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  • 1.
    Anderson, Trevor
    et al.
    Purdue University, USA.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    du Plessis, Lynn
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Gupthar, Abindra
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Hull, Tracy
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Identifying and Developing Students' Ability to Reason with Concepts and Representations in Biology2013In: Multiple Representations in Biological Education / [ed] D.F. Treagust and C.-Y. Tsui, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, p. -390Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This new publication in the Models and Modeling in Science Education series synthesizes a wealth of international research on using multiple representations in biology education and aims for a coherent framework in using them to improve higher-order learning. Addressing a major gap in the literature, the volume proposes a theoretical model for advancing biology educators’ notions of how multiple external representations (MERs) such as analogies, metaphors and visualizations can best be harnessed for improving teaching and learning in biology at all pedagogical levels.The content tackles the conceptual and linguistic difficulties of learning biology at each level—macro, micro, sub-micro, and symbolic, illustrating how MERs can be used in teaching across these levels and in various combinations, as well as in differing contexts and topic areas. The strategies outlined will help students’ reasoning and problem-solving skills, enhance their ability to construct mental models and internal representations, and, ultimately, will assist in increasing public understanding of biology-related issues, a key goal in today’s world of pressing concerns over societal problems about food, environment, energy, and health. The book concludes by highlighting important aspects of research in biological education in the post-genomic, information age. 

  • 2.
    Besançon, Lonni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yin, He
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rising, Samuel
    Linköping University.
    Westerdahl, Peter
    Linköping University.
    Ljung, Patric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wideström, Josef
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Hansen, Charles
    Utah University, USA.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Exploring and Explaining Climate Change: Exploranation as a Visualization Pedagogy for Societal Action2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging mass audiences with crucial societal issues, such as cli-mate change, can be provided through interactive exhibits designed around the paradigm of exploranation. We present example inter-active installations in the newly founded Wadstr¨oms Exploranation Laboratory that explain various aspects of climate change while allowing public participants to explore the real scientific data. We describe how effects and causes of climate change can be communi-cated by two of the installations that allow for interactive opportuni-ties to explore the underlying data while gaining insight into climate change sources and effects. We close with implications for future work on exploranation as an emerging visualization pedagogy in public spaces.

  • 3.
    Dolo, Gilbert
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermal Cameras as a Semiotic Resource for Inquiry in a South African Township School Context2018In: Designs for Learning, ISSN 1654-7608, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inquiry-based approaches to science education are central to recent South African primary and secondary school curricula, but have been found challenging to adopt in disadvantaged township contexts. It is therefore important to find ways of introducing inquiry-based approaches, where pupils are encouraged to investigate phenomena they are interested in and to engage in true dialogue, as opposed to teacher-led triadic dialogue. We typically experience thermal phenomena through the sense of touch, but infrared (IR) cameras provide an additional opportunity to experience heat-related phenomena through the visual sense. Previously, in a Swedish context, we have found that hand-held IR cameras allow for strong pedagogical affordances and inspire pupils to engage in inquiry in the area of thermal science. In the present case study, grade 7 and 8 pupils (13–14 years old) in two South African township schools were introduced to IR cameras during predict-observe-explain (POE) exercises on heat conduction. The results revealed that if pupils had a sufficient conceptual understanding of heat conduction beforehand, they were capable of engaging in true dialogue in relation to the exercises and interpreting the thermal camera visual imagery. However, if pupils did not show such understanding, it was tempting for them and the facilitator to resort to triadic dialogue.

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  • 4.
    Flint, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Virtual nanoworlds for learning2020In: 21st Century Nanoscience – A Handbook: Public Policy, Education, and Global Trends (Volume Ten) / [ed] Klaus D. Sattler, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2020, p. 7-1-7-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Flint, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Virtual Nanoworlds for Learning2020Data set
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    NanoSim software
  • 6.
    Flint, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Virtual nanoworlds for learning2020In: 21st Century Nanoscience – A Handbook: Public Policy, Education, and Global Trends (Volume Ten) / [ed] Klaus D. Sattler, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2020, p. 7-1-7-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Flint, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating an Immersive Virtual Nanoscience Simulation for Learning: Students' Interaction, Understanding, Attitudes and System Usability2014In: AERA Online Paper Repository, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid nanoscientific development in a myriad of applied fields compels educational structures to develop curricular nanoknowledge for a future citizenry capable of contributing skills to a nano-workforce and in acquiring a nano-literacy. This study investigated ten Swedish upper-secondary students' interactions with a virtual reality nanoworld and sought to illuminate: 1) how students link to and support their understanding of prior science knowledge, 2) students' attitudes towards the benefits and risks of nanotechnology, and 3) the usability of the system. Analyzed videotaped and written data elicited cognitive mechanisms underlying interaction with the virtual reality environment for promoting understanding, the influence of the interactive experience on students' attitudes to nanophenomena, and system features that could be applied in real science classrooms.

  • 8.
    Frejd, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Making a fictitious animal: 6-7 year-old Swedishchildren’s meaning making about evolution duringa modelling task2022In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 323-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas previous studies show that children are able to make meaningabout evolutionary concepts within read-aloud contexts, little is knownabout how semiotic resources and interaction influence children’s meaningmaking about evolution. This study investigates children’s meaning makingabout evolutionary concepts during a modelling activity conducted after aninteractive storybook read-aloud describing the evolution of a foraging traitof a fictitious mammal (the pilose). Forty children (13 groups) were videotapedas they produced a clay pilose model, while explaining how theythought their pilose would appear after inhabiting a ‘future’ environment(mountainous, snowy or forest). A multimodal analysis focused on howchildren demonstrated their meanings of seven evolutionary conceptsdescribed in the book. An eighth concept, ‘adaptation to environment’,was also often discussed. While all eight concepts emerged, the mostfrequent concerned survival and adaptation. The eighth concept appearedto serve as a synthesis of children’s interpretation of the storybook thathighlighted the visible consequences of evolution. The children engagedfive interactional resources, dominated by the interactional resource ofcommunicating the concepts in direct relation to their produced pilosemodels. The findings shed light on how children’s representational andrelational practices impact making meaning about evolution.

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  • 9.
    Gudmann Knutsson, Sophie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asplund, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Public Perceptions of Waste Management in Sri Lanka: A Focus Group Study2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 23, article id 12960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse of waste is promoted by the United Nation’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, but many countries lack both necessary resources and infrastructure for sound waste management. While literature pinpoints the need for an engaged public and suggests a range of factors and supportive actions that may impact citizens’ waste behaviour, qualitative in-depth studies for engaging in waste management practices remain scarce. This study aimed to investigate perceptions of waste management and underlying behaviours for waste practices in the context of household waste management in Sri Lanka. Six focus group interviews were held with 23 residents across 6 regions in Sri Lanka. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed perceptions of four waste management systems, together with five motivational aspects of waste practices in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The analysis further considers how the motivational aspects are interlinked with practices within citizens’ perceived systems. In addition to the novel thematic contribution to the field, the findings can be used as a foundation to inform strategies to communicate with selected target audiences about their local challenges for sustainable waste management practices, in an attempt to influence citizen behaviours.

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  • 10.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Towards defining success factors for school visits to digital science centers2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    School visits to science centers can provide valuable opportunities for pupils to engage with science content and practices different from the traditional classroom and raise pupils' interest in science and science careers. Teachers play a key role in the success of a visit by linking to classroom practice. Unfortunately, visits tend to be viewed as an isolated experience by teachers and pupils, wherein pre- and post-visit activities that actively integrate the visit into classroom practice are often lacking. While many science centers offer suggestions for such pre- and post-visit activities, teachers do not typically take advantage of them. Thus, it is imperative to explore teachers’ views on successful visits and barriers that may influence the experience for pupils. As part of a larger research project on success factors for school visits to science centers, we examined teachers views on success factors, motivations and barriers to visiting a digital science center in Sweden. Based on interviews and the accompanying literature, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to teachers in local compulsory schools. Responses from 50 teachers revealed that the most important success factors were a well-prepared program, that the content is conveyed visually, that the visit induces pupils’ curiosity, and that the activities are linked to the curriculum. Teachers most common motives for visiting were that it offers a unique experience from the classroom, that the visit is free and that the program considers pupils’ needs. The majority of the teachers conducted no or limited pre- and post-visit activities, although the science center offers lesson plans linked to the visit. Main obstacles to visits included public transport costs for suburban and rural area schools. Our results suggest that the design of a visit should also consider and support the practical constraints for teachers and schools. 

  • 11.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Students framing of laboratory exercises using infrared cameras2015In: Physical Review Special Topics : Physics Education Research, E-ISSN 1554-9178, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 020127-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal science is challenging for students due to its largely imperceptible nature. Handheld infrared cameras offer a pedagogical opportunity for students to see otherwise invisible thermal phenomena. In the present study, a class of upper secondary technology students (N = 30) partook in four IR-camera laboratory activities, designed around the predict-observe-explain approach of White and Gunstone. The activities involved central thermal concepts that focused on heat conduction and dissipative processes such as friction and collisions. Students interactions within each activity were videotaped and the analysis focuses on how a purposefully selected group of three students engaged with the exercises. As the basis for an interpretative study, a "thick" narrative description of the students epistemological and conceptual framing of the exercises and how they took advantage of the disciplinary affordance of IR cameras in the thermal domain is provided. Findings include that the students largely shared their conceptual framing of the four activities, but differed among themselves in their epistemological framing, for instance, in how far they found it relevant to digress from the laboratory instructions when inquiring into thermal phenomena. In conclusion, the study unveils the disciplinary affordances of infrared cameras, in the sense of their use in providing access to knowledge about macroscopic thermal science.

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  • 12.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad J
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermal cameras in school laboratory activities2015In: Physics Education, ISSN 0031-9120, E-ISSN 1361-6552, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 424-430, article id 424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal cameras offer real-time visual access to otherwise invisible thermal phenomena, which are conceptually demanding for learners during traditional teaching. We present three studies of students’ conduction of laboratory activities that employ thermal cameras to teach challenging thermal concepts in grades 4, 7 and 10–12. Visualization of heat-related phenomena in combination with predict-observe-explain experiments offers students and teachers a pedagogically powerful means for unveiling abstract yet fundamental physics concepts.

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  • 13.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Melander, Emil
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pendrill, Ann-Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Xie, Charles
    Concord Consortium, MA 01742 USA.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Infrared cameras in science education2016In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 75, p. 150-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 14.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköpings universitet.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköpings universitet.
    Conclusions and future outlook2022In: Thermal cameras in science education / [ed] Jesper Haglund; Fredrik Jeppsson ; Konrad J. Schönborn, Cham: Springer , 2022, p. 205-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this book project was to bring together international educators, researchers and practitioners on the use of Thermal Cameras in Science Education. The outcome was a collection of chapters describing the physics behind thermal cameras, empirical studies on their use in educational settings, and examples of their practical use for teaching.

  • 15.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköpings universitet.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköpings universitet.
    Introduction2022In: Thermal cameras in science education / [ed] J. Haglund ; F. Jeppsson ; K.J. Schönborn, Cham: Springer , 2022, p. 1-3Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying thermal phenomena involves exploring physical processes beyond what we can see. Central concepts in thermal science, such as energy, heat and temperature are not visible to the naked eye. These concepts permeate physics, chemistry, and biology as scientific areas of study, but also teaching of the corresponding subjects at multiple levels of education. As witnessed in the educational research literature through decades, learning thermal concepts continues to be a significant obstacle in science teaching across the world.

  • 16.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Taking on the Heat—a Narrative Account of How Infrared Cameras Invite Instant Inquiry2016In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 685-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of technology, social learning and scientific models offers pedagogical opportunities for science education. A particularly interesting area is thermal science, where students often struggle with abstract concepts, such as heat. In taking on this conceptual obstacle, we explore how hand-held infrared (IR) visualization technology can strengthen students’ understanding of thermal phenomena. Grounded in the Swedish physics curriculum and part of a broader research programme on educational uses of IR cameras, we have developed laboratory exercises around a thermal storyline, in conjunction with the teaching of a heat-flow model. We report a narrative analysis of how a group of five fourth-graders, facilitated by a researcher, predicts, observes and explains (POE) how the temperatures change when they pour hot water into a ceramic coffee mug and a thin plastic cup. Four chronological episodes are described and analysed as group interaction unfolded. Results revealed that the students engaged cognitively and emotionally with the POE task and, in particular, held a sustained focus on making observations and offering explanations for the scenarios. A compelling finding was the group’s spontaneous generation of multiple "what-ifs" in relation to thermal phenomena, such as blowing on the water surface, or submerging a pencil into the hot water. This was followed by immediate interrogation with the IR camera, a learning event we label instant inquiry. The students’ expressions largely reflected adoption of the heat-flow model. In conclusion, IR cameras could serve as an access point for even very young students to develop complex thermal concepts.

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  • 17.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, FredrikLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.Schönborn, KonradLinköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermal Cameras in Science Education2022Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a collection of educational research and developmental efforts on the rapidly emerging use of infrared cameras and thermal imaging in science education. It provides an overview of infrared cameras in science education to date, and of the physics and technology of infrared imaging and thermography. It discusses different areas of application of infrared cameras in physics, chemistry and biology education, as well as empirical research on students’ interaction with the technology. It ends with conclusions drawn from the contributions as a whole and a formulation of forward-looking comments.

  • 18.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Pedagogical Potential of Infrared Cameras in Biology Education2019In: The American Biology Teacher, ISSN 0002-7685, E-ISSN 1938-4211, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 520-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal imagery provides new opportunities to study concepts and processes in biology. Examples include using infrared (IR) cameras in educational activities to explore energy transfer and transformation in human physiology, animal thermoregulation, and plant metabolism. The user-friendly and visually intuitive nature of IR technology is well suited to the study of rapidly changing temperatures on biological surfaces, due to such energy transfers. IR cameras are therefore potentially helpful pedagogical tools for approaching the Energy and Matter crosscutting concept in the Life Sciences discipline of the Next Generation Science Standards.

  • 19.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Nordlöf, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Norström, Per
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Authenticity in Integrated STEM Education – Boon or Fantasy?: Observing Upper Secondary Technology Classroom Practice2023In: PATT40 Liverpool 2023. Pupils' Attitudes Towards Technology Conference: Diverse Experiences of Design and Technology Education for a Contemporary and Pluralist Society / [ed] Sarah Davies, Matt McLain, Alison Hardy, & David Morrison-Love, Liverpool: Liverpool John Moores University , 2023, Vol. 40, p. 397-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering design and technological modelling have been argued as valid premises from which to increase authenticity, relevance and create bridges between the STEM disciplines while maintaining subject integrity. Previous research indicates that projects which emulate how engineers work has the potential of both integrating STEM disciplines and being authentic. At the same time, earlier research also cautions that few integrated STEM projects consider students’ interests and their everyday contexts. The aim of this study is to investigate the implementation of an integrated STEM project in the Technology Programme at a Swedish upper secondary school. The studied STEM project involves students’ designs for improving their physical school environment in terms of well-being, feasibility, and sustainability. Data collection consisted of participatory observations, as well as teacher and student interviews. The results are presented in terms of three themes, namely (1) cooperation and real-life application are fundamental for authentic learning; (2) using models and modelling for communicating design ideas are central to authentic technology and engineering; and (3) integration of STEM content and methods do not draw on all four disciplines. It is concluded that there might be easily accessible pathways to promote integrated STEM and authenticity, such as utilizing the school environment as a starting point. However, formally implementing authentic practices remain a challenge even though a majority of teachers are enthusiastic about real-world relevance in design projects. Integrated STEM in the design project mostly included technology and engineering content, and aspects of science and mathematics albeit to a lower degree, which made simultaneous integration of all STEM disciplines a challenging task.

  • 20.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Norstrom, Per
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Authentic STEM education through modelling: an international Delphi study2023In: International Journal of STEM education, E-ISSN 2196-7822, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe literature asserts that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education needs to be authentic. Although models and modelling provide a basis from which to increase authenticity by bridging the STEM disciplines, the idea of authentic STEM education remains challenging to define. In response, the aim of this study is to identify consensus on significant elements of authentic STEM education through models and modelling. Views were gathered anonymously over three rounds of questions with an expert panel. Responses were subjected to a multimethod analysis that pursued identification, consensus, and stability in the panels revealed propositions and themes around authentic STEM education through modelling.ResultsThe panel reached high consensus concerning the potential of STEM education to support learning across traditional subject borders through authentic problem solving. The panel also consented that modelling is indispensable for achieving real-world relevance in STEM education, and that model-based integrated STEM education approaches provide opportunities for authentic problem solving. Furthermore, results showed that integrating individual STEM subjects during teaching, in terms of including disciplinary knowledge and skills, requires specialised competence. Here, technology and engineering subjects tended to implicitly underpin communicated teaching activities aimed at STEM integration.Conclusions and implicationsThe panellists stress that STEM disciplines should be taught collaboratively at the same time as they are not in favour of STEM as a subject of its own but rather as a cooperation that maintains the integrity of each individual subject. Many respondents mentioned integrated STEM projects that included modelling and engineering design, although they were not specifically labelled as engineering projects. Thus, real-world STEM education scenarios are often viewed as being primarily technology and engineering based. The panel responses also implicate a need for multiple definitions of authenticity for different educational levels because a great deal of uncertainty surrounding authenticity seems to originate from the concept implying different meanings for different STEM audiences. These international Delphi findings can potentially inform integrated STEM classroom interventions, teacher education development, educational resource and curriculum design.

  • 21.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Norström, Per
    Institutionen för Lärande, KTH.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    International Views of Authenticity in Integrated STEM Education2022In: PATT 39: PATT on the Edge Technology, Innovation and Education / [ed] David Gill, Jim Tuff, Thomas Kennedy, Shawn Pendergast, Sana Jamil, St. John's, 2022, p. 394-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated STEM education aims for teaching and learning that goes beyond the individual disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Although authenticity is a widely used term in the literature, little is known about the meaning and application of the concept. The aim of this study is to systematically explore international views of authenticity in integrated STEM education. An online survey was responded to by twenty-eight experienced researchers and practitioners in science, technology, engineering, mathematics as well as related educational disciplines from around the world. We labelled the acquired participants the STEM expert panel, with expertise in STEM education, curriculum development, and the STEM root disciplines. The STEM expert panel responded to three open-ended questions that probed their opinions concerning opportunities and limitations of integrating the STEM disciplines. Data were analysed thematically and iteratively to reveal salient categories of authenticity. In terms of findings, views included three overarching themes. Firstly, experts opined that integrated STEM education requires authentic, real-world problems that support innovative and critical thinking capabilities in students. Secondly, real-world STEM education scenarios are in the panel’s view primarily technology and engineering based. Thirdly, model-based integrated STEM education approaches provide opportunities to include real-life solutions and genuine problem solving that are not otherwise possible. Consequently, what is meant by authenticity and authentic learning was addressed, not for whom something is authentic. Findings also suggest that although the international STEM experts often foregrounded ‘S’ and ‘M’ principles in their descriptions of STEM education, the ‘T’ and ‘E’ emerged as fundamental to implementing authenticity. Thus, the panellists viewed technology and engineering as providing authentic contexts that act as bridges between school and real-world settings.

  • 22.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Commentary: Models and modelling for authentic STEM education: reinforcing the argument2019In: International Journal of STEM education, E-ISSN 2196-7822, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This commentary expands the notion that models and modelling can be used as a basis to foster an integrated and authentic STEM education and STEM literacy. The aim is to synthesize key publications that document relationships between authenticity, models and modelling, and STEM education. The implications of the synthesis are as follows: authenticity must be viewed as a cornerstone of STEM literacy; models and modelling processes can bridge the gap between STEM disciplines through authentic practices; models and modelling should be used as a means to promote STEM literacy and the transfer of knowledge and skills between contexts, both in and out of the STEM disciplines; modelling activities can serve as a meaningful route toward authentic STEM education; teaching authentic modelling processes must be rooted in explicit and tested frameworks that are based on the practice of the STEM disciplines; and, authentic STEM education should be driven by developing interaction between STEM subjects in parallel with maintaining the integrity of each subject. If this vision is to be reinforced, it is of utmost importance that implementing any model-based authentic educational activities are underpinned by evidence-based frameworks and recommendations for teaching practice. It is therefore imperative that intended model-based pedagogies for STEM education classrooms are further researched, in order to contribute to an integrated STEM literacy.

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  • 23.
    Hallström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Models and modeling in STEM education: nature, roles, and implementation2023In: International Encyclopedia of Education / [ed] Robert J Tierney, Fazal Rizvi and Kadriye Erkican, London: Elsevier Science , 2023, 4, p. 112-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elaborates the key aspects of the nature, roles, and implementation of models and modeling in STEM education. Regarding nature, although models and modeling differ between the STEM subjects there are also similarities, for example, concerning visual models and representations. The roles of models in the STEM subjects are dominated by conceptual models, while in technology/engineering manipulation of physical models is also important. Furthermore, common to all STEM subjects is the construction, evaluation, revision and (re-)use of models. Concerning the implementation of models and modeling in STEM education, evidence points to the relevance of including modeling in authentic engineering activities.

  • 24.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nano for the Public: An Exploranation Perspective2020In: CG&A Full Papers - Vis for the Masses, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public understanding of contemporary scientific issues is critical for the future of society. Public spaces, such as science centers, can impact the communication of science by providing active knowledge-building experiences of scientific phenomena. In contributing to this vision, we have previously developed an interactive visualization as part of a public exhibition about nano. We reflect on how the immersive design and features of the exhibit contribute as a tool for science communication in light of the emerging paradigm of exploranation, and offer some forward-looking perspectives about what this notion has to offer the domain.

  • 25.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Methods for investigating students’ learning and interaction with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2010In: Contemporary Science Education Research: International Perspectives / [ed] M.F. Taşar & G. Çakmakcı, Ankara: Pegem Akademi , 2010, p. 115-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although immersive haptic virtual technologies are emerging rapidly in modern education, few methods exist for delivering data on the pedagogical merits of such models in the molecular life sciences. This paper reports on a selection of methods that we have used to obtain and analyse data on students’ learning and interaction with a haptic virtual model of protein-ligand docking, previously designed by author PBP. The methods have been developed and employed during four consecutive years in which the model has been part of an advanced biomolecular interactions course. In this regard, we present data-collection methods that include written items, interviews, think-aloud tasks and automated time-stamped logs and, corresponding quantitative and qualitative analytical procedures such as pre/posttest statistical comparisons, word usage analysis and, visualised profiling of students’ interaction with the model. Our results suggest that these methods are useful for generating valuable information on students’ learning gain, changes in conceptual understanding, reasoning processes and patterns of interactivity with the model. Dissemination of such methods could provide an empirical contribution to the dearth of research instruments in this domain. Future research will develop these methodologies to explore the relationship between using the model and students’ conceptual and embodied learning.

  • 26.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Case-Based Study of Students' Visuohaptic Experiences of Electric Fields around Molecules: Shaping the Development of Virtual Nanoscience Learning Environments2013In: Education Research International, ISSN 2090-4002, E-ISSN 2090-4010, Vol. 2013, article id 194363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent educational research has suggested that immersive multisensory virtual environments offer learners unique and exciting knowledge-building opportunities for the construction of scientific knowledge. This paper delivers a case-based study of students’ immersive interaction with electric fields around molecules in a multisensory visuohaptic virtual environment. The virtual architecture presented here also has conceptual connections to the flourishing quest in contemporary literature for the pressing need to communicate nanoscientific ideas to learners. Five upper secondary school students’ prior conceptual understanding of electric fields and their application of this knowledge to molecular contexts, were probed prior to exposure to the virtual model. Subsequently, four students interacted with the visuohaptic model while performing think-aloud tasks. An inductive and heuristic treatment of videotaped verbal and behavioural data revealed distinct interrelationships between students’ interactive strategies implemented when executing tasks in the virtual system and the nature of their conceptual knowledge deployed. The obtained qualitative case study evidence could serve as an empirical basis for informing the rendering and communication of overarching nanoscale ideas. At the time of composing this paper for publication in the current journal, the research findings of this study have been put into motion in informing a broader project goal of developing educational virtual environments for depicting nanophenomena.

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    Höst et al 2013
  • 27.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Studenters bedömning av kemisk polaritet: En utvärdering av två konventionella och en ny visuell representationsform2011In: Nordiskt forskarsymposium om undervisning i naturvetenskap: naturvetenskap som kunskap och kultur : 14 - 16 juni 2011 i Linköping, Linköpings universitet , 2011, p. 18-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Students' Use of Three Different Visual Representations To Interpret Whether Molecules Are Polar or Nonpolar2012In: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 89, no 12, p. 1499-1505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visualizing molecular properties is often crucial for constructing conceptual understanding in chemistry. However, research has revealed numerous challenges surrounding students' meaningful interpretation of the relationship between the geometry and electrostatic properties of molecules. This study explored students' (n = 18) use of three visual representations of electrostatic potential to interpret whether molecules are polar or nonpolar. The representations consisted of red and blue 'lobes' (termed RB) indicating regions of negative and positive potential, a color gradient mapping electrostatic potential on a molecular surface (MAP), and a rendering of the interface between regions of positive and negative potential (ISO). Data on students' accuracy, time-on-task, and evaluation related to the three visual modes were collected via a Web-based questionnaire. ANOVA indicated that students were significantly more accurate in interpreting ISO representations, although almost half evaluated this mode as the most difficult to use. Furthermore, students took significantly longer to interpret complex molecules than simple molecules using ISO and RB. The results indicate that there may be possible pedagogical benefits in using unconventional visual representations that reduce visual complexity by making molecular relationships explicit. Hence, this has implications for future work on the role of cognitively mapping between different instructional visualizations in the development of fundamental chemical concepts.

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  • 29.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palmerius, Karljohan L.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating the effectiveness and efficiency of three visual representational systems for assigning chemical polarity2010In: Proceedings of EDULEARN10: International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, D. Martí Belengue, & I. Candel Torres, Valencia: International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED) , 2010, p. 941-947Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate students’ assignment of chemical polarity using three visual modes representing electrostatic potential. The modes consisted of coloured lobes that indicate regions of negative (red) and positive (blue) potential, a colour gradient that maps the potential on the molecular surface and a novel representation that uses green surface(s) to show the interface between regions of positive and negative potential. Students’ ability to assign polarity using the three visual modes was evaluated using a web-questionnaire. Mean scores indicated that students were able to successfully assign polarity to molecules using all the modes. However, students were less successful in identifying polar molecules in comparison with non-polar molecules using the map mode. A possible explanation for the lower scores for this mode is that the representational power of the map as a polarity assignment tool could be compromised by the visual complexity of the colour gradient, especially when a molecule is polar. The green surface representation was found to be a sensitive visual tool for assigning polarity to molecules, an encouraging finding since students were exposed to this visual mode for the first time. Given the possible perceptual constraints associated with the map mode, the results of this study might serve as a basis for uncovering the best conditions for pursuing a multiple representations approach to teaching chemical polarity.

  • 30.
    Höst, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nano for the Public: An Exploranation Perspective2020In: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public understanding of contemporary scientific issues is critical for the future of society. Public spaces, such as science centers, can impact the communication of science by providing active knowledge-building experiences of scientific phenomena. In contributing to this vision, we have previously developed an interactive visualization as part of a public exhibition about nano. We reflect on how the immersive design and features of the exhibit contribute as a tool for science communication in light of the emerging paradigm of exploranation, and offer some forward-looking perspectives about what this notion has to offer the domain.

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  • 31.
    Höst, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Visual images of the biological microcosmos: Viewers’ perception of realism, preference, and desire to explore2022In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 7, article id 933087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual images are crucial for communicating science in educational contexts and amongst practitioners. Reading images contributes to meaning-making in society at large, and images are fundamental communicative tools in public spaces such as science centers. Here, visitors are exposed to a range of static, dynamic, and digital visual representations accessible through various multimodal and interactive possibilities. Images conveying scientific phenomena differ to what extent they represent real objects, and include photographs, schematic illustrations, and measurement-based models. Depicting realism in biological objects, structures and processes through images differs with respect to, inter alia, shading, color, and surface texture. Although research has shown that aspects of these properties can both potentially benefit and impair interpretation, little is known about their impact on viewers’ visual preference and inclination for further exploration. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate what effect visual properties have on visitors’ perception of biological images integrated in an interactive science center exhibit. Visitors responded to a questionnaire designed to assess the impact of three indicators of realism (shading, color, and surface texture) and biological content (e.g., cells and viruses) on participants’ preferences, perceptions of whether biological images depicted real objects, and their desire to further explore images. Inspired by discrete choice experiments, image pairs were systematically varied to allow participants to make direct choices between images with different properties. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the three indicators of realism were all significant predictors of participants’ assessments that images depict real objects. Shadows emerged as a significant predictor of preference for further exploration together with the presence of cells in the image. Correlation analysis indicated that images that were more often selected as depicting real objects were also more often selected for further exploration. We interpret the results in terms of construal level theory in that a biological image perceived as a realistic portrayal would induce a desire for further exploration. The findings have implications for considering the role of realism and preference in the design of images for communicating science in public spaces.

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  • 32.
    Höst, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Fröcklin, Henry
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    What Biological Visualizations Do Science Center Visitors Prefer in an Interactive Touch Table?2018In: Education Sciences, ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hands-on digital interactivity in science centers provides new communicative opportunities. The Microcosmos multi-touch table allows visitors to interact with 64 image “cards” of (sub)microscopic biological structures and processes embedded across seven theme categories. This study presents the integration of biological content, interactive features and logging capabilities into the table, and analyses visitors’ usage and preferences. Data logging recorded 2,070,350 events including activated category, selected card, and various finger-based gestures. Visitors interacted with all cards during 858 sessions (96 s on average). Finger movements covered an average accumulated distance of 4.6 m per session, and about 56% of card interactions involved two fingers. Visitors made 5.53 category switches per session on average, and the virus category was most activated (average 0.96 per session). An overall ranking score related to card attractive power and holding power revealed that six of the most highly used cards depicted viruses and four were colourful instrument output images. The large finger traversal distance and proportion of two-finger card interaction may indicate the intuitiveness of the gestures. Observed trends in visitor engagement with the biological visualizations are considered in terms of construal level theory. Future work will examine how interactions are related to potential learning of biological content.

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  • 33.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Netzell, Elisabeth
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Jesper, Haglund
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Visualising energy transformations in electric circuits with infrared cameras2017In: School Science Review, ISSN 0036-6811, Vol. 98, no 364, p. 19-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly affordable visualisation technology brings exciting opportunities for making the invisible appear visible. This can support the teaching and learning of many challenging physics concepts. Hand-held infrared (IR) cameras offer real-time instant visual feedback of temperature changes that correspond to energy transfer and transformations.

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  • 34.
    Koc-Januchta, Marta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roehrig, Casey
    Harvard Univ, 1 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Chaudhri, Vinay K.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Heller, H. Craig
    Stanford Univ, Biol Dept, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    "Connecting concepts helps put main ideas together": cognitive load and usability in learning biology with an AI-enriched textbook2022In: International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, E-ISSN 2365-9440, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid developments in educational technology in higher education are intended to make learning more engaging and effective. At the same time, cognitive load theory stresses limitations of human cognitive architecture and urges educational developers to design learning tools that optimise learners’ mental capacities. In a 2-month study we investigated university students’ learning with an AI-enriched digital biology textbook that integrates a 5000-concept knowledge base and algorithms offering the possibility to ask questions and receive answers. The study aimed to shed more light on differences between three sub-types (intrinsic, germane and extraneous) of cognitive load and their relationship with learning gain, self-regulated learning and usability perception while students interacted with the AI-enriched book during an introductory biology course. We found that students displayed a beneficial learning pattern with germane cognitive load significantly higher than both intrinsic and extraneous loads showing that they were engaged in meaningful learning throughout the study. A significant correlation between germane load and accessing linked suggested questions available in the AI-book indicates that the book may support deep learning. Additionally, results showed that perceived non-optimal design, which deflects cognitive resources away from meaningful processing accompanied lower learning gains. Nevertheless, students reported substantially more favourable than unfavourable opinions of the AI-book. The findings provide new approaches for investigating cognitive load types in relation to learning with emerging digital tools in higher education. The findings also highlight the importance of optimally aligning educational technologies and human cognitive architecture.

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  • 35.
    Koc-Januchta, Marta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Investigating three types of cognitive load when learning with an AI-enriched biology textbook2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid developments in educational technology awaken hopes for making learning more engaging and effective. At the same time, Cognitive Load Theory stresses limitations of human cognitive architecture and urges developers to design learning tools that help learners optimize their mental capacities. In a 1.5-month long study we investigated tertiary students’ use of an AI-enriched digital biology book comprising a 5000-concept knowledge base and algorithms that offer the possibility to ask questions and receive answers. Our aim was to identify and investigate differences between three types of cognitive load (CL), namely, intrinsic (ICL), germane (GCL) and extraneous (ECL), as well as their correlation with learning gain and usability perception. Findings show that non-optimal design, which draws learners’ cognitive resources from the task is linked with a lower learning gain and user satisfaction. The study contributes to new approaches on differentiating between cognitive load types and their relationship with learning from digital tools. The findings also emphasize the importance of optimally designing emerging educational technologies. 

  • 36.
    Koc-Januchta, Marta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    “Too many things to remember”: Cognitive load and usability when learning biology with an AI-textbook2021In: ESERA 2021 - Fostering scientific citizenship in an uncertain world, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid developments in educational technology awaken hopes for making science education more engaging and effective for learners. Cognitive Load Theory stresses limitations of human cognitive architecture and urges developers to design learning tools that help learners optimize their mental capacities. In a 1.5-month study we investigated university biology students’ use of an AI-enriched digital biology book comprising of a 5000-concept knowledge base and algorithms that offer the possibility to ask questions and receive answers. Our aim was to identify and investigate differences between three types of cognitive load (CL), namely, intrinsic (ICL), germane (GCL) and extraneous (ECL), as well as their correlation with usability perception and learning gain. Findings show that non-optimal design (increase in ECL), which draws learners’ cognitive resources from the task is linked with a lower learning gain and a lower usability perception (e.g. satisfaction). The results contribute to research on differentiating three types of cognitive load and their relationship with usability and learning biology from digital tools. The findings also emphasize the importance of optimally designing emerging educational technologies, especially in the context of complex science topics.

  • 37.
    Koc-Januchta, Marta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Chaudhri, Vinay K.
    Stanford University, USA.
    Heller, H. Craig
    Stanford University, USA.
    Asking questions to engage with biology: Investigating students’ interaction and learning with an AI-based textbook2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Koc-Januchta, Marta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chaudhri, Vinay K.
    Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, US.
    Heller, H. Craig
    Biology Department, Stanford University, US.
    Engaging With Biology by Asking Questions: Investigating Students’ Interaction and Learning With an Artificial Intelligence-Enriched Textbook2020In: Journal of educational computing research (Print), ISSN 0735-6331, E-ISSN 1541-4140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying artificial intelligence (AI) to support science learning is a prominent aspect of the digital education revolution. This study investigates students’ interaction and learning with an AI book, which enables the inputting of questions and receiving of suggested questions to understand biology, in comparison with a traditional E-book. Students (n = 16) in a tertiary biology course engaged with the topics of energy in cells and cell signaling. The AI book group (n = 6) interacted with the AI book first followed by the E-book, while the E-book group (n = 10) did so in reverse. Students responded to pre-/posttests and to cognitive load, motivation, and usability questionnaires; and three students were interviewed. All interactions with the books were automatically logged. Results revealed a learning gain and a similar pattern of feature use across both books. Nevertheless, asking questions with the AI book was associated with higher retention and correlated positively with viewing visual representations more often. Students with a higher intrinsic motivation to know and to experience stimulation perceived book usability more favorably. Interviews revealed that posing and receiving suggested questions was helpful, while ideas for future development included more personalized feedback. Future research shall explore how learning can be benefitted with the AI-enriched book.

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  • 39.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stafstedt, Matilda
    Visualiseringscenter C, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heat Angels and Paper Cups: Pupils’ Use of Metaphoric Relations When Engaging Thermal Cameras to Investigate Heat2019In: Bridging Research and Practice in Science Education. Contributions from Science Education Research, vol 6. / [ed] McLoughlin E., Finlayson O., Erduran S., Childs P., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 74-89Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal science is a perennial obstacle for learners. Infrared camera technology provides an opportunity for pupils to confront challenging thermal ideas. From an embodied cognition perspective, sensory experiences form metaphoric relations that underpin conceptualisation and reasoning about abstract scientific phenomena. This study investigated eight groups of fourth grade pupils’ use of metaphoric relations when engaging thermal cameras to explore “heat” at a science centre. Pupils were videorecorded while collaboratively exploring thermal properties of the surroundings and during a thermos modelling exercise. Qualitative metaphor analyses of pupils’ dialogue and behaviour revealed various metaphoric and metonymic relations around spatial properties, colour, movement and change in their conceptualisation of thermal phenomena. “Heat” was almost exclusively conceptualised as a noun, manifested in utterances such as “harder for the heat to escape” and “it wants to get yellow”. In addition, pupils used colour as both a metonym and metaphor for heat and temperature. Expressions of heat as an entity were closely related to experiences of movement, indicating that spatial cognition is central to children’s conceptualisation of heat. Engagement with the cameras provided access to thermodynamic phenomena through unique sensory and nonsensory experiences. Future research will explore how these metaphoric relations can be exploited as a meaning-making resource in the classroom.

  • 40.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Interactive and Multi-sensory Learning Environment for Nano Education2012In: Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 7th International Conference, HAID 2012, Lund, Sweden, August 23-24, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Charlotte Magnusson; Delphine Szymczak; Stephen Brewster, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7468, p. 81-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2012, held in Lund, Sweden, in August 2012. The 15 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on haptics and audio in navigation, supporting experiences and activities, object and interface, test and evaluation.

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    An Interactive and Multi-sensory Learning Environment for Nano Education
  • 41.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Analysis of the Influence of a Pseudo-haptic Cue on the Haptic Perception of Weight2014In: Haptics: Neuroscience, Devices, Modeling, and Applications: 9th International Conference, EuroHaptics 2014, Versailles, France, June 24-26, 2014, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, 2014, Vol. 8618/8619, p. 117-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Haptics provides powerful cues about forces but cannot easily be integrated in all relevant applications, such as education. Pseudo-haptic cues, visual information that simulate haptic sensations, have been raised as an alternative. It is, however, largely unknown how (or even if) pseudo-haptic cues are perceived by the haptic sensory modality. In this paper we present an approach that applies theories on multimodal integration to testing if a pseudo-haptic cue is triggering haptic perception. This approach is subsequently applied in designing an experiment that tests a pseudo-haptic cue based on a visual force-causes-displacement metaphor, similar to a rubber band.

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  • 42.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Visualization of Heat Transfer Using Projector-Based Spatial Augmented Reality2016In: Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Computer Graphics: Third International Conference, AVR 2016, Lecce, Italy, June 15-18, 2016. Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Lucio Tommaso De Paolis, Antonio Mongelli, Springer, 2016, Vol. 9768, p. 407-417Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal imaging cameras, commonly used in application areas such as building inspection and night vision, have recently also been introduced as pedagogical tools for helping students visualize, interrogate and interpret notoriously challenging thermal concepts. In this paper we present a system for Spatial Augmented Reality that automatically projects thermal data onto objects. Instead of having a learner physically direct a hand-held camera toward an object of interest, and then view the display screen, a group of participants can gather around the display system and directly see and manipulate the thermal profile projected onto physical objects. The system combines a thermal camera that captures the thermal data, a depth camera that realigns the data with the objects, and a projector that projects the data back. We also apply a colour scale tailored for room temperature experiments.

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    fulltext
  • 43.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Visualizing and Exploring Heat in a Science Center2022In: Thermal Cameras in Science Education / [ed] Jesper Haglund, Fredrik Jeppsson, Konrad J. Schönborn, Cham, Schweiz: Springer, 2022, p. 187-203Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research shows that infrared cameras can help students visualize and interpret notoriously challenging thermal concepts. This chapter describes the application of thermal visualization in a public setting. Specifically, we present the design and implementation of an augmented reality system for the real-time projection of thermal imagery onto objects. Examples of hands-on activities for visualizing thermal processes with the system include conduction and insulation, rubber band thermodynamics, friction, impact heating, enthalpy of chemical reactions, radiation wavelength, mixing liquids, and heat of evaporation. We discuss how the interactive activities might provide pedagogical opportunities for accessing and engaging with thermal phenomena in a science center context. Practical considerations of the system for public exhibition spaces are also given attention.

  • 44.
    Mnguni, Lindelani
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderson, Trevor
    Purdue University, United States.
    Assessment of visualisation skills in biochemistry students2016In: South African Journal of Science, ISSN 0038-2353, E-ISSN 1996-7489, Vol. 112, no 9/10, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of biochemistry, the use of external representations such as static diagrams and animations has increased rapidly in recent years. However, their effectiveness as instructional tools can be hindered if students lack the visual literacy and cognitive skills necessary for processing and interpreting such representations. We aimed to identify and assess visualisation skills necessary for effective processing of external representations in biochemistry. We used a modified Bloom’s taxonomy to identify the cognitive skills essential for optimal visual literacy, and designed probes based on those skills to develop a test instrument. Student responses to the probes were scored and processed with the Rasch model. This approach enabled us to rate the degree of difficulty of each visualisation skill on a linear logit scale, and to generate a person–item map to measure biochemistry students’ level of visual literacy. The results showed that the identified visualisation skills could be measured reliably, and the Rasch model was effective both for ranking the skills according to level of difficulty and for estimating a student’s relative level of visual literacy.

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  • 45.
    Mnguni, Lindelani
    et al.
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics, Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of KwaZulu-Natal.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Trevor
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics, Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of KwaZulu-Natal.
    Towards identifying and measuring visual literacy skills in biochemistry2009In: The Nature of Research in Biological Education: Old and New Perspectives on Theoretical and Methodological Issues: A selection of papers presented at the VIIth Conference of European Researchers in Didactics of Biology (ERIDOB) / [ed] M. Hammann, A.J. Waarlo & K.Th. Boersma, Utrecht: CDBeta Press , 2009, p. 185-198Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of external representations, such as diagrams and animations, for teaching and learning in biochemistry, has rapidly increased over the past decade. Some research has shown that ERs can have a superior learning advantage over text alone, while other studies have indicated that external representations can cause and expose various visual literacy problems. The current study aimed to investigate the nature of visual literacy by identifying what visualization skills might compose optimal (expert) visual literacy in biochemistry, and to devise a means of measuring the visual literacy levels of biochemistry students. To address this issue, a literature search was used to identify potential visualization skills which were used to develop probes in the context of biochemistry. These probes were administered to final year biochemistry students. Analysis of the results utilized the Rasch model to generate an item difficulty map. The results showed that relevant visualization skills can be identified and measured in students, and then ranked according to level of difficulty. The results also revealed that visual literacy requires context-specific propositional knowledge, and is multifaceted in nature in that it is composed of several visualization skills.

  • 46.
    Otterborn, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Implementing Digital Tablet Activities in Swedish Preschool Education2022In: Applications of Research in Technology Education / [ed] P. John Williams & B. von Mengersen, Singapore: Springer, 2022, p. 249-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool curriculum policies around the world emphasize the role ofdigital tools in educational practice. At the same time, the availability of tools suchas tablets has increased significantly in the last decade. Although preschools haveworked with these tools during the last years, little is known about what actualactivities teachers implement and perform in practice and how digital tablets can beeffectively integrated. In contributing to filling this gap, we used online surveys toprobe approximately 500 teachers’ use of digital tablets in their practice. Resultsshowed that teachers believe that tablets increase both collaboration and participation.In connection with the subject of technology, many creative ideas and solutionsevolved. Computer programming activities also emerged saliently,which the teacherssaw as a means to foster generic skills and subject knowledge. The findings pointto digital tablets being associated with preschool teachers’ implementation of meaningful, engaging, self-generated, and rich activities. In helping to integrate emerging digital tools in educational practice, teachers are encouraged to consult online forums,web resources, available online courses, and articles. Teachers are also advised toallocate the necessary time required to plan and implement the work.

  • 47.
    Otterborn, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploring the use of digital tablets in preschool technology and science education2017In: PATT 34, Technology & Engineering Education: Fostering the Creativity of Youth Around the Globe, Millersville, PA, 2017, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of digital tablets in preschools has increased significantly in recent years. Literature suggests that these tools can enhance students’ literacy skills, as well as improve student collaboration. Society is becoming increasingly digitized and the Swedish preschool curriculum includes technology and science as priority areas of learning. Preschool teachers’ knowledge is of utmost importance in helping carrying out this mandate. Since there have been few studies on the use of digital tablets in preschool technology and science education in a Swedish context, there is an urgent need to explore the role and influence of digital tools as teaching tools, in an effort to exploit the potential pedagogical opportunities offered by digital technology. The current study investigates what features and aspects of digital tablet technology preschool teachers use to teach technology and science in preschools. Preschool educators throughout Sweden responded to an online survey consisting of 20 closed and 6 open items that probed teachers’ use of digital tablets. Results show that programming, invention, construction, creation, entrepreneurship and designing with the support of digital tablets are emerging technology education activities in preschool. This finding is in line with a revised Swedish curriculum to be completed in 2018. Teacher scaffolding in conjunction with different digital tablet applications could help to develop children’s ability and confidence to invent, program, create and design. Future work will consist of conducting interviews with preschool teachers to obtain a deeper understanding of the themes that emerged from the survey.

  • 48.
    Otterborn, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Investigating Preschool Educators’ Implementation of Computer Programming in Their Teaching Practice2020In: Early Childhood Education Journal, ISSN 1082-3301, E-ISSN 1573-1707, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern preschool education is seen as an essential foundation for nurturing children’s digital literacy. Early childhood education environments have witnessed increased emphasis on integrating programming activities in combination with digital tablets. However, little is known about how preschool teachers implement programming as part of pedagogical strategies during practice. In Sweden, although there is a mandate to develop children’s understanding of the digital world, programming is not formally mentioned in the revised preschool curriculum. This study systematically investigates how Swedish preschool teachers implement programming activities in their teaching practice. Data was collected through a national online survey (n = 199). Findings revealed a range of apps and resources used in combination with tablets, where activity integration takes place as unplugged programming, digital programming, or as a combination of the former. Teachers markedly attributed intended learning goals around programming to tenets of computational thinking and “twenty-first century skills”. Moreover, programming was often actively linked to learning in other domains such as science, technology, mathematics, and language, approaches that show traditional Swedish preschool teaching practices being recontextualized in terms of programming. Based on the reported findings that provide insight into the implementation of programming in preschools, a logical future research avenue lies in exploring the documented programming activities from the perspective of the children.

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  • 49.
    Otterborn, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Surveying preschool teachers’ use of digital tablets: general and technology education related findings2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 717-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of digital tablets in preschools has increased significantly in recent years. Literature suggests that these tools can enhance students’ literacy and collaborative skills. As society becomes increasingly digitized, preschool curriculum reform also emphasises the subjects of technology and science as priority areas of learning. Teachers’ knowledge and experiences are of utmost importance in carrying out this mandate. Few studies have explored the use of digital tablets to teach preschool technology and science in Sweden, and there is an urgent need to ascertain the role of digital aids as teaching tools. This survey study seeks to determine how digital tablets are used to support preschool children’s learning in general, and with respect to technology education. Preschool educators (n = 327) across Sweden responded to an online survey consisting of 20 closed and 6 open items that probed the use of digital tablets. Survey results revealed a high degree of engagement with digital tablets in preschools, with activities directed toward various subject-related, social and generic skills. Programming, invention, construction and creation, problem-solving, and design emerged saliently as tablet activities in technology subject areas. Opportunities for providing meaningful learning tasks and digital adaptability were seen as pedagogical benefits of using tablets, but increasing expectations to integrate tablet activities with an accompanying lack of digital skills were expressed as limitations. Teachers’ recommendations for future tablet use included defining clearer curriculum guidelines for tablet implementation and adequate training for acquiring digital competence.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Otterborn, Anna
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Educational Work, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Impact of Digital and Analog Approaches on a Multidimensional Preschool Science Education2023In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish preschool science practice is confined to a unique educational setting where upbringing, care, and education are intertwined. This allows teachers to develop innovative cross-curricular and multidimensional science teaching. At the same time, society demands the digitalization of preschool practice, which has caused concern not only about negative effects on children’s well-being but also the risk of foregrounding digital over analog tools in multidimensional and child-centered preschool practice. The aim of this study is to analyze how preschool teachers at the forefront of digitalization integrate digital and analog tools when teaching science and how this integration affects their practice. The data comprises documentation of digitalized science activities provided by ten preschool teachers and transcribed recall interviews with four of the teachers. Thematic content analysis and a framework for analyzing seven teaching dimensions of preschool science revealed the use of digital and analog tools as drivers for multidimensional science education. The findings show that the teachers primarily use digital tools to reinforce social learning, inclusion, and agency during science activities. Digital and analog tools were used to complement one another in pursuing the boundaries of multidimensional science. However, the content of this innovative and digitalized science teaching remained primarily within biology, the traditional scholarly discipline in preschool science. We conclude that the digitalization of preschool science seems to be used to strengthen and diversify teaching within the boundaries of overarching traditional preschool practice where nature encounters and children’s interests and well-being are at the forefront. 

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