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  • 1.
    Anderson, Trevor
    et al.
    Purdue University, USA.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    du Plessis, Lynn
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Gupthar, Abindra
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Hull, Tracy
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Identifying and Developing Students' Ability to Reason with Concepts and Representations in Biology2013In: Multiple Representations in Biological Education / [ed] D.F. Treagust and C.-Y. Tsui, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, p. -390Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This new publication in the Models and Modeling in Science Education series synthesizes a wealth of international research on using multiple representations in biology education and aims for a coherent framework in using them to improve higher-order learning. Addressing a major gap in the literature, the volume proposes a theoretical model for advancing biology educators’ notions of how multiple external representations (MERs) such as analogies, metaphors and visualizations can best be harnessed for improving teaching and learning in biology at all pedagogical levels.The content tackles the conceptual and linguistic difficulties of learning biology at each level—macro, micro, sub-micro, and symbolic, illustrating how MERs can be used in teaching across these levels and in various combinations, as well as in differing contexts and topic areas. The strategies outlined will help students’ reasoning and problem-solving skills, enhance their ability to construct mental models and internal representations, and, ultimately, will assist in increasing public understanding of biology-related issues, a key goal in today’s world of pressing concerns over societal problems about food, environment, energy, and health. The book concludes by highlighting important aspects of research in biological education in the post-genomic, information age. 

  • 2.
    Flint, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating an Immersive Virtual Nanoscience Simulation for Learning: Students' Interaction, Understanding, Attitudes and System Usability2014In: AERA Online Paper Repository, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid nanoscientific development in a myriad of applied fields compels educational structures to develop curricular nanoknowledge for a future citizenry capable of contributing skills to a nano-workforce and in acquiring a nano-literacy. This study investigated ten Swedish upper-secondary students' interactions with a virtual reality nanoworld and sought to illuminate: 1) how students link to and support their understanding of prior science knowledge, 2) students' attitudes towards the benefits and risks of nanotechnology, and 3) the usability of the system. Analyzed videotaped and written data elicited cognitive mechanisms underlying interaction with the virtual reality environment for promoting understanding, the influence of the interactive experience on students' attitudes to nanophenomena, and system features that could be applied in real science classrooms.

  • 3.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Students framing of laboratory exercises using infrared cameras2015In: Physical Review Special Topics : Physics Education Research, ISSN 1554-9178, E-ISSN 1554-9178, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 020127-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal science is challenging for students due to its largely imperceptible nature. Handheld infrared cameras offer a pedagogical opportunity for students to see otherwise invisible thermal phenomena. In the present study, a class of upper secondary technology students (N = 30) partook in four IR-camera laboratory activities, designed around the predict-observe-explain approach of White and Gunstone. The activities involved central thermal concepts that focused on heat conduction and dissipative processes such as friction and collisions. Students interactions within each activity were videotaped and the analysis focuses on how a purposefully selected group of three students engaged with the exercises. As the basis for an interpretative study, a "thick" narrative description of the students epistemological and conceptual framing of the exercises and how they took advantage of the disciplinary affordance of IR cameras in the thermal domain is provided. Findings include that the students largely shared their conceptual framing of the four activities, but differed among themselves in their epistemological framing, for instance, in how far they found it relevant to digress from the laboratory instructions when inquiring into thermal phenomena. In conclusion, the study unveils the disciplinary affordances of infrared cameras, in the sense of their use in providing access to knowledge about macroscopic thermal science.

  • 4.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad J
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermal cameras in school laboratory activities2015In: Physics Education, ISSN 0031-9120, E-ISSN 1361-6552, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 424-430, article id 424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal cameras offer real-time visual access to otherwise invisible thermal phenomena, which are conceptually demanding for learners during traditional teaching. We present three studies of students’ conduction of laboratory activities that employ thermal cameras to teach challenging thermal concepts in grades 4, 7 and 10–12. Visualization of heat-related phenomena in combination with predict-observe-explain experiments offers students and teachers a pedagogically powerful means for unveiling abstract yet fundamental physics concepts.

  • 5.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Melander, Emil
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pendrill, Ann-Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Xie, Charles
    Concord Consortium, MA 01742 USA.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Infrared cameras in science education2016In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 75, p. 150-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Taking on the Heat—a Narrative Account of How Infrared Cameras Invite Instant Inquiry2016In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 685-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of technology, social learning and scientific models offers pedagogical opportunities for science education. A particularly interesting area is thermal science, where students often struggle with abstract concepts, such as heat. In taking on this conceptual obstacle, we explore how hand-held infrared (IR) visualization technology can strengthen students’ understanding of thermal phenomena. Grounded in the Swedish physics curriculum and part of a broader research programme on educational uses of IR cameras, we have developed laboratory exercises around a thermal storyline, in conjunction with the teaching of a heat-flow model. We report a narrative analysis of how a group of five fourth-graders, facilitated by a researcher, predicts, observes and explains (POE) how the temperatures change when they pour hot water into a ceramic coffee mug and a thin plastic cup. Four chronological episodes are described and analysed as group interaction unfolded. Results revealed that the students engaged cognitively and emotionally with the POE task and, in particular, held a sustained focus on making observations and offering explanations for the scenarios. A compelling finding was the group’s spontaneous generation of multiple "what-ifs" in relation to thermal phenomena, such as blowing on the water surface, or submerging a pencil into the hot water. This was followed by immediate interrogation with the IR camera, a learning event we label instant inquiry. The students’ expressions largely reflected adoption of the heat-flow model. In conclusion, IR cameras could serve as an access point for even very young students to develop complex thermal concepts.

  • 7.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Methods for investigating students’ learning and interaction with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2010In: Contemporary Science Education Research: International Perspectives / [ed] M.F. Taşar & G. Çakmakcı, Ankara: Pegem Akademi , 2010, p. 115-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although immersive haptic virtual technologies are emerging rapidly in modern education, few methods exist for delivering data on the pedagogical merits of such models in the molecular life sciences. This paper reports on a selection of methods that we have used to obtain and analyse data on students’ learning and interaction with a haptic virtual model of protein-ligand docking, previously designed by author PBP. The methods have been developed and employed during four consecutive years in which the model has been part of an advanced biomolecular interactions course. In this regard, we present data-collection methods that include written items, interviews, think-aloud tasks and automated time-stamped logs and, corresponding quantitative and qualitative analytical procedures such as pre/posttest statistical comparisons, word usage analysis and, visualised profiling of students’ interaction with the model. Our results suggest that these methods are useful for generating valuable information on students’ learning gain, changes in conceptual understanding, reasoning processes and patterns of interactivity with the model. Dissemination of such methods could provide an empirical contribution to the dearth of research instruments in this domain. Future research will develop these methodologies to explore the relationship between using the model and students’ conceptual and embodied learning.

  • 8.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Case-Based Study of Students' Visuohaptic Experiences of Electric Fields around Molecules: Shaping the Development of Virtual Nanoscience Learning Environments2013In: Education Research International, ISSN 2090-4002, E-ISSN 2090-4010, Vol. 2013, article id 194363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent educational research has suggested that immersive multisensory virtual environments offer learners unique and exciting knowledge-building opportunities for the construction of scientific knowledge. This paper delivers a case-based study of students’ immersive interaction with electric fields around molecules in a multisensory visuohaptic virtual environment. The virtual architecture presented here also has conceptual connections to the flourishing quest in contemporary literature for the pressing need to communicate nanoscientific ideas to learners. Five upper secondary school students’ prior conceptual understanding of electric fields and their application of this knowledge to molecular contexts, were probed prior to exposure to the virtual model. Subsequently, four students interacted with the visuohaptic model while performing think-aloud tasks. An inductive and heuristic treatment of videotaped verbal and behavioural data revealed distinct interrelationships between students’ interactive strategies implemented when executing tasks in the virtual system and the nature of their conceptual knowledge deployed. The obtained qualitative case study evidence could serve as an empirical basis for informing the rendering and communication of overarching nanoscale ideas. At the time of composing this paper for publication in the current journal, the research findings of this study have been put into motion in informing a broader project goal of developing educational virtual environments for depicting nanophenomena.

  • 9.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Studenters bedömning av kemisk polaritet: En utvärdering av två konventionella och en ny visuell representationsform2011In: Nordiskt forskarsymposium om undervisning i naturvetenskap: naturvetenskap som kunskap och kultur : 14 - 16 juni 2011 i Linköping, Linköpings universitet , 2011, p. 18-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Students' Use of Three Different Visual Representations To Interpret Whether Molecules Are Polar or Nonpolar2012In: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 89, no 12, p. 1499-1505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visualizing molecular properties is often crucial for constructing conceptual understanding in chemistry. However, research has revealed numerous challenges surrounding students' meaningful interpretation of the relationship between the geometry and electrostatic properties of molecules. This study explored students' (n = 18) use of three visual representations of electrostatic potential to interpret whether molecules are polar or nonpolar. The representations consisted of red and blue 'lobes' (termed RB) indicating regions of negative and positive potential, a color gradient mapping electrostatic potential on a molecular surface (MAP), and a rendering of the interface between regions of positive and negative potential (ISO). Data on students' accuracy, time-on-task, and evaluation related to the three visual modes were collected via a Web-based questionnaire. ANOVA indicated that students were significantly more accurate in interpreting ISO representations, although almost half evaluated this mode as the most difficult to use. Furthermore, students took significantly longer to interpret complex molecules than simple molecules using ISO and RB. The results indicate that there may be possible pedagogical benefits in using unconventional visual representations that reduce visual complexity by making molecular relationships explicit. Hence, this has implications for future work on the role of cognitively mapping between different instructional visualizations in the development of fundamental chemical concepts.

  • 11.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palmerius, Karljohan L.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating the effectiveness and efficiency of three visual representational systems for assigning chemical polarity2010In: Proceedings of EDULEARN10: International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, D. Martí Belengue, & I. Candel Torres, Valencia: International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED) , 2010, p. 941-947Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate students’ assignment of chemical polarity using three visual modes representing electrostatic potential. The modes consisted of coloured lobes that indicate regions of negative (red) and positive (blue) potential, a colour gradient that maps the potential on the molecular surface and a novel representation that uses green surface(s) to show the interface between regions of positive and negative potential. Students’ ability to assign polarity using the three visual modes was evaluated using a web-questionnaire. Mean scores indicated that students were able to successfully assign polarity to molecules using all the modes. However, students were less successful in identifying polar molecules in comparison with non-polar molecules using the map mode. A possible explanation for the lower scores for this mode is that the representational power of the map as a polarity assignment tool could be compromised by the visual complexity of the colour gradient, especially when a molecule is polar. The green surface representation was found to be a sensitive visual tool for assigning polarity to molecules, an encouraging finding since students were exposed to this visual mode for the first time. Given the possible perceptual constraints associated with the map mode, the results of this study might serve as a basis for uncovering the best conditions for pursuing a multiple representations approach to teaching chemical polarity.

  • 12.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Netzell, Elisabeth
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Jesper, Haglund
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Visualising energy transformations in electric circuits with infrared cameras2017In: School Science Review, ISSN 0036-6811, Vol. 98, no 364, p. 19-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly affordable visualisation technology brings exciting opportunities for making the invisible appear visible. This can support the teaching and learning of many challenging physics concepts. Hand-held infrared (IR) cameras offer real-time instant visual feedback of temperature changes that correspond to energy transfer and transformations.

  • 13.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Interactive and Multi-sensory Learning Environment for Nano Education2012In: Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 7th International Conference, HAID 2012, Lund, Sweden, August 23-24, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Charlotte Magnusson; Delphine Szymczak; Stephen Brewster, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7468, p. 81-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2012, held in Lund, Sweden, in August 2012. The 15 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on haptics and audio in navigation, supporting experiences and activities, object and interface, test and evaluation.

  • 14.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Analysis of the Influence of a Pseudo-haptic Cue on the Haptic Perception of Weight2014In: Haptics: Neuroscience, Devices, Modeling, and Applications: 9th International Conference, EuroHaptics 2014, Versailles, France, June 24-26, 2014, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, 2014, Vol. 8618/8619, p. 117-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Haptics provides powerful cues about forces but cannot easily be integrated in all relevant applications, such as education. Pseudo-haptic cues, visual information that simulate haptic sensations, have been raised as an alternative. It is, however, largely unknown how (or even if) pseudo-haptic cues are perceived by the haptic sensory modality. In this paper we present an approach that applies theories on multimodal integration to testing if a pseudo-haptic cue is triggering haptic perception. This approach is subsequently applied in designing an experiment that tests a pseudo-haptic cue based on a visual force-causes-displacement metaphor, similar to a rubber band.

  • 15.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Visualization of Heat Transfer Using Projector-Based Spatial Augmented Reality2016In: Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Computer Graphics: Third International Conference, AVR 2016, Lecce, Italy, June 15-18, 2016. Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Lucio Tommaso De Paolis, Antonio Mongelli, Springer, 2016, Vol. 9768, p. 407-417Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal imaging cameras, commonly used in application areas such as building inspection and night vision, have recently also been introduced as pedagogical tools for helping students visualize, interrogate and interpret notoriously challenging thermal concepts. In this paper we present a system for Spatial Augmented Reality that automatically projects thermal data onto objects. Instead of having a learner physically direct a hand-held camera toward an object of interest, and then view the display screen, a group of participants can gather around the display system and directly see and manipulate the thermal profile projected onto physical objects. The system combines a thermal camera that captures the thermal data, a depth camera that realigns the data with the objects, and a projector that projects the data back. We also apply a colour scale tailored for room temperature experiments.

  • 16.
    Mnguni, Lindelani
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderson, Trevor
    Purdue University, United States.
    Assessment of visualisation skills in biochemistry students2016In: South African Journal of Science, ISSN 0038-2353, E-ISSN 1996-7489, Vol. 112, no 9/10, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of biochemistry, the use of external representations such as static diagrams and animations has increased rapidly in recent years. However, their effectiveness as instructional tools can be hindered if students lack the visual literacy and cognitive skills necessary for processing and interpreting such representations. We aimed to identify and assess visualisation skills necessary for effective processing of external representations in biochemistry. We used a modified Bloom’s taxonomy to identify the cognitive skills essential for optimal visual literacy, and designed probes based on those skills to develop a test instrument. Student responses to the probes were scored and processed with the Rasch model. This approach enabled us to rate the degree of difficulty of each visualisation skill on a linear logit scale, and to generate a person–item map to measure biochemistry students’ level of visual literacy. The results showed that the identified visualisation skills could be measured reliably, and the Rasch model was effective both for ranking the skills according to level of difficulty and for estimating a student’s relative level of visual literacy.

  • 17.
    Mnguni, Lindelani
    et al.
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics, Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of KwaZulu-Natal.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Trevor
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics, Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of KwaZulu-Natal.
    Towards identifying and measuring visual literacy skills in biochemistry2009In: The Nature of Research in Biological Education: Old and New Perspectives on Theoretical and Methodological Issues: A selection of papers presented at the VIIth Conference of European Researchers in Didactics of Biology (ERIDOB) / [ed] M. Hammann, A.J. Waarlo & K.Th. Boersma, Utrecht: CDBeta Press , 2009, p. 185-198Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of external representations, such as diagrams and animations, for teaching and learning in biochemistry, has rapidly increased over the past decade. Some research has shown that ERs can have a superior learning advantage over text alone, while other studies have indicated that external representations can cause and expose various visual literacy problems. The current study aimed to investigate the nature of visual literacy by identifying what visualization skills might compose optimal (expert) visual literacy in biochemistry, and to devise a means of measuring the visual literacy levels of biochemistry students. To address this issue, a literature search was used to identify potential visualization skills which were used to develop probes in the context of biochemistry. These probes were administered to final year biochemistry students. Analysis of the results utilized the Rasch model to generate an item difficulty map. The results showed that relevant visualization skills can be identified and measured in students, and then ranked according to level of difficulty. The results also revealed that visual literacy requires context-specific propositional knowledge, and is multifaceted in nature in that it is composed of several visualization skills.

  • 18.
    Otterborn, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploring the use of digital tablets in preschool technology and science education2017In: PATT 34, Technology & Engineering Education: Fostering the Creativity of Youth Around the Globe, Millersville, PA, 2017, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of digital tablets in preschools has increased significantly in recent years. Literature suggests that these tools can enhance students’ literacy skills, as well as improve student collaboration. Society is becoming increasingly digitized and the Swedish preschool curriculum includes technology and science as priority areas of learning. Preschool teachers’ knowledge is of utmost importance in helping carrying out this mandate. Since there have been few studies on the use of digital tablets in preschool technology and science education in a Swedish context, there is an urgent need to explore the role and influence of digital tools as teaching tools, in an effort to exploit the potential pedagogical opportunities offered by digital technology. The current study investigates what features and aspects of digital tablet technology preschool teachers use to teach technology and science in preschools. Preschool educators throughout Sweden responded to an online survey consisting of 20 closed and 6 open items that probed teachers’ use of digital tablets. Results show that programming, invention, construction, creation, entrepreneurship and designing with the support of digital tablets are emerging technology education activities in preschool. This finding is in line with a revised Swedish curriculum to be completed in 2018. Teacher scaffolding in conjunction with different digital tablet applications could help to develop children’s ability and confidence to invent, program, create and design. Future work will consist of conducting interviews with preschool teachers to obtain a deeper understanding of the themes that emerged from the survey.

  • 19.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Students’ conceptions of water transport2010In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the diffusion of water into and out of the cell through osmosis is fundamental to the learning and teaching of biology. Although the movement of water into (and out of) the cell is typically thought of as occurring directly across the lipid bilayer, the major proportion of osmosis actually occurs via specialized transmembranal water-channels called aquaporins. The objective of this study was to investigate students’ prior knowledge of water transport from Taiwan and Sweden by three individual studies. A questionnaire with open-ended question and question using a Likert scale was used at upper secondary level and an open-ended questionnaire was developed to let university students draw and write down their ideas. The results generated from three individual studies including an initial study conducted with 118 Swedish upper secondary biology students, and the other two studies implemented in Taiwan with 101 non-science majors and in Sweden with 37 science majors enrolled in a third-year biochemistry course. The results from the initial study indicated that 50% of respondents to a questionnaire on diffusion seemed to be oblivious of the fact that water is transported through the cell membrane through specialised channels. The Taiwanese data showed that the non-science majors explained water transport mainly as a phenomenon occurring at a cellular level. Furthermore, the majority of the students showed no awareness of specialised water channels and seemed to think that water molecules can diffuse directly into (and out) of the cell membrane. From the Swedish students’ responses, surprisingly, one third of these “expert” students did not provide explanations of water transport that involved specialised water channels. In addition, a larger proportion of the students (41%) used explanations on a molecular level than the Taiwanese students, but the majority (54%) still based their explanations on cellular level descriptions of the process. The preliminary findings of the study presented here indicate that the majority of the students in this study thought that water penetrates the bilayer directly. Our results indicate that teaching the topic of diffusion is often not up to date with the current world-view of science.

  • 20.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Trevor
    University of KwaZulu-Natal.
    Bridging the Educational Research-Teaching Practice Gap - Conceptual understanding, Part 2: Assessing and developing student knowledge2008In: Biochemistry and molecular biology education, ISSN 1470-8175, E-ISSN 1539-3429, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 372-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first paper in this two-part miniseries on conceptual understanding discussed expert and novice conceptual knowledge, the multifaceted nature of conceptual understanding, and the cognitive skills essential for constructing it. This second article presents examples of instruments for the assessment and development of five facets of conceptual understanding that require competence in the cognitive skills of mindful memorization, integration, transfer, analogical reasoning, and system thinking. We also argue for the importance of explicitly assessing these facets of conceptual understanding as part of all biochemistry and molecular biology curricula so as to develop expert knowledge in our students.

  • 21.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bögeholz, Susanne
    Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany.
    Experts' Views on Translation Across Multiple External Representations in Acquiring Biological Knowledge About Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution2013In: Multiple Representations in Biological Education / [ed] David F. Treagust, Chi-Yan, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, , p. 390p. 111-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This new publication in the Models and Modeling in Science Education series synthesizes a wealth of international research on using multiple representations in biology education and aims for a coherent framework in using them to improve higher-order learning. Addressing a major gap in the literature, the volume proposes a theoretical model for advancing biology educators' notions of how multiple external representations (MERs) such as analogies, metaphors and visualizations can best be harnessed for improving teaching and learning in biology at all pedagogical levels. The content tackles the conceptual and linguistic difficulties of learning biology at each level-macro, micro, sub-micro, and symbolic, illustrating how MERs can be used in teaching across these levels and in various combinations, as well as in differing contexts and topic areas. The strategies outlined will help students' reasoning and problem-solving skills, enhance their ability to construct mental models and internal representations, and, ultimately, will assist in increasing public understanding of biology-related issues, a key goal in today's world of pressing concerns over societal problems about food, environment, energy, and health. The book concludes by highlighting important aspects of research in biological education in the post-genomic, information age.

  • 22.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bögeholz, Susanne
    Zentrum für empirische Unterrichts- und Schulforschung (ZeUS).
    Knowledge transfer in biology and translation across external representations: Experts' views and challenges for learning2009In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 931-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent curriculum reform promotes core competencies such as desired ‘content knowledge’ and ‘communication’ for meaningful learning in biology. Understanding in biology is demonstrated when pupils can apply acquired knowledge to new tasks. This process requires the transfer of knowledge and the subordinate process of translation across external representations. This study sought ten experts’ views on the role of transfer and translation processes in biology learning. Qualitative analysis of the responses revealed six expert themes surrounding the potential challenges that learners face, and the required cognitive abilities for transfer and translation processes. Consultation with relevant curriculum documents identified four types of biological knowledge that students are required to develop at the secondary level. The expert themes and the knowledge types exposed were used to determine how pupils might acquire and apply these four types of biological knowledge during learning. Based on the findings, we argue that teaching for understanding in biology necessitates fostering ‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’ transfer (and translation) processes within learners through the integration of knowledge at different levels of biological organization.

  • 23.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Xie, Charles
    Concord Consortium, Concord, MA, USA.
    Pupils' early explorations of thermoimaging to interpret heat and temperature2014In: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, E-ISSN 2538-7138, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 118-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In thermodynamics teaching, pupils have been found to confuse temperature and heat, and to conceive touch as an infallible thermometer. This study explored the potential of combining the sense of touch with infrared (IR) thermal imaging on pupils’ understanding of heat and temperature. Eight 7th-grade pupils (12-13 years old) worked in pairs across three laboratory exercises (real-time IR imaging, static IR images, or thermometers) to predict, observe and explain (POE) the temperatures of different objects. An anomaly between perceived ‘coldness’ and measured temperature was induced among the pupils, but they did not manage to resolve this cognitive conflict. The pupils observed the objects getting warmer and increasing in temperature, but did not explain the experiments as involving a heat flow from their bodies to the objects. Successful explanation might require a combination of thermal imaging and the explicit introduction of a simple heat-flow model.

  • 24.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interactive Visualization for Learning and Teaching Nanoscience and Nanotechnology2016In: Global Perspectives of Nanoscience and Engineering Education, Part II / [ed] Kurt Winkelmann, Bharat Bhushan, Basel: Springer, 2016, p. 195-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano education involves tackling the difficult task of conceptualizing imperceptibly small objects and processes. Interactive visualization serves as one potential solution for providing access to the nanoworld through active exploration of nanoscale concepts and principles. This chapter exposes and describes a selection of interactive visualizations in the literature, and reviews research findings related to their educational, perceptual and cognitive influence. In closing, we offer implications of interactive visualization for learning and teaching nano.

  • 25.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interaktiv visualisering av nanovärlden stödjer lärande2016In: Resultatdialog 2016, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2016, p. 135-140Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets övergripande vision var att dels utveckla en virtuell miljö för att förmedla begrepp inom nanovetenskap och nanoteknik (vilket härefter kommer att benämnas med samlingstermen nano), och dels att undersöka vilken effekt interaktion med systemet har på lärande av vetenskapliga begrepp och uppfattningar kring fördelar och risker med nano hos elever och besökare vid ett science center. Utifrån detta övergripande syfte gavs projektet följande specifika mål:

    • Formge, utveckla och implementera en immersiv miljö för virtuell verklighet grundad i naturvetenskap, för kommunikation av grundläggande nanovetenskapliga begrepp.
    • Studera elevers och besökares interaktion med den virtuella nanomiljön som ett verktyg för utveckling av grundläggande vetenskaplig kunskap.

    Projektet resulterade i utvecklingen av en miljö där gester kan användas för att styra en virtuell verklighet som möjliggör lärande om nano, samt en version av systemet som är anpassad för traditionella datorer (PC) utrustade med skärm och mus. Empiriska undersökningar av användares interaktion med den virtuella miljön visar att den erbjuder möjligheter för att förstå nanobegrepp genom att stödja kognition, kroppsliga erfarenheter, motivation, och generell användbarhet. Resultaten tyder på att immersiva virtuella miljöer kan ge stöd för att användare baserat på sina interaktiva upplevelser ska kunna utveckla kunskap om vetenskapliga kärnbegrepp, samt utveckla sådan kunskap som krävs för att bedöma upplevda möjligheter och risker med nano.

  • 26.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Measuring understanding of nanoscience and nanotechnology: development and validation of the nano-knowledge instrument (NanoKI)2015In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, E-ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 346-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the application of nanotechnology in everyday life impacts society, it becomes critical for citizens to have a scientific basis upon which to judge their perceived hopes and fears of ‘nano’. Although multiple instruments have been designed for assessing attitudinal and affective aspects of nano, surprisingly little work has focused on developing tools to evaluate the conceptual knowledge dimension of public understanding. This article reports the validation of an instrument designed to measure conceptual knowledge of nanoscience and nanotechnology. A sample of 302 participants responded to a 28-item questionnaire designed around core nano-concepts. Factor analysis revealed a single latent variable representing the construct of nano-knowledge. Cronbach's alpha was 0.91 indicating a high internal consistency of the questionnaire items. The mean test score was 15.3 out of 28 (54.5%) with item difficulty indices ranging from 0.19 to 0.89. Obtained item discrimination values indicate a high discriminatory power of the instrument. Taken together, the psychometric properties of the Nano-Knowledge Instrument (NanoKI) suggest that it is a valid and reliable tool for measuring nano-related knowledge. Preliminary qualitative observations of citizens' incorrect and correct response patterns to the questionnaire indicate potential conceptual challenges surrounding relative size of the nanoscale, random motion of nano-objects, and nanoscale interactions, although these are hypotheses that require future investigation. Application of the NanoKI could support efforts directed to an agenda for evaluating and designing science communication and education initiatives for promoting understanding of nano.

  • 27.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nano education with interactive visualization2016In: Nano Today, ISSN 1748-0132, E-ISSN 1878-044X, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 543-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future societal and economic impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology raise the demand for a nano-literate public as well as a nano-competent workforce. This translates into the urgent need for nano education interventions in schools and informal learning contexts. In seeking to meet this mandate, we have developed and investigated a virtual reality environment that induces immersive presence (feeling as being ‘in’ the virtual world) and exploits bodily movements (e.g. hand gestures to control virtual objects) for students and citizens to learn nano concepts. In this article, we argue that such scientifically-informed immersive and interactive visualizations have a unique potential in communicating nanoscale ideas to students as well as the general public.

  • 28.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flint, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of an Interactive Immersion Environment for Engendering Understanding about Nanotechnology: Concept, Construction, and Implementation2014In: International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, ISSN 1947-8518, E-ISSN 1947-8526, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 40-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of nanoscientific applications in modern life is swiftly in progress. Nanoscale innovation comes with the pressing need to provide citizens and learners with scientific knowledge for judging the societal impact of nanotechnology. In rising to the challenge, this paper reports the developmental phase of a research agenda concerned with building and investigating a virtual environment for communicating nano-ideas. Methods involved elucidating core nano-principles through two purposefully contrasting nano “risk” and “benefit” scenarios for incorporation into an immersive system. The authors implemented the resulting 3D virtual architecture through an exploration of citizens’ and school students’ interaction with the virtual nanoworld. Findings suggest that users’ interactive experiences of conducting the two tasks based on gestural interaction with the system serve as a cognitive gateway for engendering nano-related understanding underpinning perceived hopes and fears and as a stimulating pedagogical basis from which to teach complex science concepts.

  • 29.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flint, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development of an interactive immersion environment for engendering understanding about nanotechnology: concept, construction, and implementation2016In: Web Design and Development: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] M. Khosrow-Pour, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2016, p. 519-536Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of nanoscientific applications in modern life is swiftly in progress. Nanoscale innovation comes with the pressing need to provide citizens and learners with scientific knowledge for judging the societal impact of nanotechnology. In rising to the challenge, this paper reports the developmental phase of a research agenda concerned with building and investigating a virtual environment for communicating nano-ideas. Methods involved elucidating core nano-principles through two purposefully contrasting nano “risk” and “benefit” scenarios for incorporation into an immersive system. The authors implemented the resulting 3D virtual architecture through an exploration of citizens' and school students' interaction with the virtual nanoworld. Findings suggest that users' interactive experiences of conducting the two tasks based on gestural interaction with the system serve as a cognitive gateway for engendering nano-related understanding underpinning perceived hopes and fears and as a stimulating pedagogical basis from which to teach complex science concepts.

  • 30.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring students’ interpretation of electric fields around molecules using a haptic virtual model: An evolving study2010In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education / [ed] V. Mudaly, Edgewood: University of KwaZulu-Natal , 2010, p. 242-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surprisingly, very little empirical work has explored the application of students’ knowledge about electric fields to a chemistry context. In response, this paper reports a pilot study that investigated students’ conceptions about electric fields, and how interaction with a haptic virtual model impacts understanding of electric fields around molecules. Students first responded to specially-designed written free response items that probed knowledge transfer. The participants then interacted with the model while performing think-aloud tasks where different haptic modes offered by the model were activated. Qualitative induction of the data revealed that although students demonstrated a pronounced and classical understanding of electrostatic forces and electric fields, they struggled to apply this knowledge to a molecular context. Interestingly, there was a strong association between the existence of an electric field around a molecule with the notion of chemical polarity. Analysis of videotaped interaction with the model provided evidence for distinct influences on students’ understanding, which included using the model to gain unique insight into the nature of electric fields, and as a sensory tool for actively challenging existing alternative conceptions. Future work will expand the research framework presented here and also distil what specific perceptual experiences are related to any changes in knowledge.

  • 31.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Trevor R.
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Bridging the Educational Research-Teaching Practice Gap: Foundations for assessing and developing biochemistry students’ visual literacy2010In: Biochemistry and molecular biology education, ISSN 1470-8175, E-ISSN 1539-3429, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 347-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    External representations (ERs), such as diagrams, animations, and dynamic models are vital tools for communicating and constructing knowledge in biochemistry. To build a meaningful understanding of structure, function, and process, it is essential that students become visually literate by mastering key cognitive skills that are essential for interpreting and visualizing ERs. In this article, first we describe a model of seven factors influencing students’ ability to learn from ERs. Second, we use this model and relevant literature to identify eight cognitive skills central to visual literacy in biochemistry. Third, we present simple examples of tasks as a foundation for designing more sophisticated and complex items for assessing and developing students’ visual literacy. We conclude that visual literacy is fundamental to the development of sound conceptual understanding and it is crucial to develop visual skills in parallel with meaningful learning outcomes in all biochemistry curricula.

  • 32.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bivall, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring relationships between students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2011In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 2095-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores tertiary students’ interaction with a haptic virtual model representing the specific binding of two biomolecules, a core concept in molecular life science education. Twenty students assigned to a haptics (experimental) or no-haptics (control) condition performed a “docking” task where users sought the most favourable position between a ligand and protein molecule, while students’ interactions with the model were logged. Improvement in students’ understanding of biomolecular binding was previously measured by comparing written responses to a target conceptual question before and after interaction with the model. A log-profiling tool visualized students’ movement of the ligand molecule during the docking task. Multivariate parallel coordinate analyses explored any relationships in the entire student data set. The haptics group produced a tighter constellation of collected final docked ligand positions in comparison with no-haptics students, coupled to docking profiles that depicted a more fine-tuned ligand traversal. Students in the no-haptics condition employed double the amount of interactive behaviours concerned with switching between different visual chemical representations offered by the model. In the no-haptics group, this visually intense processing was synonymous with erroneously ‘fitting’ the ligand closer distances to the protein surface. Students who showed higher learning gains tended to engage fewer visual representational switches, and were from the haptics group, while students with a higher spatial ability also engaged fewer visual representational switches, irrespective of assigned condition. From an information-processing standpoint, visual and haptic coordination may offload the visual pathway by placing less strain on visual working memory. From an embodied cognition perspective, visual and tactile sensorimotor interactions in the macroworld may provide access to constructing knowledge about submicroscopic phenomena. The results have cognitive and practical implications for the use of multimodal virtual reality technologies in educational contexts.

  • 33.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visualizing the Positive−Negative Interface of Molecular Electrostatic Potentials as an Educational Tool for Assigning Chemical Polarity2010In: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 87, no 12, p. 1342-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To help in interpreting the polarity of a molecule, charge separation can be visualized by mapping the electrostatic potential at the van der Waals surface using a color gradient or by indicating positive and negative regions of the electrostatic potential using different colored isosurfaces. Although these visualizations capture the molecular charge distribution efficiently, using them to deduce overall polarity requires students to engage in the potentially demanding process of interpreting the relative positions of electron-rich and electron-poor areas. We present a visual tool that could help students assign polarity by exploiting the unique topography of the interface between negative and positive regions of electrostatic potential surrounding a molecule. Specifically, the tool renders the electrostatic potential isosurface(s) of a molecule obtained when the isovalue is set at 0. Examples of polar and nonpolar molecules are discussed.

  • 34.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flint, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing an Interactive Virtual Environment for Engendering Public Understanding About Nanotechnology: From Concept to Construction2013In: AERA Online Paper Repository, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infusion of nanotechnology applications into modern life is in progress. Nanoscale innovation comes with the ever-pressing need to provide citizens and learners with scientific knowledge for informing perceptions and attitudes surrounding the societal impact of nanotechnology. In rising to the challenge, this paper reports the first developmental phase of a broader research agenda concerned with building and investigating virtual environments for communicating nano-ideas. Methods involved elucidating core nano-principles upon which two purposefully contrasting nanotechnology “risk” and “benefit” scenario tasks were designed for incorporation into an intended virtual environment. The result was construction of a 3D immersive virtual architecture where users’ multisensory interactive experiences of conducting the two tasks are anticipated as a gateway for engendering nano-related understanding underpinning perceived hopes and fears. In this revised paper, post-acceptance for presentation, initial results from a pilot study are also presented attained from exploring learners’ and citizens’ interaction with the constructed virtual environment.

  • 35.
    Svärd, Joachim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Design of an authentic innovation project in Swedish upper secondary technology education2017In: Australasian Journal of Technology Education, ISSN 2382-2007, Vol. 4, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies on the Swedish work force show that about half of all jobs demand a high degree of self-governing. In preparing students for the future, the World Economic Forum suggests that schools should also teach social skills, creativity and critical thinking. According to the Swedish upper secondary curriculum, the subject of technology should allow students to develop entrepreneurial skills, defined as supporting curiosity, confidence, creativity and courage, resulting in the ability to act, in innovation and problem solving. This vision is related to the notion of authentic learning. Reeves, Herrington and Oliver define authenticity through nine key elements, namely, authentic context, authentic task, presence of expert performances, multiple perspectives, collaboration, reflection, articulation, metacognitive support and authentic assessment. The aim of this study is to map these key elements of authentic learning onto the development and design of a five-week innovation project for implementation in a Swedish upper secondary school context. The mapping process involved first synthesising literature in the area of authentic learning in conjunction with studying Swedish technology education curriculum materials. This was followed by describing the characteristics of each key element of authentic learning in terms of proposing activities for implementation as an innovation project (IP). The results of this study show how criteria of nine elements of authentic learning could be used in designing an innovation project (IP) module in an authentically cogent way. Thus the authenticity framework served as a valid theoretical tool to produce the authentic learning module.

  • 36.
    Svärd, Joachim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Designing a module for authentic learning in upper secondary technology education2016In: PATT-32 Proceedings Technology Education for 21st Century Skills: Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 2016 / [ed] Marc J. de Vries, Arien Bekker-Holtland, Gerald van Dijk, Utrecht, The Netherlands: University of Applied Sciences , 2016, p. 454-462Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish upper secondary curriculum (Skolverket, n.d.), the subject of technology should allow students to develop entrepreneurial skills, defined as supporting curiosity, confidence, creativity and courage, resulting in the ability to act, in innovation and problem solving. Beghetto and Kaufman’s (2014) view of creative learning includes, “having students identify a need and work collaboratively with each other and outside experts to develop a creative solution for that need will help them creatively and meaningfully use what they have learned in the classroom” (p. 65). This kind of learning is related to the notion of authentic learning. Herrington and Parker (2013) define authenticity by nine key elements, namely, authentic context, authentic task, presence of expert performances, multiple perspectives, collaboration, reflection, articulation, metacognitive support and authentic assessment. The aim of this study is to map key elements of authentic learning onto the development of a five-week innovation project for implementation in a Swedish upper secondary school context. Following design and a first round of module implementation, a subsequent pilot study has deployed written questionnaire and semi-structured interview methods to investigate students’ opinions of the authenticity of the module and its outcomes. The paper also presents some early findings from this pilot study.

  • 37.
    Svärd, Joachim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Does Authentic Learning Work?: Evaluating an Innovation Project in Upper Secondary Technology Education in Sweden2017In: PATT 34, Technology & Engineering Education: Fostering the Creativity of Youth Around the Globe, Millersville, PA, 2017, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creativity is widely viewed as a key component of human development. Creativity is part of the “21st century skills” movement as well as a cornerstone of the technology subject in the Swedish school system. Could authentic learning, as described by Herrington, Reeves and Oliver, be one way to promote creativity? In a pilot study conducted in 2016, 13 groups of upper secondary students participated in a five-week authentic innovation project where they cooperated in the design of solutions for real-world problems. This approach mirrors Brown, Collins and Duguid’s statement that in order to learn a subject, students need more than abilities that focus on acquiring abstract concepts; they need to use and apply conceptual tools while performing authentic activities. The outcome of the innovation project was displayed and presented at an exhibition where professional inventors provided feedback on students’ created solutions. This paper presents results from the pilot study as well as preliminary findings from a main study, involving 25 groups, currently underway. Data from the pilot study was collected through questionnaires after each lesson, following the five-week module, and at the end of the entire course, as well as through semi-structured interviews with nine students. The results from the pilot study indicate that the students perceived the project as being authentic, and departed the course with an increased sense of comprehension and understanding. Future studies will explore learning activity within groups, and differences between students’ and teachers’ understanding of authenticity.

  • 38.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Att inSe - Om visualisering i biologiundervisningen2012In: Bi-lagan, ISSN 2000-8139, no 3, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nationella forskarskolan i naturvetenskapernas, matematikens och teknikens didaktik: Lärarlyftet 1 – LicFontD12014In: Resultatdialog 2014, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2014, p. 210-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den nationella forskarskolan i naturvetenskapernas, teknikens och matematikens didaktik (FontD) var ett samarbete mellan 10 lärosäten med Linköpings universitet (LiU), som värdlärosäte, partnerlärosätena Malmö högskola (MaH), Högskolan i Kalmar (HiK), Högskolan i Kristianstad (HKr), Karlstad Universitet (KaU), Umeå universitet (UmU), Mälardalens högskola (MdH), Högskolan i Halmstad (HiH), Mittuniversitetet (MiU), och Högskolan i Gävle (HiG). Verksamheten var ett samarbete mellan FontD, ämnesdidaktiska respektive disciplinära avdelningar vid Linköpings universitet (Institutionen för Samhälls och välfärdsstudier (ISV), Fysik, Kemi och Biologi (IFM), Institutionen för Teknik och naturvetenskap (ITN), Tema Vatten (TemaV), institutionen för Matematik (MAI), och motsvarande institutioner vid medverkande lärosäten. Inom LiU påtog sig Områdesstyrelsen för utbildningsvetenskap värdansvaret. Forskarskolan uppgift var att bedriva forskarutbildning med relevans för yrkesverksamma lärare. Alla inriktningar erbjöds inom forskarskolans ram men utbudet varierade mellan de ingående lärosätena.

    Innehållet i forskningsutbildningen gällde naturvetenskap, matematik och teknik och hade en disciplinär och en ämnesdidaktisk inriktning. I forskarutbildningens kurser och seminarier ägnades särskild omsorg om frågor som gäller teoretiska och metodiska perspektiv, yrkes‐ och skolrelevans, samt att utveckla förmågan att professionellt och regelmässigt ta del av internationell och nationell forskning. Forskarskolan omfattade 25 forskarstuderande som antogs under hösten 2008.

  • 40.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Att se det osynliga: Visualiseringar som meningsskapande verktyg för kommunikation av molekylär livsvetenskap2014In: Resultatdialog 2014, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2014, p. 202-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med projektet var att studera visuella representationers roll som verktyg för kommunikation och lärande inom molekylär livsvetenskap utifråntre övergripande frågeställningar:

    • Vilka kritiska egenskaper hos visualiseringar är avgörande för hur de tolkas?
    • Hur påverkas lärandeprocessen av olika visuella representationer?
    • Hur påverkas lärandeprocessen av hur den visuella representationen används?

    Projektet har inbegripit såväl metodologisk utveckling som forskningsresultat som kan stödja konstruktionen och användandet av visualiseringar i kommunikativ praktik.

1 - 40 of 40
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