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  • 1.
    Andersson, Kent E.
    et al.
    The Swedish National Defence College, Sweden.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    The Swedish National Defence College, Sweden.
    A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications2014In: SPIE Proceedings, vol. 9253, Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence X; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XI, 92530Y / [ed] Roberto Zamboni; François Kajzar; Attila A. Szep; Douglas Burgess; Gari Owen and Harbinder Rana, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014, Vol. 9253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus in Swedish policy towards national security and high-end technical systems, together with a rapid development in multispectral sensor technology, adds to the utility of developing advanced materials for spectral design in signature management applications. A literature study was performed probing research databases for advancements. Qualitative text analysis was performed using a six-indicator instrument: spectrally selective reflectance; low gloss; low degree of polarization; low infrared emissivity; non-destructive properties in radar and in general controllability of optical properties. Trends are identified and the most interesting materials and coating designs are presented with relevant performance metrics. They are sorted into categories in the order of increasing complexity: pigments and paints, one-dimensional structures, multidimensional structures (including photonic crystals), and lastly biomimic and metamaterials. The military utility of the coatings is assessed qualitatively. The need for developing a framework for assessing the military utility of incrementally increasing the performance of spectrally selective coatings is identified.

  • 2.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarization effects in reflection from the cuticle of scarab beetles studied by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2012In: AES 2012, Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarization effects in reflection from the cuticle of scarab beetles studied by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry

     

    H. Arwin*, T. Berlind, J. Birch, L. Fernandez Del Rio, J. Gustafson, J. Landin,

    R. Magnusson, C. Åkerlind, and K. Järrendahl

    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden

    *corresponding author: han@ifm.liu.se

     

    Abstract- Many scarab beetles exhibit structural colors and complex polarization phenomena in reflection. These effects are characterized with spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry in our work. The polarization ellipse of reflected light as well as the degree of polarization is presented including variations with angle of incidence and wavelength. Emphasis is on beetles showing chiral effects and structural modeling of cuticle nanostructure is discussed.

     

    Background Since one hundred years it is known that some scarab beetles reflect elliptically polarized light as demonstrated by Michelson for the beetle Chrysina resplendens [1]. The handedness of the polarization is in a majority of the cases left-handed but also right-handed polarization has been found [2,3]. The ellipticity varies with wavelength and viewing angle but can be close to +1 or -1 (right or left circular polarization, respectively) and in addition these beetles may exhibit beautiful structural colors. The polarization and color effects are generated in the outer part of the exoskeleton, the cuticle. These natural photonic structures are often multifunctional and play important roles for survival of beetles, e.g. for hiding from or scaring predators, for intraspecies communication, etc. [4]. However, such structures may find use in many commercial applications and a major motivation for detailed studies of natural photonic structures is that they inspire to biomimetic applications [5,6].

    Approach Our objective is to use spectral Mueller-matrix data on scarab beetles to parameterize reflection properties in terms of polarization parameters and degree of polarization. The studied beetles all are phytophagous and include species from the Cetoniinae subfamily (e.g. Cetonia aurata and Coptomia laevis,), the Rutelinae subfamily (e.g. Chrysina argenteola and Chrysina resplendens) and the Melolonthinae subfamily (Cyphochilus insulanus). Furthermore, structural modeling is presented on Cetonia aurata and a few more beetles to demonstrate that structural parameters can be extracted by advanced modeling of Mueller-matrix data.

    Experimental A dual rotating compensator ellipsometer (RC2, J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) is used to record all 16 Mueller-matrix elements mij (i,j=1..4) in the spectral range 300 – 900 nm at angles of incidence in the range 20-70º. The elements are normalized to m11 and thus have values between -1 and +1. All measurements are performed on the scutellum (a small triangular part on the dorsal side of the beetles) with focusing optics resulting in a spot size of the order of 50-100 mm. The software CompleteEASE (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) is used for analysis.

    Results and discussion As an example, Fig. 1 shows contour plots of Mueller-matrix data measured on Cetonia aurata. This beetle has a metallic shine and if illuminated with unpolarized white light it reflects left-handed polarized green light as revealed by the non-zero Mueller-matrix elements m14 and m41 in the green spectral region for angles of incidence below about 45º. This is clearly seen in the graph to the right in Fig. 1 which shows a spectrum for Mueller-matrix element m41at 20º as well as fitted model data. A model based on a twisted lamella structure, also called Bouligand structure, is used to model the chiral nanostructure [4]. Given the complexity of the nanostructure, an excellent model fit is achieved. The obtained model parameters are the spectral variation of the refractive index of the birefringent lamellas and the pitch. The model also includes a dielectric surface layer.

     

     

     

    Fig.1. Left: Mueller-matrix data on Cetonia aurata. Each contour plot shows mij, where i and j correspond to the row and column, respectively. m11 =1 and is not shown but is replaced with a photo of the beetle. Right: Experimental and model-generated Mueller-matrix element m41at an angle of incidence of 20º.

     

    From the Mueller-matrix data one can also determine so called derived parameters including azimuth and ellipticity of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. The variations of these parameters with angle of incidence are presented for a selection of scarab beetles. Examples of both left-handed and right-handed polarization effects are shown and the importance of degree of polarization will be discussed.

    Concluding remarks Mueller-matrix spectra at oblique incidence are very rich in information about reflection properties and allows parameterization of polarization parameters of the reflected light. Both left-handed and right-handed reflected light is found in scarab beetles. Mueller-matrix data can also be used for a detailed modeling of the nanostructure of the cuticle of beetles.

    AcknowledgementsFinancial support was obtained from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation and the Swedish Research Council. The Museum of Natural History in Stockholm, the National Museum of Natural Science in Madrid, the Berlin Museum of Natural History and the Natural History Museum in London are acknowledged for loan of beetles.

     

    REFERENCES

    1. Michelson, A. A. “On Metallic Colouring in Birds and Insects,” Phil. Mag., 21, 554-567, 1911.
    2. Goldstein, D. H. “Polarization properties of Scarabaeidae,” Appl. Opt., 45, 7944-7950, 2006.
    3. Hodgkinson, I., Lowrey, S., Bourke, L., Parker, A. and McCall, M. W. “Mueller-matrix characterization of beetle cuticle polarized and unpolarized reflections from representative architectures,” Appl. Opt., 49, 4558-4567, 2010.
    4. Vukusic, P. and Sambles, J. R. “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature, 424, 852-855, 2003.
    5. Lenau, T. and Barfoed, M. “Colours and Metallic Sheen in Beetle Shells - A Biomimetic Search for Material Structuring Principles Causing Light Interference,” Adv. Eng. Mat., 10, 299-314. 2008.
    6. Parker, A. R. and Townley, H. E “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nature Nanotech., 2, 347-351, 2007.
  • 3.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Mexico.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring optics of beetle cuticles with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2014In: Materials Today, ISSN 1369-7021, E-ISSN 1873-4103, Vol. 1S, p. 155-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry at variable angles of incidence is applied to beetle cuticles using a small (50 -100 μm) spot size. It is demonstrated how ellipticity and degree of polarization of the reflected light can be derived from a Mueller matrix providing a detailed insight into reflection properties. Results from Cetonia aurata, Chrysina argenteola and Cotinis mutabilis are presented. The use of Mueller matrices in regression analysis to extract structural and optical parameters of cuticles is briefly described and applied to cuticle data from Cetonia aurata whereby the pitch of the twisted layered structure in the cuticle is determined as well as the refractive indices of the epicuticle and the exocuticle.

  • 4.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulation of light scattering from biological helicoidal structures2012In: 7th Workshop Ellipsometry, 2012, p. 90-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical Studies of Materials for Spectral Design2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical material properties have been studied in a wide wavelength range. Theaim is future use of spectral design for camou age. The main characterization techniques used in this work are Refection Spectroscopy, Scatterometry (BRDF) and Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry. Six camouflage evaluation criteria based on reflection, emissivity, polarization, gloss, dynamic coloring and broadband properties, are to a greater or lesser degree related to the interaction between light and materia. Almost all are connected to the work of this thesis and are exemplied through dierent material categories with potential for use in camouföage applications. The included papers presents: a broad band (visible-infrared-microwave) study, two examples of dynamic optical properties of thin lms, and polarization and scattering properties of a natural surface.

    List of papers
    1. A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications
    2014 (English)In: SPIE Proceedings, vol. 9253, Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence X; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XI, 92530Y / [ed] Roberto Zamboni; François Kajzar; Attila A. Szep; Douglas Burgess; Gari Owen and Harbinder Rana, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014, Vol. 9253Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus in Swedish policy towards national security and high-end technical systems, together with a rapid development in multispectral sensor technology, adds to the utility of developing advanced materials for spectral design in signature management applications. A literature study was performed probing research databases for advancements. Qualitative text analysis was performed using a six-indicator instrument: spectrally selective reflectance; low gloss; low degree of polarization; low infrared emissivity; non-destructive properties in radar and in general controllability of optical properties. Trends are identified and the most interesting materials and coating designs are presented with relevant performance metrics. They are sorted into categories in the order of increasing complexity: pigments and paints, one-dimensional structures, multidimensional structures (including photonic crystals), and lastly biomimic and metamaterials. The military utility of the coatings is assessed qualitatively. The need for developing a framework for assessing the military utility of incrementally increasing the performance of spectrally selective coatings is identified.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115364 (URN)10.1117/12.2067167 (DOI)9781628413168 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence X; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XI, Amsterdam, Netherlands, September 22, 2014
    Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2015-10-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and vector network analysis for determination of the electromagnetic response in two wavelength regions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectroscopic ellipsometry and vector network analysis for determination of the electromagnetic response in two wavelength regions
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi. C: Current Topics in Solid State Physics, ISSN 1862-6351, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1089-1092Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry and vector network analysis are used to determine the electromagnetic response of three samples, an epoxy polymer, a sample with ferrit-based nanoparticles in a polymer matrix and silicon, in the wavelength ranges 0.4-30 μm and 0.75-7.59 cm. Both methods measure amplitude and phase changes due to interaction with a sample and can be used to measure the full complex-valued dielectric response to electromagnetic radiation. The data from the two methods show similar levels of the response at the two ends of the spectral gap between the ranges of the two methods.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2008
    Keywords
    07.57.Pt; 07.60.Fs; 13.40.−f; 78.20.Ci; 81.70.Fy
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42736 (URN)10.1002/pssc.200777900 (DOI)000256862500021 ()68463 (Local ID)68463 (Archive number)68463 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2015-03-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Optical properties and switching of a Rose Bengal derivative: A spectroscopic ellipsometry study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical properties and switching of a Rose Bengal derivative: A spectroscopic ellipsometry study
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: THIN SOLID FILMS, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 519, no 11, p. 3582-3586Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Optical properties in terms of the complex-valued dielectric function were determined for spin-coated films of a Rose Bengal derivative using variable angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared wavelength regions. In addition, the thickness and roughness of the films were determined and related to the solution concentration of Rose Bengal. Switching between two different oxidation states of the Rose Bengal derivative was investigated. The two states were chemically induced by exposure to vapors of hydrochloric acid and ammonia, respectively. A substantial and reversible change of the optical properties of the films was observed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2011
    Keywords
    Thin films, Optical properties, Rose Bengal, Spectroscopic ellipsometry
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67825 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.269 (DOI)000289333400024 ()
    Note

    Original Publication: C Akerlind, Hans Arwin, Fredrik Jakobsson, H Kariis and Kenneth Järrendahl, Optical properties and switching of a Rose Bengal derivative: A spectroscopic ellipsometry study, 2011, THIN SOLID FILMS, (519), 11, 3582-3586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.269 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/

    Available from: 2011-04-29 Created: 2011-04-29 Last updated: 2015-06-01
    4. Polymer based devices with adaptable infrared reflection and transmission
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polymer based devices with adaptable infrared reflection and transmission
    2006 (English)In: "Organic optoelectronics and photonics II : 3-6 April, 2006, Strasbourg, France" / [ed] Paul L. Heremans; Michele Muccini and Eric A. Meulenkamp, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2006, Vol. 6192Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work the infrared-transmission of PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrensulfonat)) is being investigated using three different kind of electrochromic devises. PEDOT:PSS is an electrochromic conducting polymer able to change its optical properties when it is doped and undoped. The doping is achieved by a voltage applied across the cell. The optical properties are reversible if the polarity of the voltage is changed. We report here, to our knowledge, the first cell with adaptive transmission in the infrared wavelength range. The issue for this type of cell is that all the layers in the device must be transmissive in the whole relevant wavelength range. The results were further verified by construction of similar cells with different configuration giving adaptable reflectivity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2006
    National Category
    Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115366 (URN)10.1117/12.662707 (DOI)978-08-194-6248-0 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Organic Optoelectronics and Photonics II
    Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2015-03-27Bibliographically approved
    5. Scattering and Polarization Properties of the Scarab Beetle Cyphochilus insulanus cuticle
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scattering and Polarization Properties of the Scarab Beetle Cyphochilus insulanus cuticle
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 54, no 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Optical properties of natural photonic structures can inspire material developments in diversified areas, such as the spectral design of surfaces for camouflage. Here, reflectance, scattering, and polarization properties of the cuticle of the scarab beetle Cyphochilus insulanus are studied with spectral directional hemispherical reflectance, bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) measurements, and Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry (MMSE). At normal incidence, a reflectance (0.6–0.75) is found in the spectral range of 400–1600 nm and a weaker reflectance <0.2  in the UV range as well as for wavelengths >1600  nm  . A whiteness of 𝑊=42  is observed for mainly the elytra of the beetle. Chitin is a major constituent of the insect cuticle which is verified by the close similarity of the measured IR spectrum to that of 𝛼  -chitin. The BRDF signal shows close-to-Lambertian properties of the beetle for visible light at small angles of incidence. From the MMSE measurement it is found that the beetles appear as dielectric reflectors reflecting linearly polarized light at oblique incidence with low gloss and a low degree of polarization. The measured beetle properties are properties that can be beneficial in a camouflage material.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Optical Society of America, 2015
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115368 (URN)10.1364/AO.54.006037 (DOI)000357339200023 ()
    Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Sensor and Electronic Warfare, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Tomas
    Division of Sensor and Electronic Warfare, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    Division of Defence and Security, Systems and Technology, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Kariis, Hans
    Division of Sensor and Electronic Warfare, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden .
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Scattering and Polarization Properties of the Scarab Beetle Cyphochilus insulanus cuticle2015In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 54, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical properties of natural photonic structures can inspire material developments in diversified areas, such as the spectral design of surfaces for camouflage. Here, reflectance, scattering, and polarization properties of the cuticle of the scarab beetle Cyphochilus insulanus are studied with spectral directional hemispherical reflectance, bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) measurements, and Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry (MMSE). At normal incidence, a reflectance (0.6–0.75) is found in the spectral range of 400–1600 nm and a weaker reflectance <0.2  in the UV range as well as for wavelengths >1600  nm  . A whiteness of 𝑊=42  is observed for mainly the elytra of the beetle. Chitin is a major constituent of the insect cuticle which is verified by the close similarity of the measured IR spectrum to that of 𝛼  -chitin. The BRDF signal shows close-to-Lambertian properties of the beetle for visible light at small angles of incidence. From the MMSE measurement it is found that the beetles appear as dielectric reflectors reflecting linearly polarized light at oblique incidence with low gloss and a low degree of polarization. The measured beetle properties are properties that can be beneficial in a camouflage material.

  • 7.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kariis, Hans
    Dept of Sensor systems FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical properties and switching of a rose bengal derivative studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry2008In: European Optical Society Meeting 2008, 2008, p. 34-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. FOI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Jan
    FOI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Tomas
    FOI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kariis, Hans
    FOI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Evaluation criteria for spectral design of camouflage2015In: Proc. SPIE 9653, Target and Background Signatures / [ed] Karin U. Stein; Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9653, p. Art.no: 9653-2-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In development of visual (VIS) and infrared (IR) camouflage for signature management, the aim is the design of surface properties of an object to spectrally match or adapt to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast perceived by a threatening sensor. The so called 'ladder model" relates the requirements for task measure of effectiveness with surface structure properties through the steps signature effectiveness and object signature. It is intended to link materials properties via platform signature to military utility and vice versa. Spectral design of a surface intends to give it a desired wavelength dependent optical response to fit a specific application of interest. Six evaluation criteria were stated, with the aim to aid the process to put requirement on camouflage and for evaluation. The six criteria correspond to properties such as reflectance, gloss, emissivity, and degree of polarization as well as dynamic properties, and broadband or multispectral properties. These criteria have previously been exemplified on different kinds of materials and investigated separately. Anderson and Åkerlind further point out that the six criteria rarely were considered or described all together in one and same publication previously. The specific level of requirement of the different properties must be specified individually for each specific situation and environment to minimize the contrast between target and a background. The criteria or properties are not totally independent of one another. How they are correlated is part of the theme of this paper. However, prioritization has been made due to the limit of space. Therefore all of the interconnections between the six criteria will not be considered in the work of this report. The ladder step previous to digging into the different material composition possibilities and choice of suitable materials and structures (not covered here), includes the object signature and decision of what the spectral response should be, when intended for a specific environment. The chosen spectral response should give a low detection probability (DP). How detection probability connects to image analysis tools and implementation of the six criteria is part of this work.

  • 9.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Sensor Technology, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jänis, A.
    Department of Sensor Technology, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kariis, Hans
    Department of Sensor Technology, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spectroscopic ellipsometry and vector network analysis for determination of the electromagnetic response in two wavelength regions2008In: Physica Status Solidi. C: Current Topics in Solid State Physics, ISSN 1862-6351, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1089-1092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry and vector network analysis are used to determine the electromagnetic response of three samples, an epoxy polymer, a sample with ferrit-based nanoparticles in a polymer matrix and silicon, in the wavelength ranges 0.4-30 μm and 0.75-7.59 cm. Both methods measure amplitude and phase changes due to interaction with a sample and can be used to measure the full complex-valued dielectric response to electromagnetic radiation. The data from the two methods show similar levels of the response at the two ends of the spectral gap between the ranges of the two methods.

  • 10.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Karlsson, E. H.
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Kariis, H.
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Polymer based devices with adaptable infrared reflection and transmission2006In: "Organic optoelectronics and photonics II : 3-6 April, 2006, Strasbourg, France" / [ed] Paul L. Heremans; Michele Muccini and Eric A. Meulenkamp, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2006, Vol. 6192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work the infrared-transmission of PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrensulfonat)) is being investigated using three different kind of electrochromic devises. PEDOT:PSS is an electrochromic conducting polymer able to change its optical properties when it is doped and undoped. The doping is achieved by a voltage applied across the cell. The optical properties are reversible if the polarity of the voltage is changed. We report here, to our knowledge, the first cell with adaptive transmission in the infrared wavelength range. The issue for this type of cell is that all the layers in the device must be transmissive in the whole relevant wavelength range. The results were further verified by construction of similar cells with different configuration giving adaptable reflectivity.

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