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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    School of Management and Economics Växjö University, Sweden.
    Are religious people more prosocial? A quasi-experimental study with madrasah pupils in a rural community in India2009In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 368-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using quasi-experimental data, this paper examines the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior. In contrast to previous studies which identify religious people by how often they attend religious services or by their self-reported religiosity, this study compares the behavior of highly devout students who are preparing to enter the clergy, to the behavior of other students in a public-goods game and in the dictator game. The results show that religious students were significantly more cooperative in the public-goods game and significantly more generous in the dictator game than other students.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University.
    Breeding Bin Ladens: America, Islam and the future of Europe (Zachary Shore, 2006)2008In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 640-641Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Co-ethnic preferences in a cooking game: a study based on Come Dine With Me in Sweden2013In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 2220-2236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines ethnic preferences using data from the television cooking show Come Dine With Me in Sweden. Amateur chefs compete by hosting dinner parties. Contestants rate each others performance and the host with the highest ratings wins a cash prize. The show gives an unorthodox opportunity to study ethnic preferences in a high-stakes game environment. The analysis of the collected data shows that native Swedish contestants rate co-ethnic hosts significantly more favourably than they rate other hosts, demonstrating the existence of co-ethnic preferences. This observation seems to be an outcome of own-group favouritism rather than dislike against other groups. Also, the observed co-ethnic preference is assumed to be subtle or non-conscious based on the nature of the analysed data.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Commentary: Some thoughts on field experiments on housing discrimination from a European view2015In: Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, ISSN 1936-007X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 149-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Conditional reciprocity in the investment game2011In: The Social science journal (Fort Collins), ISSN 0362-3319, E-ISSN 1873-5355, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 404-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether people are conditional reciprocators in an investment game experiment, in the sense that the more they are trusted, the more they reciprocate. The results show that the majority of participants are conditional reciprocators but that they can be classified into three types: (1) exploitative reciprocators who do not reciprocate and exploit trust; (2) egoistic reciprocators who neither exploit nor reward trust; and (3) generous reciprocators who reward trusting behavior.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Etnisk diskriminering - vad vet vi, vad behöver vi veta och vad kan vi göra?2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 18-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering är ett avsevärt hinder på arbetsmarknaden, bostadsmarknaden och andra marknader för personer med utländsk bakgrund. I Sverige finns lagstiftning som förbjuder diskriminering och en myndighet som har tillsyn över problematiken. Men vad säger forskningen om etnisk diskriminering i Sverige? Denna översikt redogör för nationalekonomiska undersökningar som entydigt har funnit belägg för etnisk diskriminering. I ljuset av denna översikt förs en diskussion kring det vi känner till och det vi behöver känna till. Slutligen framförs förslag om hur arbetet mot etnisk diskriminering kan förbättras.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    School of Business and Economics Linnaeus University Växjö, Sweden.
    Muslim discrimination: evidence from two lost letter experiments2010In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 888-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet.
    Vad säger ett efternamn?: en experimentell studie av etnisk diskriminering2004Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    What is in a surname? The role of ethnicity in economic decision making2010In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 42, no 21, p. 2715-2723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from two experiments that investigate possible incidence of discrimination against people with foreign backgrounds in Sweden. In the first experiment, participants played the trust game and the dictator game with co-players of different ethnic affiliation. The family name of the players was exposed to their co-players. Results for the trust game showed no significant discrimination against co-players with foreign backgrounds. On the other hand, the results for the dictator game showed a statistically significant discriminatory behaviour by men against co-players with non-European backgrounds. The discriminatory behaviour was solely a male phenomenon. In the second experiment, the dictator game was replicated to check the stability of the results in the first experiment. The second experiment also examined whether people with foreign backgrounds discriminate against other people with foreign backgrounds; that is, the purpose was to discover whether discrimination is systematic. The observations in the second experiment underlined the results found in the first experiment: foreign co-players are discriminated against by Swedish players. However, we did not find that people with foreign backgrounds discriminated against other people with foreign backgrounds.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala University, Sweden and Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Women are not always less competitive than men: evidence from Come Dine with Me2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1099-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are women less competitive than men? Many experimental and nonexperimental studies have documented gender differences in competitiveness. This article presents the results from a study that examines gender differences in competitiveness in the television show Come Dine with Me. It is a cooking show in which amateur chefs compete against each other for a cash prize. The show provides an unusual opportunity to study gender differences in a high-stakes game environment. The results demonstrate that there are no gender differences in competitiveness.

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013In: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 565-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?2010In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how increasing the information about applicants affects discrimination in the rental housing market. We let four fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim names and two with typical Swedish names, use application letters containing different amounts of information to apply for apartments over the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants received fewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants. All of the applicants gained by providing more information about themselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslim applicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing the amount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitet och Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnéuniversitet .
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet .
    Diskriminering mot icke-heterosexuella i anställningssituationen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4,000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against gays and lesbian varies across different occupations and appears only in the private sector. The results also seem to suggest a new dimension of traditional gender roles; the gay applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Thus, the results suggest that gays to some extent face the same obstacles on the labor market as heterosexual women.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labor market2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 403-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the findings of the first field experiment on age discrimination in the Swedish labour market. Pairs of matched applications, one from a fictitious 31-year-old male applicant and one from a fictitious 46-year-old male applicant, were sent to employers with job openings for restaurant workers and sales assistants. Employers' responses to the applicants were then recorded. The experimental data provide clear and strong evidence of significant ageism in the Swedish labour market. On average, the younger applicant received over 3 times more responses from employers looking to hire a restaurant worker and over 4 times more responses from employers looking to hire a sales assistant than the older applicant. Therefore, the older applicant received significantly fewer invitations for interviews and job offers than the younger applicant in both occupations examined.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers2009In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 3050-3058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment regarding ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers. We let two fictitious prospective buyers, one with a typical Swedish name and one with a typical Arab/Muslim name, respond to advertisements of small business transfers on the Internet in Sweden. We then recorded the number contacts achieved by each fictitious buyer with sellers. We found that sellers discriminated against the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name in the sense that the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name obtained fewer contacts with sellers than did the buyer with a Swedish name.

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Inter- and Intra-Household Earnings Differentials among Homosexual and Heterosexual Couples2011In: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 49, no S2, p. S258-S278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: evidence from Swedish register data2013In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 83-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay males are at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of which earnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when we compare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, the disadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however, earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earnings advantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documented regardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing better than female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate that gay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians is likely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work than heterosexual females do.

  • 19.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Sexual orientation and occupational rank2011In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 2422-2433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The Swedish Elderly Care2006Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden: bidrag, kritik och framtid2008In: Efterfrågad arbetskraft?: årsbok 2008 från forskningsprofilen Arbetsmarknad, migration och etniska relationer (AMER) vid Växjö universitet / [ed] S. Lundberg och E. Platzer, Växjö University Press , 2008, p. 101-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden2009In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 105-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har fältexperiment använts för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden. I nedanstående framställning ges en presentation av fältexperiment som metod och en översikt över den forskning som genomförts med hjälp av fältexperiment i Sverige. Dessutom görs en framåtblickande diskussion.

  • 23.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kan diskriminering studeras med experimentella metoder?2006In: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv i migrationsforskning: årsbok 2006 från forskningsprofilen Arbetsmarknad, migration och etniska relationer (AMER) vid Växjö universitet / [ed] K. Hjelm, Växjö University Press , 2006, p. 45-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kan kvinnliga personalchefer motverka diskriminering av invandrare?2005In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 72-77Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultaten av en experimentell studie om etnisk diskriminering.Undersökningen visar att det främst är infödda män som tenderar att ha ett diskriminerande beteende. I Sverige fi nns lagstiftning som förbjuder etnisk diskriminering. Vi har också en särskild myndighet – diskrimineringsombudsmannen – som skall motverka etnisk diskriminering. Den presenterade undersökningen kan ge en ny infallsvinkel. Ett sätt att motverka diskriminering av invandrare kan vara att se till att andelen kvinnor som är personalchefer i företag och myndigheter ökar. Frågan om etnisk diskriminering är kanske också en jämställdhetsfråga.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does having ones own place to live make someone more employable?2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 18, p. 1327-1330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article encapsulates the findings of a randomized correspondence test field experiment investigating whether job candidates home status influences their employability. More than 2000 employers with vacancies in the Swedish labour market received a job application from a fictitious candidate. A job candidates home status (his or her own place to live or temporary housing with a friend) was randomized across employers. Results show that home status indeed affected the number of positive employer responses received by job candidates, mainly in low-skilled occupations. Not having a place to live at the time of the application proved a disadvantage when applying for positions within but an advantage when applying for positions outside the city of residence at the time of the application.

  • 26.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, no 303, p. 588-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 27.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet och Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Diskrimineras homosexuella? Några erfarenheter från svensk ekonomisk forskning2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering av homosexuella är förbjudet i Sverige. Trots detta är den ekonomiska forskning som finns på området begränsad. I artikeln presenteras resultat från forskningsprojekt rörande homosexuellas situation på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden i Sverige. Resultaten är i linje med resultat från internationell forskning. Homosexuella män har lägre arbetsinkomster än heterosexuella män. Diskriminering och skillnader i fördelningen av marknadsarbete och hushållarbete mellan homo- och heterosexuella hushåll framförs som förklaringar till detta. Vidare diskrimineras homosexuella män på bostadsmarknaden. Beträffande kvinnor finner vi inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan homo- och heterosexuella. Avslutningsvis presenteras några tänkbara förklaringar till varför homosexuella män diskrimineras medan detta inte är fallet för homosexuella kvinnor.

  • 28.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Diskriminering på bostadsmarknaden: effekten av att heta Mohammed2007In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 34-41Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel studeras diskriminering på svensk bostadsmarknad med hjälp av ett fältexperiment utfört på internet. I experimentet studeras såväl etnisk diskriminering som könsdiskriminering genom att tre fiktiva personer, en med ett typiskt svenskt manligt namn, en med ett typiskt svensk kvinnligt namn samt en med ett typiskt arabiskt/muslimskt manligt namn söker hyresrättslägenheter vilka utannonserats som lediga av såväl privatpersoner som företag på Blocket. se. Våra resultat visar att den arabiske/muslimske mannen möter diskriminering när han söker lägenheter. Den arabisk/muslimske mannen fick långt färre positiva svar och erbjudanden till visningar av lägenheter än den svenske mannen. Vi finner också en könsdiskriminering på bostadsmarknaden där den svenska kvinnan fick fler positiva svar och visningserbjudanden än den svenske mannen.

  • 29.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden .
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden .
    Sexual orientation and earnings: a register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 835-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 31.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 900-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how subtle religious representations affect prosocial behavior. The authors study the impact of religious representations on prosocial behavior in terms of cooperation in a one-shot/three-person public goods game.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors used the scrambled sentence task to prime participants with religious words before they were asked to make a one-shot/three-person public goods game decision.

    Findings – Both in the raw data and when controlling for factors such as age, gender and religious beliefs, the authors found that priming of religious representations increased cooperation in the experiment, that is, increased contributions to the public good. The authors found no significant interaction effects between priming and self-reported measures of religiosity, suggesting that the priming effect was present among both self-reported religious and nonreligious participants. Self-reported measures of religiosity were not correlated with cooperation in this study.

    Originality/value – The paper adds to the growing body of experimental economics literature that has studied self-reported measures of religiosity alongside behavior in different economic games. This study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of subtle influences of religion on cooperation. Also, in contrast to previous economic literature, the paper examines the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on cooperation.

  • 32.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Can education affect pro-social behavior?: Cops, economists and humanists in social dilemmas2008In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether education and training affect pro-social behavior. Economics students are often accused of being less pro-social. The explanations given are that less pro-social people choose to study economics or that economics studies indoctrinate students to selfish behavior. The paper experimentally tests these postulations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses the prisoner's dilemma game and stag hunt game to study cooperation across different groups of students.

    Findings – The experiment supports neither of the postulations: economics students would be indoctrinated or less pro-social people choose to study economics. However, the study shows that police cadets, who go through an education where teamwork and cooperation is promoted, become more cooperative and pro-social after their completed education.

    Originality/value – In contrast to earlier studies, this paper does not simply study economics students, but also examines if students in educational programs that promote loyalty and cooperation and encourage teamwork are more pro-social than other students.

  • 33.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Decisions under unpredictable losses: An examination of the restated diversification principle2007In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 312-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental test of the descriptive adequacy of the restated diversification principle is presented. The principle postulates that risk-averse utility maximizers will pool risks for their mutual benefit, even if information is missing about the probabilities of losses. It is enough for people to assume that they face equal risks when they pool risks. The results of the experiment support the principle.

  • 34.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), Växjö University, Sweden.
    Group identity, social distance and intergroup bias2007In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 324-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how groupidentity, socialdistance and intergroupbias may affect economic decision-making. Two types of experimental groupings are created, and subjects are then paired with either an in-group member or an out-group member in a number of two-person games. The result of this experiment shows that out-group members face a risk of being discriminated against. The cause of the discrimination is not hostility toward out-group members; the discrimination is triggered because of higher expectations or favoritism of in-group members. This type of behavior holds, regardless of the grouping procedure.

  • 35.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Are lesbians discriminated against in the rental housing market? Evidence from a correspondence testing experiment2008In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 234-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment, conducted over the Internet, studying possible discrimination againstlesbians in the rentalhousing market in Sweden. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one lesbian, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the Internet. We then investigated whether there were differences between the couples in the number of received call-backs, invitations to further contact, and invitations to immediate showings. Our findings show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords. A discussion relating to earlier findings is provided

  • 36.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market: a field experiment on the Internet2008In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents afieldexperiment on discrimination in the housing market, using the Internet as a research platform. The procedure involved our creating three fictitious persons with distinctive sounding ethnic and gender names. These individuals applied for vacant rental apartments in Sweden that were advertised by landlords on the Internet. Our findings show that the Arabic/Muslim male received far fewer call backs, enquiries, and showings than the Swedish male. Our observations also indicate that the Swedish female met with less difficulty in terms of finding an apartment than the Swedish male. Thus, based on our findings, we conclude that ethnic, as well as gender discrimination exists in the Swedish rentalhousing market.

  • 37.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market2017In: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, ISSN 2193-9004, E-ISSN 2193-9004, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the findings of a field experiment on hiring discrimination against ex-offenders in the Swedish labor market. Matched pairs of written job applications for fictitious male and female applicants with and without a past conviction of assault were sent to employers for nine different occupations. Results show that discrimination against ex-offenders exists, but the extent of it varies across occupations. The past conviction of assault was associated with 7–18 percentage point lower probability of receiving a positive employer response. Discrimination against ex-offenders was pronounced in female-dominated and high-skilled occupations. The magnitude of discrimination against ex-offenders did not vary by applicants’ sex.

  • 38.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Trust in India and Sweden: an experimental examination of the Fukuyama conjecture2008In: Cross-cultural research, ISSN 1069-3971, E-ISSN 1552-3578, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 420-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors test the proposition, put forward by Francis Fukuyama, that the higher the level of trust in a country the less corrupt, the more developed, and wealthier its economy will be. They study trust and voluntary cooperation using a one-shot and three-person public goods game experiment in India and Sweden. The results, in line with the proposition, show that the average contribution is significantly larger in Sweden, implying a higher level of trust and cooperation in Sweden than in India. This article provides further evidence on the relationship between trust and economic development. This study differs from previous ones in that it uses a multilateral game experiment to study trust and cooperation rather than a bilateral game experiment. Furthermore, it provides evidence from two countries not studied before in this context.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), School of Management and Economics, Växjö University Sweden.
    Skogh, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Choices at various levels of uncertainty: An experimental test of the restated diversification theorem2006In: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, ISSN 0895-5646, E-ISSN 1573-0476, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our "Restated diversification theorem" (Skogh and Wu, 2005) says that risk-averse agents may pool risks efficiently without assignment of subjective probabilities to outcomes, also at genuine uncertainty. It suffices that the agents presume that they face equal risks. Here, the theorem is tested in an experiment where the probability of loss, and the information about this probability, varies. The result supports our theorem. Moreover, it tentatively supports an evolutionary theory of the insurance industry-starting with mutual pooling at uncertainty, turning into insurance priced ex ante when actuarial information is available. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006.

  • 40.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Göteborg University and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Cooperación y confianza: análisis comparativo en economía experimental2007In: Revista CIFE, ISSN 0124-3551, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 9-23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work using an experiment of game of public goods analyzes the relation between the attitudinal trust and behavioral trust in three countries. Students from Colombia, Mexico and Sweden participate in this experiment and respond a questionnaire with questions on confidence. The attitudinal trust and behavioral trust are different substantially between the analyzed countries. The confidence measured by the questions of the questionnaire does not show a pattern of common conduct between the participants of the three countries. Nevertheless, a somewhat similar behavior we found in the applied experiment, that is to say, the participants assume a certain level of risk very similarity, however, cultures and different societies come from.

  • 41.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Implicit influences of Christian religious representations on dictator and prisoner’s dilemma game decisions2011In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 242-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how implicit influences of Christian religious representations affect prosociality. We examine the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on prosocial behavior. We do so by priming participants with religious words in a scrambled sentence task before they make a dictator game and a prisoner's dilemma game decision. Priming religious words significantly increased prosocial behavior in both games: participants in the treatment group were more generous and cooperative than participants in the control group. The priming effect was present regardless of participants’ self-reported religiosity. Self-reported religiosity was not correlated with generosity or cooperation.

  • 42.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University.
    Is the hand of God involved in human cooperation?2009In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 36, no 1/2, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the supernatural punishment theory. The theory postulates that religion increases cooperation because religious people fear the retributions that may follow if they do not follow the rules and norms provided by the religion.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports results for a public goods experiment conducted in India, Mexico, and Sweden. By asking participants whether they are religious or not, one can study whether religiosity has an effect on voluntary cooperation in the public goods game.

    Findings – No significant behavioral differences were found between religious and nonreligious participants in the experiment.

    Originality/value – This paper differs from the previous limited experimental literature, studying religiosity and cooperation, in the sense that it uses a public goods game rather than a prisoner's dilemma game. The public goods game is more interesting since many real life problems are multilateral rather than bilateral. Further, the study was conducted in three different countries: India, Mexico, and Sweden; with three different types of potentialy religious people: Hindus, Catholics, and Protestants.

  • 43.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    School of Public Administration, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Religious context and prosociality: an experimental study from Valparaíso, Chile2013In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 627-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are people more prosocial in a religious context? We addressed this question through an experiment. We randomly placed participants in the control group in a neutral location (a lecture hall), and we placed participants in the experimental group in a religious location (a chapel). The participants then took part in a one-shot three-person public goods game, which measured participants' degree of cooperativeness. The results showed that participants in the experimental group cooperated significantly more than did participants in the control group. Furthermore, participants' beliefs about other participants' cooperativeness were more positive in the experimental group than they were in the control group. Improved expectations of others partially explained the enhanced cooperation in the religious context. We found no main or interaction effect of self-reported religiosity in the experiment.

  • 44.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    The relationship between behavioral and attitudinal trust: a cross-cultural study2009In: Review of social economy, ISSN 0034-6764, E-ISSN 1470-1162, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 457-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the relationship between trust in an experiment and trust measured by means of popular survey items in different countries. Students from Chile, Colombia, India, Mexico and Sweden participate in a public goods game experiment and answer a set of standard attitudinal survey questions about trust. We find that behavioral trust and attitudinal trust significantly differ among countries. Behavioral trust is highest in Sweden, followed by Latin America, and lowest in India. Attitudinal trust is highest in Chile and Sweden, followed by India and Mexico, and lowest in Colombia. Further, the predictive power of survey items also differs among countries. Trust measured by survey items is significantly related to behavioral trust in some but not in all societies. No single survey item predicts actual trust across all countries. Plausible explanations of the inconsistent relationship between behavioral and attitudinal trust across countries are discussed.

  • 45.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sohag, Kazi
    Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia.
    Biomass energy, technological progress and the environmental Kuznets curve: Evidence from selected European countries2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 90, p. 202-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the causal relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in a panel of 24 European countries from 1980 to 2010. Using an analytical framework that considers pooled mean group estimations in a dynamic heterogeneous panel setting, we show that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the long run and that there is no such relationship in the short run. In particular, we find that biomass energy is insignificantly linked to CO2 emission. However, technological innovation significantly facilitates reduction of CO2 emissions in the investigated countries. Altogether, our study implies that economic growth and environmental quality can be achieved simultaneously, which opens up new insights for policy-makers for sustainable economic development via implementation of renewable energy consumption through technological innovation.

  • 46.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Sweden.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 5848-5861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994-2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.

  • 47.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Economics and Statistics, Växjö, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Economics and Statistics, Växjö, Sweden.
    Sexual prejudice and labor market outcomes for gays and lesbians: Evidence from Sweden2015In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 90-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a study of sexual prejudice and differentials in labor market outcomes due to sexual orientation. It uses data from a nationwide Swedish survey on public attitudes toward homosexuals, conducted in 1999, and combines them with register data for 2007, which include information about sexual orientation, employment status, and yearly earnings for the total population in Sweden. It finds that prejudice against homosexuals negatively affects the relative employment and relative earnings of gay men. Lesbians are affected negatively by prejudice against homosexuals in terms of employment, but the relationship is less clear in regard to earnings. Discrimination against homosexuals, as well as social norms, occupational sorting and self-selection in, geographic mobility are presented as explanations for the results.

  • 48.
    Kang, Sang Hoon
    et al.
    Pusan Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yoon, Seong-Min
    Pusan Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Multi-scale causality and extreme tail inter-dependence among housing prices2018In: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 70, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores multi-scale causality and extreme tail dependence structures among housing prices in four cities: Seoul, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and New York. We apply two different and unique approaches in our analysis of monthly housing price data: (i) the frequency domain Granger casualty test and (ii) the non-parametric copula test. Employing the frequency domain casualty test, we find both bi-directional and uni-directional causalities at different frequency bands. Additionally, the nonlinear copula estimates indicate asymmetric tail dependence for housing price pairs in all four cities. Finally, the Hong Kong housing market has a greater effect on the Seoul and Tokyo housing markets than does the New York housing market.

  • 49.
    Sohag, Kazi
    et al.
    University of Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Al Mamun, Md
    La Trobe University, Australia; East West University, Bangladesh.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sectoral output, energy use, and CO2 emission in middle-income countries2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 9754-9764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Middle-income countries are currently undergoing massive structural changes towards more industrialized economies. In this paper, we carefully examine the impact of these transformations on the environmental quality of middle-income countries. Specifically, we examine the role of sector value addition to GDP on CO2 emission nexus for middle-income economies controlling for the effects of population growth, energy use, and trade openness. Using recently developed panel methods that consider cross-sectional dependence and allow for heterogeneous slope coefficients, we show that energy use and growth of industrial and service sectors positively explain CO2 emissions in middle-income economies. We also find that population growth is insignificantly associated with CO2 emission. Hence, our paper provides a solid ground for developing a sustainable and pro-growth policy for middle-income countries.

  • 50.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bekiros, Stelios
    European University Institute, Florence, Italy; IPAG Business School, Paris, France.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The nexus between geopolitical uncertainty and crude oil markets: An entropy-based wavelet analysis2018In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, Vol. 495, no April, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global financial crisis and the subsequent geopolitical turbulence in energy markets have brought increased attention to the proper statistical modeling especially of the crude oil markets. In particular, we utilize a time–frequency decomposition approach based on wavelet analysis to explore the inherent dynamics and the casual interrelationships between various types of geopolitical, economic and financial uncertainty indices and oil markets. Via the introduction of a mixed discrete-continuous multiresolution analysis, we employ the entropic criterion for the selection of the optimal decomposition level of a MODWT as well as the continuous-time coherency and phase measures for the detection of business cycle (a)synchronization. Overall, a strong heterogeneity in the revealed interrelationships is detected over time and across scales.

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