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  • 1.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Veilord, Andrea
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Svedling, Linn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sleman, Owe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mauritzson, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Claesson, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zetterqvist, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lamminen, Mailen
    Redakliniken, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Thomas
    Redakliniken, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Randomised controlled non-inferiority trial with 3-year follow-up of internet-delivered versus face-to-face group cognitive behavioural therapy for depression2013Inngår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 151, nr 3, s. 986-994Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective in the treatment of mild to moderate depression, but there have been no direct comparisons with the more established group-based CBT with a long-term follow-up. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod: Participants with mild to moderate depression were recruited from the general population and randomized to either guided ICBT (n =33) or to live group treatment (n=36). Measures were completed before and after the intervention to assess depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Follow-ups were conducted at one-year and three-year after the treatment had ended. Results: Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed-effects regression analysis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults on the self-rated version of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale showed significant improvements in both groups across time indicating non-inferiority of guided ICBT, and there was even a tendency for the guided ICBT group to be superior to group-based CBT at three year follow-up. Within-group effect sizes for the ICBT condition at post treatment showed a Cohens d=1.46, with a similar large effect at 3-year follow-up, d=1.78. For the group CBT the corresponding within group effects were d =0.99 and d=1.34, respectively. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanLimitations: The study was small with two active treatments and there was no placebo or credible control condition. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Guided ICBT is at least as effective as group based CBT and long-term effects can be sustained up to 3 years after treatment.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Kyrre, Svalastog O.
    Kyrre Svalastog, O., Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kaldo, V.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, Department of Audiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Future thinking in tinnitus patients2007Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 191-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate future thinking in a group of tinnitus patients. It was predicted that participants in the tinnitus group would report fewer positive future events. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Two groups of participants completed the test session: tinnitus patients (n=20) and healthy controls (n=20) without tinnitus. Participants completed measures of anticipation of future positive and negative experiences, anxiety and depression. In addition, participants with tinnitus completed a test of tinnitus annoyance. Results: Tinnitus participants generated a greater number of negative future events compared to the controls. There was no difference between the groups on positive future events or on self-reported anxiety, but the tinnitus group scored higher on a depression measure. Controlling for depression scores removed the group difference. Conclusions: While the groups differed on future thinking, the difference concerned negative events, which suggests that anxious information processing might be important in explaining tinnitus annoyance. Levels of depressive symptoms should, however, be considered. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bjärehed, Jonas
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of Two Forms of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Depression on Future Thinking2013Inngår i: Cognitive Therapy and Research, ISSN 0147-5916, E-ISSN 1573-2819, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 29-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if future thinking would change following two forms of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression. A second aim was to study the association between pre-post changes in future thinking and prepost changes in depressive symptoms.

    Background: Effects of psychological treatments are most often tested with self-report inventories and seldom with tests of cognitive function.

    Method: We included data from 47 persons diagnosed with major depression who received either e-mail therapy or guided self-help during 8 weeks. Participants completed the future thinking task (FTT), in which they were asked to generate positive and negative events that they thought were going to happen in the future and rated the events in terms of emotion and likelihood. The FTT was completed before and after treatment. Data on depressive symptoms were also collected.

    Results: FTT index scores for negative events were reduced after  treatment. There was no increase for the positive events. Change scores for the FTT negative events and depression symptoms were significantly correlated.

    Conclusions: We conclude that ICBT may lead to decreased negative future thinking and that changes in depression symptoms correlate to some extent with reductions in negative future thinking.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Veilord, A
    KI KI.
    Svedling, L
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Andersson, F
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Sleman, O
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Westin, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Clason, E
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Lamminen, M
    Specialistläkarna Specialistläkarna.
    Eriksson, T
    Specialistläkarna Specialistläkarna.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Randomized trial of Internet delivered CBT versus group CBT, with the inclusion of a preference arm, stepped care and assessment of sudden gains2007Inngår i: The third meeting of the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions,2007, Charlottesville: ISRII , 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Bjärehed, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Less positive or more negative? Future-directed thinking in mild to moderate depression2010Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 37-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Depressed patients have been found to generate fewer anticipated positive future events, but most previous studies have included patients who have either been severely depressed or expressed suicidal thoughts and intents or both. The aim of this study was to compare positive and negative future-directed thinking in persons with mild to moderate depression who did not express suicidal thoughts or intents (n = 20) with a matched group of nondepressed persons (n = 20). The two groups completed the Future-Thinking Task (FTT), in which they were asked to generate positive and negative anticipated future events for three upcoming time periods (1 week, 1 year, and 5-10 years). In the present version of the FTT, both quantitative and qualitative aspects were included (i.e. subjective likelihood and emotional valence). Results showed that depressed persons reported lower scores regarding anticipated future positive events but they did not differ in terms of future negative events. The results are consistent with previous research and further strengthen the notion that reduced anticipation of future positive events is a defining characteristic of depression, even in the absence of suicidal ideation.

  • 6.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Future Thinking and Depression2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to imagine negative or positive future events is associated with psychological well-being. The present thesis deals with depressed individual’s ability to imagine negative or positive future events. It consists of three quantitative studies (I-III) and one qualitative study (IV).

    Participants in studies I-III were assessed in connection with a randomized controlled trial of two ways to deliver Internet-based treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Their ages ranged between 19-65 years. In addition to receiving treatment participants completed the Controlled Word Association Test; the Autobiographical Memory test (AMT) and the Future Thinking Task (FTT). Participants in study IV were recruited from a psychiatric clinic in Sweden. The sample sizes varied between study I (N=40), II (N=88), III (N=47) and IV (N=15).

    The aim of the first study was to compare positive and negative future thinking in a group of depressed individuals (n=20) who were compared with a matched group of non-depressed persons (n=20). The results showed that depressed persons report lower scores regarding anticipated future positive events, but that they do not differ in terms of future negative events. The aim of the second study was to examine the association between FTT and AMT in a depressed sample. The results showed that positive future thinking was significantly correlated with retrieval of specific positive autobiographical memories (r = 0.23). The results only gave weak support for an association between FTT and AMT. The aim of the third study was to investigate if scores on the FTT would change following two forms of Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for major depression (guided self-help and e-mail therapy). A second aim was to study if changes in depression scores as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory would correlate with changes in future thinking. The results showed that FTT index scores for negative events were reduced after treatment. There was no increase for the positive events. Change scores for the FTT negative events and depression symptoms were significantly correlated. The aim of the fourth study was to investigate representations of the future in depressed individuals by using open-ended methodology inspired by grounded theory. The results showed that depressed individuals experienced a state of “ambivalence”. Ambivalence and its negative emotional and cognitive effects were substantially reduced in strength when participants were asked about their distant future.

    The conclusions drawn from these studies are that depressed persons report lower scores regarding anticipated future positive events (Study I). There is some support for a positive association between FTT and AMT, but the association is weak and only concern positive FTT and positive AMT (Study II). Negative future thinking may be reduced after Internet-delivered treatment, and changes in depressive symptoms correlate to some extent with reductions in negative future thinking (Study III). The concept of ambivalence may be an important feature of depression which deserves more attention from both a theoretical and clinical perspective (Study VI).

    Delarbeid
    1. Less positive or more negative? Future-directed thinking in mild to moderate depression
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Less positive or more negative? Future-directed thinking in mild to moderate depression
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 37-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Depressed patients have been found to generate fewer anticipated positive future events, but most previous studies have included patients who have either been severely depressed or expressed suicidal thoughts and intents or both. The aim of this study was to compare positive and negative future-directed thinking in persons with mild to moderate depression who did not express suicidal thoughts or intents (n = 20) with a matched group of nondepressed persons (n = 20). The two groups completed the Future-Thinking Task (FTT), in which they were asked to generate positive and negative anticipated future events for three upcoming time periods (1 week, 1 year, and 5-10 years). In the present version of the FTT, both quantitative and qualitative aspects were included (i.e. subjective likelihood and emotional valence). Results showed that depressed persons reported lower scores regarding anticipated future positive events but they did not differ in terms of future negative events. The results are consistent with previous research and further strengthen the notion that reduced anticipation of future positive events is a defining characteristic of depression, even in the absence of suicidal ideation.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61257 (URN)10.1080/16506070902966926 (DOI)19714541 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-03-16 Laget: 2010-11-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Links between Future Thinking and Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Major Depression
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Links between Future Thinking and Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Major Depression
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 261-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking in a depressed sample. A total of 88 individuals who meet the DSM-IV criteria of major depression were included and completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT) and the future thinking task (FTT). The FTT was an index of number of future plausible events, rating of likelihood and emotional valence. The results showed that positive future thinking was significantly correlated with retrieval of specific positive autobio-graphical memories (r = 0.23). Moreover, correlational analyses showed that positive autobiographical memo-ries were negatively correlated with extended autobiographical memories, repeated autobiographical memories, semantic associations and non-responses on the AMT. Self-report measures of depression and anxiety were not correlated with either the FTT or the AMT. The results of this cross-sectional study only give weak support for an association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    SciRes, 2011
    Emneord
    Depression, Prospective Cognitions, Autobiographical Memory, Future Thinking
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72211 (URN)10.4236/psych.2011.23041 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-11-22 Laget: 2011-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-08
    3. Effects of Two Forms of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Depression on Future Thinking
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effects of Two Forms of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Depression on Future Thinking
    Vise andre…
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cognitive Therapy and Research, ISSN 0147-5916, E-ISSN 1573-2819, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 29-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if future thinking would change following two forms of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression. A second aim was to study the association between pre-post changes in future thinking and prepost changes in depressive symptoms.

    Background: Effects of psychological treatments are most often tested with self-report inventories and seldom with tests of cognitive function.

    Method: We included data from 47 persons diagnosed with major depression who received either e-mail therapy or guided self-help during 8 weeks. Participants completed the future thinking task (FTT), in which they were asked to generate positive and negative events that they thought were going to happen in the future and rated the events in terms of emotion and likelihood. The FTT was completed before and after treatment. Data on depressive symptoms were also collected.

    Results: FTT index scores for negative events were reduced after  treatment. There was no increase for the positive events. Change scores for the FTT negative events and depression symptoms were significantly correlated.

    Conclusions: We conclude that ICBT may lead to decreased negative future thinking and that changes in depression symptoms correlate to some extent with reductions in negative future thinking.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    New York, USA: Springer-Verlag New York, 2013
    Emneord
    Future thinking task; Internet treatment; major depression; treatment effects
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72212 (URN)10.1007/s10608-012-9442-y (DOI)000314064400004 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-11-22 Laget: 2011-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2018-12-12
    4. Representations of the future in depression. A qualitative study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Representations of the future in depression. A qualitative study
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies indicate that the ability to imagine negative and positive future events affect psychological well-being and is a characteristic feature of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate how depressed individuals view their future along different time periods. A total of 15 individuals with a diagnosis of major depression were recruited from a psychiatry clinic and completed a semi-structured qualitative interview. Questions were asked about the situation right now, before becoming depressed, and the future (nearest time, within a year and the upcoming 5-10 years). Data were collected and analysed using open-ended methodology in line with the principles of grounded theory. The results showed that depressed individuals experienced a state of “ambivalence”, with negative cognitive, emotional, physical and socioeconomic consequences, when they were asked to think about their nearest future. Ambivalence and its negative emotional and cognitive effects were substantially reduced in strength when they were asked about their more distant future. We conclude that ambivalence in the present may be an important feature of depression which deserves more attention from both a theoretical and clinical perspective. The use of qualitative approaches in the study of depression is encouraged.

    Emneord
    Future thinking; depression; ambivalence, time horizons
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72213 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-11-22 Laget: 2011-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2015-06-02bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 7.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, GerhardLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken.
    Somatisk sjukdom: ett biopsykosocialt perspektiv2019Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Människans nyfikenhet och kreativitet har banat väg för att bättre förstå och förklara olika fenomen, bland annat vad som påverkar och vidmakthåller vår hälsa och ohälsa. Tydligt är att synen på hälsa och ohälsa har förändrats över tid. I dag finns en insikt i att kropp och själ hänger samman och att psykologiska faktorer har stor betydelse även för vår somatiska hälsa.

    I det biopsykosociala perspektivet, som presenteras i denna bok, vidgas förståelsen av den komplexa människan och av begreppen hälsa och ohälsa. Hälsa och ohälsa måste förstås inte bara som biologiska fenomen, utan också som psykologiska och sociala. I boken integreras således evidensbaserad psykologisk kunskap med etablerad kunskap om medicinska och sociala faktorers betydelse för somatisk ohälsa. På så sätt ger den stöd till främst personal inom hälso- och sjukvården i att inhämta och tillämpa kunskap från olika ämnesområden vid bedömning, förklaring och behandling av somatisk ohälsa, men också i arbetet att förebygga ohälsa.

    Bokens främsta målgrupper är yrkesverksamma inom hälso- och sjukvård samt studenter inom vård och psykologi, särskilt med inriktningen hälsopsykologi.

  • 8.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Bjärehed, Jonas
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Links between Future Thinking and Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Major Depression2011Inngår i: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 261-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking in a depressed sample. A total of 88 individuals who meet the DSM-IV criteria of major depression were included and completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT) and the future thinking task (FTT). The FTT was an index of number of future plausible events, rating of likelihood and emotional valence. The results showed that positive future thinking was significantly correlated with retrieval of specific positive autobio-graphical memories (r = 0.23). Moreover, correlational analyses showed that positive autobiographical memo-ries were negatively correlated with extended autobiographical memories, repeated autobiographical memories, semantic associations and non-responses on the AMT. Self-report measures of depression and anxiety were not correlated with either the FTT or the AMT. The results of this cross-sectional study only give weak support for an association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking.

  • 9.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för pedagogik inom arbetsliv och utbildning (PiAU). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Holmberg Forsyth, Hazel
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för studier av vuxenutbildning, folkbildning och högre utbildning (VUFo). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Representations of the future in depression. A qualitative studyManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies indicate that the ability to imagine negative and positive future events affect psychological well-being and is a characteristic feature of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate how depressed individuals view their future along different time periods. A total of 15 individuals with a diagnosis of major depression were recruited from a psychiatry clinic and completed a semi-structured qualitative interview. Questions were asked about the situation right now, before becoming depressed, and the future (nearest time, within a year and the upcoming 5-10 years). Data were collected and analysed using open-ended methodology in line with the principles of grounded theory. The results showed that depressed individuals experienced a state of “ambivalence”, with negative cognitive, emotional, physical and socioeconomic consequences, when they were asked to think about their nearest future. Ambivalence and its negative emotional and cognitive effects were substantially reduced in strength when they were asked about their more distant future. We conclude that ambivalence in the present may be an important feature of depression which deserves more attention from both a theoretical and clinical perspective. The use of qualitative approaches in the study of depression is encouraged.

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