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  • 1.
    Bjuremark, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsberth, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dufvenberg, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kursutvärdering som incitament till förändring2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    En kursutvärdering får inte bli ett självändamål. Syftet är istället att med hjälp av den feedback man som lärare får, återkoppla och förbättra en kurs/utbildning. Fry et al., (2000) anser att lärare ibland kan ha nytta av att få hjälp med analys av utvärderingarna, för att på ett nyanserat sätt kunna ta emot den kritik som annars lätt skulle kunna avfärdas och bortses ifrån. Det kan vara jobbigt att ta in negativ kritik.

  • 2.
    Björnsson Hallgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    A specific exercise strategy for patients with subacromial pain significantly reduced the need for surgery: one-year results of a randomised controlled studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A specific exercise strategy focusing on eccentric exercises, for treating sbacromial pain has in a previous study been found effective at three-month followup.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the positive short-term results were maintained after one year. A further aim was to examine if baseline clinical score, rotator cuff status and radiological findings influenced the choice of surgery.

    Methods: 97 patients on the waiting-list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression were in the first study randomized to a three-month specific exercise strategy or unspecific exercises (controls). Patients were examined with radiology, ultrasound and assessed with clinical scores: primary Constant-Murley score. After three months of exercises the patients were asked if they still wanted surgery and this option was available until the one-year follow-up. All patients were re-assessed with clinical scores one year after inclusion or one year after surgical intervention and the number of patients that had chosen surgery in each group was compared. The baseline Constant-Murley score and the status of subacromial structures were analyzed in relation to patient's choice of surgery.

    Results: The positive short-term effect (improved shoulder function and pain) of the specific exercises was maintained after one-year. Compared to the three-month followup all patients had improved significantly (p < 0.0001) in Constant-Murley score. The number of patients that had chosen surgery in the control exercise group (63%) was significantly larger (p < 0.0001) than in the specific exercise group (24%). Patients that had chosen surgery had a significantly lower baseline Constant-Murley score and significantly more often a full-thickness tear. Patients with partial-thickness tears did not differ from those with intact cuff tendons.

    Conclusions: The positive short-term outcomes after specific exercises were maintained after one year and reduced the need of surgery significantly more than the unspecific control exercises. Patients with low baseline clinical score and/or a full-thickness tear significantly more often chose surgery.

    Level of evidence: I, Randomized controlled trail according to Consort statement.

  • 3.
    Björnsson Hallgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    A specific exercise strategy reduced the need for surgery in subacromial pain patients2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 19, p. 1431-1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose A programme based on eccentric exercises for treating subacromial pain was in a previous study found effective at 3-month follow-up. The purposes of the present study were to investigate whether the results were maintained after 1 year and whether the baseline Constant-Murley score, rotator cuff status and radiological findings influenced the outcome. Patients and methods 97 patients on the waiting list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression had been randomised to a specific exercise programme or unspecific exercises (controls). After 3 months of exercises, the patients were asked whether they still wanted surgery and this option was available until a 1-year follow-up. 1 year after inclusion or 1 year after surgery, the number of patients who decided to have surgery in each group was compared. The choice of surgery was related to the baseline Constant-Murley score, ultrasound and radiographs taken at inclusion. Results All patients had improved significantly (pless than0.0001) in the Constant-Murley score at the 1-year follow-up. Significantly more patients in the control group decided to have surgery (63%) than those in the specific exercise group (24%; pless than0.0001). Patients who decided to have surgery had a significantly lower baseline Constant-Murley score and more often a full-thickness tear. Patients with partial tears did not differ from those with intact tendons. Interpretation The positive short-term results of specific exercises were maintained after 1 year, and this exercise strategy reduces the need for surgery. Full-thickness tear and a low baseline Constant-Murley score appear to be a predictive marker for a less good outcome.

  • 4.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsing-Strid, Emma
    University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Practitioner experiences from the structured implementation of evidence-based practice in primary care physiotherapy: A qualitative study2019In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 622-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale, Aims, and Objectives

    To provide best available care, the practitioners in primary health care (PHC) must have adequate knowledge about effective interventions. The implementation of such interventions is challenging. A structured implementation strategy developed by researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, was used for the implementation of an evidence‐based assessment and treatment programme for patients with subacromial pain among physiotherapists in PHC. To further develop strategies for implementation of evidence‐based practices, it was deemed important to study the implementation from the practitioners' perspective. The aim of this study was to explore the practitioners' experiences from the implementation.

    Methods

    A qualitative design with focus group discussions was applied. The implementation in terms of perceptions of process and outcome was evaluated by focus group discussions with, in total, 16 physiotherapists in the target group. Data were analysed using the method qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The components of the strategy were viewed positively, and the applicability and evidence base behind the programme were appreciated. The programme was perceived to be adopted, and the practitioners described a changed behaviour and increased confidence in handling patients with subacromial pain. Both patient‐ and provider‐related challenges to the implementation were mentioned.

    Conclusions

    The practitioners' experiences from the implementation were mainly positive. A strategy with collaboration between academy and practice, and with education and implementation teams as facilitators, resulted in changes in practice. Critical voices concerned interprofessional collaboration and that the programme was focused explicitly on the shoulder, not including other components of physical function.

  • 5.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Exercise treatment of patients with long-standing subacromial pain2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Subacromial pain is the most common problem among patients with shoulder complaints seeking primary care. The recommended treatment for these patients is primarily non-surgical with a focus on exercise treatment. If this treatment fails arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) followed by exercise treatment is recommended. Surgical treatment with ASD has increased substantially in Sweden in recent years even though studies comparing exercise treatment with surgery report equally positive results. Still, there is a need of evidence based preand postoperative exercise treatments, standardised and described in detail, to guide treatment of these patients in clinical practice.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the efficacy of pre- and postoperative exercise strategies on shoulder function and how the preoperative strategy affects the need for surgery in patients with long-standing subacromial pain.

    This thesis comprises four papers which are based on two randomised controlled trials. In study A, patients were randomised after ASD surgery to either physical therapist (PT) supervised strength-endurance exercises for the rotator cuff and scapula stabilisers or to home-based movement exercises for a period of three months. Shoulder function and pain, health related quality of life and return to work was evaluated for 6 months (paper I). In study B, patients on the waiting list for surgery were randomised to either specific exercise strategy with strengthendurance exercises for the rotator cuff and the scapula stabilisers or to control exercises with movement exercises for the neck and shoulders for a period of three months. After completing the exercise program and also after 12 months, shoulder function and pain, need for surgery and health related quality of life was evaluated. Baseline shoulder function, rotator cuff status and radiological findings were analysed in relation to the choice of surgery (paper II, III). The minimal important clinical change (MIC) of the Constant-Murley (CM) score, used as primary outcome in this thesis, was determined by using a visual anchor-based MIC distribution method (paper IV).

    Six months after ASD surgery, patients who performed PT-supervised strength-endurance exercises improved significantly more in shoulder function and pain compared to patients who had performed home-based movement exercises (paper I). Patients on the waiting list for surgery who performed specific strength-endurance exercises had significantly greater improvements in shoulder function and pain compared to patients performing movement exercises (paper II). A significantly lower proportion of those performing specific strength-endurance exercises chose surgery at the three- and 12 months follow-ups (paper II, paper III). Low baseline values in shoulder function and pain measured with the CM score and/or having a full thickness rotator cuff rupture were associated with an increased risk of choosing surgery (paper III). Regarding the CM score, a change between 17-24 points seems to be clinically important for patients with long-standing subacromial pain (paper IV).

    Supervised strength-endurance exercises seem to be more effective than home-based movement exercises after ASD surgery. For patients on the waiting list for surgery, the specific strategy of strength-endurance exercises was effective in improving shoulder function and pain and the need for surgery was reduced at 12 months. Low baseline values for shoulder function and pain measured with the CM score and/or having a full thickness rotator cuff tear seem to be predictors for choosing surgery. The CM score is able to detect the MIC in individual patients with long-standing subacromial pain when the rotator cuff is intact. In all patients with longstanding subacromial pain, the MIC value was dependent on the subgroup as well as the choice of statistical analysis.

    List of papers
    1. Supervised strengthening exercises versus home-based movement exercises after arthroscopic acromioplasty: A randomized clinical trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supervised strengthening exercises versus home-based movement exercises after arthroscopic acromioplasty: A randomized clinical trial
    2012 (English)In: Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of 2 rehabilitation strategies after arthroscopic acromioplasty: supervised physical therapy focusing on strengthening exercises of the rotator cuff and scapula stabilizers (PT-group) vs home-based movement exercises (H-group). Design: A randomized, single-blinded, clinically controlled study. Patients: Thirty-six patients entered the study. Thirteen in the PT-group and 16 in the H-group fulfilled all the assessments. Methods: For 12 weeks following surgery, patients performed either supervised physical therapy or home exercises. Follow-ups were conducted periodically for 6 months after surgery to evaluate shoulder function, pain (Constant-Murley (CM) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores), and health-related quality of life. Results: The PT-group exhibited significantly greater improvements in CM (p  =0.02) and DASH (p = 0.05) scores. After treatment, the between-group mean difference in CM scores was 14.2 p (95% confidence interval 2-26). At the 6-month follow-up, the between-group mean difference in DASH scores was 13.4 p (95% confidence interval 0.1-23). Conclusion: PT-supervised rehabilitation with strengthening exercises of the rotator cuff and scapula stabilizers seems to be superior to home exercises focusing on mobility for improving shoulder function after arthroscopic acromioplasty.

    Keywords
    arthroscopic acromioplasty; exercise; rehabilitation; rotator cuff; subacromial impingement; physical therapy.
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72791 (URN)10.2340/16501977-0889 (DOI)000300263900003 ()22124602 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-12-07 Created: 2011-12-07 Last updated: 2013-03-15
    2. Effect of specific exercise strategy on need for surgery in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: randomised controlled study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of specific exercise strategy on need for surgery in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: randomised controlled study
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.), ISSN 0959-8146, E-ISSN 0959-535X, Vol. 344, p. e787-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if a specific exercise strategy, targeting the rotator cuff and scapula stabilisers, improves shoulder function and pain more than unspecific exercises in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, thereby decreasing the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression.

    DESIGN: Randomised, participant and single assessor blinded, controlled study.

    SETTING: Department of orthopaedics in a Swedish university hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: 102 patients with long standing (over six months) persistent subacromial impingement syndrome in whom earlier conservative treatment had failed, recruited through orthopaedic specialists.

    INTERVENTIONS: The specific exercise strategy consisted of strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers in combination with manual mobilisation. The control exercise programme consisted of unspecific movement exercises for the neck and shoulder. Patients in both groups received five to six individual guided treatment sessions during 12 weeks. In between these supervised sessions the participants performed home exercises once or twice a day for 12 weeks.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment score evaluating shoulder function and pain. Secondary outcomes were patients' global impression of change because of treatment and decision regarding surgery.

    RESULTS: Most (97, 95%) participants completed the 12 week study. There was a significantly greater improvement in the Constant-Murley score in the specific exercise group than in the control exercise group (24 points (95% confidence interval 19 to 28.0) v 9 points (5 to 13); mean difference between group: 15 points (8.5 to 20.6)). Significantly more patients in the specific exercise group reported successful outcome (defined as large improvement or recovered) in the patients' global assessment of change because of treatment: 69% (35/51) v 24% (11/46); odds ratio 7.6, 3.1 to 18.9; P<0.001. A significantly lower proportion of patients in the specific exercise group subsequently chose to undergo surgery: 20% (10/51) v 63% (29/46); odds ratio 7.7, 3.1 to 19.4; P<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: A specific exercise strategy, focusing on strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers, is effective in reducing pain and improving shoulder function in patients with persistent subacromial impingement syndrome. By extension, this exercise strategy reduces the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression within the three month timeframe used in the study.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials NCT01037673.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMJ Publishing Group, 2012
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75436 (URN)10.1136/bmj.e787 (DOI)000300881600009 ()22349588 (PubMedID)
    Note

    funding agencies|physiotherapy orthopaedic department of the University Hospital in Linkoping, Sweden||research council in the south east of Sweden (FORSS)||

    Available from: 2012-03-01 Created: 2012-03-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    3. A specific exercise strategy for patients with subacromial pain significantly reduced the need for surgery: one-year results of a randomised controlled study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A specific exercise strategy for patients with subacromial pain significantly reduced the need for surgery: one-year results of a randomised controlled study
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A specific exercise strategy focusing on eccentric exercises, for treating sbacromial pain has in a previous study been found effective at three-month followup.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the positive short-term results were maintained after one year. A further aim was to examine if baseline clinical score, rotator cuff status and radiological findings influenced the choice of surgery.

    Methods: 97 patients on the waiting-list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression were in the first study randomized to a three-month specific exercise strategy or unspecific exercises (controls). Patients were examined with radiology, ultrasound and assessed with clinical scores: primary Constant-Murley score. After three months of exercises the patients were asked if they still wanted surgery and this option was available until the one-year follow-up. All patients were re-assessed with clinical scores one year after inclusion or one year after surgical intervention and the number of patients that had chosen surgery in each group was compared. The baseline Constant-Murley score and the status of subacromial structures were analyzed in relation to patient's choice of surgery.

    Results: The positive short-term effect (improved shoulder function and pain) of the specific exercises was maintained after one-year. Compared to the three-month followup all patients had improved significantly (p < 0.0001) in Constant-Murley score. The number of patients that had chosen surgery in the control exercise group (63%) was significantly larger (p < 0.0001) than in the specific exercise group (24%). Patients that had chosen surgery had a significantly lower baseline Constant-Murley score and significantly more often a full-thickness tear. Patients with partial-thickness tears did not differ from those with intact cuff tendons.

    Conclusions: The positive short-term outcomes after specific exercises were maintained after one year and reduced the need of surgery significantly more than the unspecific control exercises. Patients with low baseline clinical score and/or a full-thickness tear significantly more often chose surgery.

    Level of evidence: I, Randomized controlled trail according to Consort statement.

    Keywords
    Subacromial pain patients, exercises, eccentric, rotator cuff tear
    National Category
    Orthopaedics Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-82118 (URN)
    Note

    The original title of this article was: A specific exercise strategy reduces the need of surgery in subacromial pain patients: one-year results after a randomised controlled study. The title was changed before submitted to the journal.

    On the day of the defence day the status of this article was Manuscript                        

    Available from: 2012-10-01 Created: 2012-10-01 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Minimal important changes in the Constant Murley score in patients with subacromial pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimal important changes in the Constant Murley score in patients with subacromial pain
    2014 (English)In: Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, ISSN 1058-2746, E-ISSN 1532-6500, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1083-1090Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal important change (MIC) of improvement in the Constant‐Murley score (CM score) in patients with longstanding subacromial pain and in subgroups of patients with subacromial pain with and without rotator cuff ruptures.

    Method: The MIC was estimated by using the visual anchor‐based MIC distribution method, which integrates an anchor‐ and distribution‐based approach: the optimal cut‐off point of the receiver operator characteristic curve (MIC ROC) and the 95% limit cut‐ off point (MIC 95%limit). The study population consisted of 93 patients included in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effect of a specific exercise strategy in patients with longstanding subacromial pain.

    Results: The MIC ROC was found at a mean change of 17 points in the CM score. The MIC 95% limit was found at a mean change of 24 points. In the subgroup analysis the MIC ROC was found at a mean change of 19 points and the MIC 95% limit at 18 points in patients with an intact rotator cuff. In patients with rotator cuff ruptures the MIC ROC was found at a mean change of 15 points and the MIC 95% limit at 30 points.

    Conclusion: The CM score is able to detect the minimal important change in individual patients with long‐standing subacromial pain when the rotator cuff is intact. In all patients with longstanding subacromial pain, the MIC value was dependent on the subgroup as well as the choice of statistical analysis. The estimated MIC values could be used as an indication for relevant changes in the CM score in clinical practice and guide the clinician in how to interpret the results of specific treatments for patients with longstanding subacromial pain.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Mosby-Elsevier, 2014
    National Category
    Health Sciences Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90020 (URN)10.1016/j.jse.2014.01.014 (DOI)000341135000006 ()
    Available from: 2013-03-15 Created: 2013-03-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06
  • 6.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björnsson Hallgren, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effect of specific exercise strategy on need for surgery in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: randomised controlled study2012In: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.), ISSN 0959-8146, E-ISSN 0959-535X, Vol. 344, p. e787-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if a specific exercise strategy, targeting the rotator cuff and scapula stabilisers, improves shoulder function and pain more than unspecific exercises in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, thereby decreasing the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression.

    DESIGN: Randomised, participant and single assessor blinded, controlled study.

    SETTING: Department of orthopaedics in a Swedish university hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: 102 patients with long standing (over six months) persistent subacromial impingement syndrome in whom earlier conservative treatment had failed, recruited through orthopaedic specialists.

    INTERVENTIONS: The specific exercise strategy consisted of strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers in combination with manual mobilisation. The control exercise programme consisted of unspecific movement exercises for the neck and shoulder. Patients in both groups received five to six individual guided treatment sessions during 12 weeks. In between these supervised sessions the participants performed home exercises once or twice a day for 12 weeks.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment score evaluating shoulder function and pain. Secondary outcomes were patients' global impression of change because of treatment and decision regarding surgery.

    RESULTS: Most (97, 95%) participants completed the 12 week study. There was a significantly greater improvement in the Constant-Murley score in the specific exercise group than in the control exercise group (24 points (95% confidence interval 19 to 28.0) v 9 points (5 to 13); mean difference between group: 15 points (8.5 to 20.6)). Significantly more patients in the specific exercise group reported successful outcome (defined as large improvement or recovered) in the patients' global assessment of change because of treatment: 69% (35/51) v 24% (11/46); odds ratio 7.6, 3.1 to 18.9; P<0.001. A significantly lower proportion of patients in the specific exercise group subsequently chose to undergo surgery: 20% (10/51) v 63% (29/46); odds ratio 7.7, 3.1 to 19.4; P<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: A specific exercise strategy, focusing on strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers, is effective in reducing pain and improving shoulder function in patients with persistent subacromial impingement syndrome. By extension, this exercise strategy reduces the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression within the three month timeframe used in the study.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials NCT01037673.

  • 7.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björnsson Hallgren, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Republished research: Effect of specific exercise strategy on need for surgery in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: randomised controlled study2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 19, p. 1456-1457Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY QUESTION Can a specific exercise strategy improve shoulder function and pain in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, thereby decreasing the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression? SUMMARY ANSWER Compared with a control exercise group, patients in the specific exercise group had significantly greater improvements in shoulder function and pain and fewer patients needed surgery at the three month assessment. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS Different exercise programmes are used as first line treatment in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, but conclusive evidence to support the efficacy for these programmes is lacking. This specific exercise strategy proved effective in improving shoulder function and pain in patients in whom earlier conservative treatment had failed.

  • 8.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björnsson Hallgren, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Republished research: Effect of specific exercise strategy on need for surgery in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: randomised controlled study2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 14, p. 908-908Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Study question

    Can a specific exercise strategy improve shoulder function and pain in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, thereby decreasing the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression?

    Summary answer

    Compared with a control exercise group, patients in the specific exercise group had significantly greater improvements in shoulder function and pain and fewer patients needed surgery at the three month assessment.

    What is known and what this paper adds

    Different exercise programmes are used as first line treatment in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, but conclusive evidence to support the efficacy for these programmes is lacking. This specific exercise strategy proved effective in improving shoulder function and pain in patients in whom earlier conservative treatment had failed.

  • 9.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Minimal important changes in the Constant Murley score in patients with subacromial pain2014In: Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, ISSN 1058-2746, E-ISSN 1532-6500, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1083-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal important change (MIC) of improvement in the Constant‐Murley score (CM score) in patients with longstanding subacromial pain and in subgroups of patients with subacromial pain with and without rotator cuff ruptures.

    Method: The MIC was estimated by using the visual anchor‐based MIC distribution method, which integrates an anchor‐ and distribution‐based approach: the optimal cut‐off point of the receiver operator characteristic curve (MIC ROC) and the 95% limit cut‐ off point (MIC 95%limit). The study population consisted of 93 patients included in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effect of a specific exercise strategy in patients with longstanding subacromial pain.

    Results: The MIC ROC was found at a mean change of 17 points in the CM score. The MIC 95% limit was found at a mean change of 24 points. In the subgroup analysis the MIC ROC was found at a mean change of 19 points and the MIC 95% limit at 18 points in patients with an intact rotator cuff. In patients with rotator cuff ruptures the MIC ROC was found at a mean change of 15 points and the MIC 95% limit at 30 points.

    Conclusion: The CM score is able to detect the minimal important change in individual patients with long‐standing subacromial pain when the rotator cuff is intact. In all patients with longstanding subacromial pain, the MIC value was dependent on the subgroup as well as the choice of statistical analysis. The estimated MIC values could be used as an indication for relevant changes in the CM score in clinical practice and guide the clinician in how to interpret the results of specific treatments for patients with longstanding subacromial pain.

  • 10.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Irene
    Oskarshamn Primary Care.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Supervised strengthening exercises versus home-based movement exercises after arthroscopic acromioplasty: A randomized clinical trial2012In: Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of 2 rehabilitation strategies after arthroscopic acromioplasty: supervised physical therapy focusing on strengthening exercises of the rotator cuff and scapula stabilizers (PT-group) vs home-based movement exercises (H-group). Design: A randomized, single-blinded, clinically controlled study. Patients: Thirty-six patients entered the study. Thirteen in the PT-group and 16 in the H-group fulfilled all the assessments. Methods: For 12 weeks following surgery, patients performed either supervised physical therapy or home exercises. Follow-ups were conducted periodically for 6 months after surgery to evaluate shoulder function, pain (Constant-Murley (CM) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores), and health-related quality of life. Results: The PT-group exhibited significantly greater improvements in CM (p  =0.02) and DASH (p = 0.05) scores. After treatment, the between-group mean difference in CM scores was 14.2 p (95% confidence interval 2-26). At the 6-month follow-up, the between-group mean difference in DASH scores was 13.4 p (95% confidence interval 0.1-23). Conclusion: PT-supervised rehabilitation with strengthening exercises of the rotator cuff and scapula stabilizers seems to be superior to home exercises focusing on mobility for improving shoulder function after arthroscopic acromioplasty.

  • 11.
    Hultenheim Klintberg, Ingrid
    et al.
    Institution Neuroscience and Physiology/Physitherapy, University of Gothenburg and Physiotherapy Department Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cools, Ann M J
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences & Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Gent, Belgum.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holzhausen, Ann-Christine Gunnarsson
    Institution Neuroscience and Physiology/Physitherapy, University of Gothenburg and Physiotherapy Department Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Maenhout, Annelies G
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences & Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Gent, Belgum.
    Moser, Jane S
    Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Oxford University Hospitals Trust, Oxford, UK.
    Spunton, Valentina
    University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    Ginn, Karen
    Discipline of Biomedical Science, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Consensus for physiotherapy for shoulder pain2015In: International Orthopaedics, ISSN 0341-2695, E-ISSN 1432-5195, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 715-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Shoulder pain is a common disorder. Despite growing evidence of the importance of physiotherapy, in particular active exercise therapy, little data is available to guide treatment. The aim of this project was to contribute to the development of an internationally accepted assessment and treatment algorithm for patients with shoulder pain.

    METHODS: Nine physiotherapists with expertise in the treatment of shoulder dysfunction met in Sweden 2012 to begin the process of developing a treatment algorithm. A questionnaire was completed prior to the meeting to guide discussions. Virtual conferences were thereafter the platform to reach consensus.

    RESULTS: Consensus was achieved on a clinical reasoning algorithm to guide the assessment and treatment for patients presenting with local shoulder pain, without significant passive range of motion deficits and no symptoms or signs of instability. The algorithm emphasises that physiotherapy treatment decisions should be based on physical assessment findings and not structural pathology, that active exercises should be the primary treatment approach, and that regular re-assessment is performed to ensure that all clinical features contributing to the presenting shoulder pain are addressed. Consensus was also achieved on a set of guiding principles for implementing exercise therapy for shoulder pain, namely, a limited number of exercises, performed with appropriate scapulo-humeral coordination and humeral head alignment, in a graduated manner without provoking the presenting shoulder pain.

    CONCLUSION: The assessment and treatment algorithm presented could contribute to a more formal, extensive process aimed at achieving international agreement on an algorithm to guide physiotherapy treatment for shoulder pain.

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