to an educational virtual reality environment for students learning the concepts of molecular interactions in proteins. A combined qualitative and quantitative approach is taken, using data from tests and interviews (with a subset of the subjects).  The study is an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the research about possible benefits from using force feedback technology, focusing specifically on the learning gains from a study of a virtual protein model. The computer model did not help the students to solve their tasks faster, but it appears to help them to gain a deeper understanding of the docking process, partly by challenging their preconceptions. Further, we propose that the force feedback might constitute a critical feature for understanding the involvement of the dynamics and forces involved in the process.

  • 18.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär Bioteknik.
    Experience the Aperceptual through Virtual Reality! Tactile and Visual VR Representations as Cognitive Tools in Molecular Life Science2007Ingår i: ESERA 2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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