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  • 1.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Challenges for developing a system for biogas as vehicle fuel: lessons from Linkoping, Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are being employed in nearly all the EU member states to fulfill the targets set up by the European Directive 2003/30/EC to have a 5.75% share of renewable energy in their transport sector by 2010. In Sweden ethanol is the leading biofuel, while biogas mainly depend on local initiatives with the city of Linköping as a case in point.

    Our purpose with this article is to analyze the development of biogas in Linköping within a framework of technological transition theory. To this we add a set of concepts from large technical systems-literature to address and re-analyze two earlier studies on the biogas development in Linköping to achieve a deeper understanding of this success story. We argue that the establishment of a development trajectory for biogas depended on the ability of the involved actors to establish and nurture their social network, to create learning processes and stimulate the articulation of expectations and visions. It was also important that these three factors were allowed to influence each other for the system to gain a momentum of its own.

    Furthermore, the biogas development in Linköping is found to be interesting in that the triggers for the development came from a variety of levels and angles. Initially, the rising fuel prices after the oil crises in the 1970’s resulted in an increased interest in renewable fuels in general. Second, an anticipated national pipeline for natural gas planned through Linköping was considered a huge potential for methane exports. A part from these external energy incentives, the local trigger was the bad urban air quality caused by the public transport authority’s bus fleet. The breakthrough came when it was discovered that by-product biogas from the wastewater treatment facility could be used as a fuel for transport.

    When the plans for the national pipeline were rejected, a fruitful co-operation between the municipally owned production facility and the public transport authority was set up to meet the constructed demand from public transport. This cooperative pair-arrangement was the starting point for the biogas niche trajectory as other actors subsequently were enrolled to increase the size and agency of the network.

    Nowadays, biogas and other renewable fuels play a significant role in the supply of transport fuels for Linköping. In 2009, a total of 9.5% of all transport fuels used in Linköping were from renewable sources, i.e. biogas (4.6%), ethanol and biodiesel. This puts the city well ahead of the European target of 5.75% renewable fuels by 2010.

  • 2.
    Martin, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies: Application in the Biofuels IndustryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the current literature available in the field of industrial symbiosis aims at providing a review of the symbiotic intensity, institutional and environmental contexts and assessments of the activities involved in a synoptic manner. However, literature regarding classification methods for individual material and energy exchanges is limited. In order to obtain better resolution of the characteristics of exchanges and interactions, i.e. synergies, a classification method is produced and tested in this paper. The classification method maps the interactions between different industries as well as the flows of products and utilities through origindestination classifications. Synergies between a core industry and external industries are examined in this paper, with the core industry represented by the biofuels industry, and without geographical boundaries. The classification method can be employed in other research projects and it is hoped that it will provide the background for further studies into conditions necessary for synergy implementation. Furthermore the classification method will provide subsequent details for research into economic and environmental benefits provided by synergies between industries.

  • 3.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biogas and Renewable Fuel Consumption: 2008 Figures for Linköping and Östergötland2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, biogas consumption in Linköping has been increasing. With the expansion of infrastructure and vehicles capable of using biogas, Linköping is a leading model for biogas vehicles and fleet worldwide. Over the past few years biogas production has grown at a nearly constant rate of 20%. Since the start when only a limited amount of biogas was delivered primarily to the bus fleet, over 8.5 million m3 were delivered in 2009 (Svensk Biogas, 2009). Currently biogas is used in the public transport sector, vehicle fleets and more than a thousand personal vehicles. This development, along with the use of ethanol and biodiesel has led to a large increase in the use of renewable fuels in the municipality. While biogas and other renewable fuels make up only a small portion of the vehicle fuels consumed in the municipality, this portion continues to grow.

    Regional and national administrations have been challenged with European directives to include renewable energy in many sectors. In the transport sector, according to the European Directive 2003/30/EC all countries are to have a 5.75 % share of renewable energy in their transport sector by 2010 (EU, 2003). Thereafter, every member state is required to have a minimum of 10% in 2020. To meet these goals, member states are looking for solutions in various technologies, i.e. biofuels, hybrids, electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cells. Currently, biofuels are being employed in nearly all the member states to fulfill the targets, with biogas, ethanol and biodiesel being most common. Sweden is a leader in the use of ethanol, while municipalities such as Linköping have put an emphasis in making use of industrial wastes to produce biogas. Locally produced renewable energy will thus provide vehicle fuel for the municipality of Linköping in order to reduce environmental impacts and meet vehicle fuel targets.

    Linköping has become a benchmarked city in the use and production of biogas. However, how much biogas and other renewable fuels does Linköping currently employ? The aim of this research paper is to analyze the use of renewable and fossil fuels in the region in order to quantify the percentage in relation to the European Directive 2003/30/EC. The research project will provide details regarding the share of petrol, diesel, biodiesel, ethanol and thereafter biogas in the current vehicle fuel consumption.

  • 4.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial Symbiosis for the development of Biofuel Production2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the popularity of biofuels has been transformed from a sustainable option fortransportation to a questionable and criticized method. Many reports have therefore beenproduced to view biofuel production from a life cycle perspective; though results may bemisleading. In a number of the reports, biofuel production is viewed in a linear manner, i.e.crops and energy in and biofuel out. However there is a large quantity of material and energyflows associated with biofuel production and these must be accounted for.Industrial symbiosis concepts have therefore been applied in this thesis to the biofuel industryto identify possibilities to improve the material and energy flows. This has been done bymapping the exchanges and thereafter identifying possible synergies between biofuel firmsand with external industries. Examples from regional biofuel synergies and exchanges withindustrial partners have been highlighted. Many of the concepts have led to the identificationof methods for increased integration and improvements, including the use of a renewableenergy provider and the cooperation with external industries. Biofuels have therefore beenfound to profit from wastes, and instead of competition, benefit from one another, contrary tobelief. This leads to an expanded market of raw materials for biofuel production.Benefits do not only occur for the biofuel industry; from the application of biofuels, industrialsymbiosis may gain further benefits. Several new concepts have been produced in this thesisto account for the unique material handling possibilities that biofuel production firmsencompass. These include using biofuels as upcyclers of materials and the use of renewableenergy as a way to improve environmental performance. Furthermore, a classification methodhas been produced to add more detail about individual exchanges for the industrial symbiosisliterature in addition to viewing industrial symbiosis from an expanded system view toinclude exchanges beyond geographic proximity typical to the field.

    List of papers
    1. Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis
    2009 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transport many critics have argued about the poor energy efficiency and environmental performance of the production industries. Optimism is thus set on the production of second generation biofuels, while first generation biofuels continue to dominate worldwide. Therefore it is interesting to consider how the environmental performance of first generation biofuel industries can be bettered. The field of industrial symbiosis offers many possibilities for potential improvements in the biofuel industry. It is shown in this research that integration between the respective biofuel industries is possible. This comes in the form of by-product synergies and utility synergies which can improve material and energy handling and environmental performance of the processes. Furthermore, the processes and products can gain increased environmental performance improvements by the adaption of a renewable energy system which will act as a utility provider for many industries in a symbiotic network. By-products may thereafter be upcycled through biogas production processes to generate both energy and a bio-fertilizer. A case study of an actual biofuel industrial symbiosis is also reviewed to provide support for these theories.

    Keywords
    industrial symbiosis, biofuels, biodiesel, ethanol, biogas, synergies
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63759 (URN)
    Conference
    Greening of Industry:: Joint Actions on Climate Change 8-10 June, Aalborg, Denmark
    Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. An Inventory and Analysis of Synergies in the Biofuel Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Inventory and Analysis of Synergies in the Biofuel Industry
    2009 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As biofuels are becoming a part of national renewable energy goals, a great deal optimism is placed on second generation biofuels to overcome the criticism of first generation biofuels. However, optimization of first generation biofuels through process integration and the exchange of by-products and energy can give many environmental and economic benefits. Synergies have therefore been identified which can incorporate biofuel industries and offer integration with external industries. An inventory of synergies between biofuel and external industries has been provided by the synthesis of two methods, a synergies development workshop and literature review. The compilation includes 148 synergies, with each synergy categorized based on its interaction with biofuel and external industries and additionally the specific industry each synergy is destined. A large number of synergies consist of integrated biofuel synergies, though many synergies exist with external industries including  the food industry, energy and fuel industry, municipalities, algae production and agricultural industry. Synergies developed for this article are primarily by-product related synergies for handling major by-products and wastes from the biofuel and external industries for subsequent processing and further biofuel production.

    Keywords
    biofuel, industrial symbiosis, synergy, by-product, biogas, integration
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63760 (URN)
    Conference
    Greening of Industry:: Joint Actions on Climate Change 8-10 June, Aalborg, Denmark
    Available from: 2012-05-14 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2012-05-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies: Application in the Biofuels Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies: Application in the Biofuels Industry
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the current literature available in the field of industrial symbiosis aims at providing a review of the symbiotic intensity, institutional and environmental contexts and assessments of the activities involved in a synoptic manner. However, literature regarding classification methods for individual material and energy exchanges is limited. In order to obtain better resolution of the characteristics of exchanges and interactions, i.e. synergies, a classification method is produced and tested in this paper. The classification method maps the interactions between different industries as well as the flows of products and utilities through origindestination classifications. Synergies between a core industry and external industries are examined in this paper, with the core industry represented by the biofuels industry, and without geographical boundaries. The classification method can be employed in other research projects and it is hoped that it will provide the background for further studies into conditions necessary for synergy implementation. Furthermore the classification method will provide subsequent details for research into economic and environmental benefits provided by synergies between industries.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63761 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 5.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry: Quantification of the Environmental Performance and Identification of Synergies2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of biofuels has increased in recent years, to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate climate change. However, current production practices are heavily criticized on their environmental sustainability. Life cycle assessments have therefore been used in policies and academic studies to assess the systems; with divergent results. In the coming years however, biofuel production practices must improve to meet strict environmental sustainability policies.

    The aims of the research presented in this thesis, are to explore and analyze concepts from industrial symbiosis (IS) to improve the efficiency and environmental performance of biofuel production and identify possible material and energy exchanges between biofuel producers and external industries.

    An exploration of potential material and energy exchanges resulted in a diverse set of possible exchanges. Many exchanges were identified between biofuel producers to make use of each other’s by-products. There is also large potential for exchanges with external industries, e.g. with the food, energy and chemical producing industries. As such, the biofuel industry and external industries have possibilities for potential collaboration and environmental performance improvements, though implementation of the exchanges may be influenced by many conditions.

    In order to analyze if concepts from IS can provide benefits to firms of an IS network, an approach was created which outlines how quantifications of IS networks can be produced using life cycle assessment literature for guidelines and methodological considerations. The approach offers methods for quantifying the environmental performance for firms of the IS network and an approach to distribute impacts and credits for the exchanges between firm, to test the assumed benefits for the firms of the IS network.

    Life cycle assessment, and the approach from this thesis, have been used to quantify the environmental performance of IS networks by building scenarios based on an example from an IS network of biofuel producers in Sweden. From the analyses, it has been found that exchanges of material and energy may offer environmental performance improvements for the IS network and for firms of the network. However, the results are dependent upon the methodological considerations of the assessments, including the reference system, functional unit and allocation methods, in addition to important processes such as the agricultural inputs for the system and energy systems employed.

    By using industrial symbiosis concepts, biofuel producers have possibilities to improve the environmental performance. This is done by making use of by-products and waste and diversifying their products, promoting a transition toward biorefinery systems and a bio-based economy for regional environmental sustainability.

    List of papers
    1. Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis
    2011 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1747-1755Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transport many critics have argued about the poor energyefficiency and environmental performance of the production industries. Optimism is thusset on the production of second generation biofuels, while first generation biofuelscontinue to dominate worldwide. Therefore it is interesting to consider how the environmentalperformance of first generation biofuel industries can be improved. The field ofindustrial symbiosis offers many possibilities for potential improvements in the biofuelindustry and theories from this research field are used in this paper to highlight howenvironmental performance improvements can be accomplished. This comes in the formof by-product synergies and utility synergies which can improve material and energyhandling. Furthermore, the processes and products can gain increased environmentalperformance improvements by the adaption of a renewable energy system which will actas a utility provider for many industries in a symbiotic network. By-products may thereafterbe upcycled through biogas production processes to generate both energy and a biofertilizer. A case study of an actual biofuel industrial symbiosis is also reviewed to providesupport for these theories.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Industrial Symbiosis, Biogas, Biofuel, Synergies, Industrial Symbiosis, Biogas, Biofuel, Synergies, Industrial Symbiosis, Biogas, Biofuel, Synergies, Industrial Symbiosis, Biogas, Biofuel, Synergies, Industrial Symbiosis, Biogas, Biofuel, Synergies, Industrial Symbiosis, Biogas, Biofuel, Synergies, Industrial Symbiosis, Biogas, Biofuel, Synergies, Industrial Symbiosis, Biogas, Biofuel, Synergies
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67189 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.01.016 (DOI)000290238200017 ()
    Funder
    Formas
    Available from: 2011-04-04 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. Production synergies in the current biofuel industry: Opportunities for development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production synergies in the current biofuel industry: Opportunities for development
    2012 (English)In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 545-554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With criticism about the economic viability and environmental performance of biofuels, theuse of byproducts and integration with external industries could be achieved to improve their performanceand provide further use for byproducts and wastes. Methodology: A review of potential byproduct andutility exchanges between biofuel and external industries has been documented in this article through aliterature review and brainstorming workshop, and results have been classified based on their interactions.Results: It has been found that byproduct exchanges, especially those between biofuel industries, andexchanges between the biofuel industries and the food, feed, agriculture and energy industries, offer manypotential exchanges. Conclusion: The identified synergies offer possibilities for potential collaborationpartners in symbiotic exchanges with the biofuel industry.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Future Science, 2012
    Keywords
    Biofuels, Synergies, By-product, Industrial Symbiosis
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84548 (URN)10.4155/bfs.12.52 (DOI)
    Funder
    Formas
    Available from: 2012-10-12 Created: 2012-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    3. Quantifying the environmental performance of integrated bioethanol and biogas production
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the environmental performance of integrated bioethanol and biogas production
    2014 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 6, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels have the possibility to be optimized in order to improve the environmental performance. This could be accomplished through the use of concepts from industrial symbiosis. This paper provides a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods, energy system and assumptions chosen.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Ethanol, Biogas, Industrial symbiosis, Environmental impacts, Biofuel, Life cycle assessment
    National Category
    Renewable Bioenergy Research Bioenergy Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86218 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2012.09.058 (DOI)000326141000018 ()
    Available from: 2012-12-11 Created: 2012-12-11 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    4. Who gets the benefits? An approach for assessing the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who gets the benefits? An approach for assessing the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis networks are generally assumed to provide economic and environmental benefits for all firms involved, though few quantifications have been produced in the literature, and the methods for these quantifications have varied. This paper provides an approach to quantify the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis networks using guidance from the literature of life cycle assessment. Additionally, an approach to distribute credits due to exchanges for firms in the industrial symbiosis network is outlined. From the approach, influential methodological considerations used for the quantifications are discussed, including e.g. the production of reference systems, allocation methods, system boundaries and functional unit. The implications of such an approach may be beneficial for the industrial symbiosis community and provide information crucial for taxes, subsidies, business relations, expansion possibilities for the network, marketing and other issues related to the environmental performance of firms in the industrial symbiosis network.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Industrial symbiosis, life cycle assessment, by-product, integration, environmental performance
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering Bioenergy Renewable Bioenergy Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90232 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.06.024 (DOI)000356194300027 ()
    Available from: 2013-03-21 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Using LCA to quantify the environmental performance of an industrial symbiosis network: Application in the Biofuels Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using LCA to quantify the environmental performance of an industrial symbiosis network: Application in the Biofuels Industry
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally assumed that industrial symbiosis creates economic and environmental benefits for all firms involved, though few quantifications have been produced. The environmental performance of an industrial symbiosis network will be quantified using an approach from previous literature. Additionally, the benefits provided by exchanges have partitioned to firms taking part in the industrial symbiosis network, which may have implications for tax incentives, marketing, expansion and environmental awareness. The current industrial symbiosis network has been found to have benefits compared to reference scenarios produced. However, methodological choices, such as the choice of reference scenario and allocation methods may significantly influence the results of the environmental performance.

    Keywords
    Industrial symbiosis, life cycle assessment, by-product, integration, environmental performance
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering Renewable Bioenergy Research Bioenergy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90229 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-03-21 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11
  • 6.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Production synergies in the current biofuel industry: Opportunities for development2012In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 545-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With criticism about the economic viability and environmental performance of biofuels, theuse of byproducts and integration with external industries could be achieved to improve their performanceand provide further use for byproducts and wastes. Methodology: A review of potential byproduct andutility exchanges between biofuel and external industries has been documented in this article through aliterature review and brainstorming workshop, and results have been classified based on their interactions.Results: It has been found that byproduct exchanges, especially those between biofuel industries, andexchanges between the biofuel industries and the food, feed, agriculture and energy industries, offer manypotential exchanges. Conclusion: The identified synergies offer possibilities for potential collaborationpartners in symbiotic exchanges with the biofuel industry.

  • 7.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The "Biogasification" of Linköping: A Large Technical Systems Perspective2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is synonymous with Linköping, as an increasing number of internationalvisitors are coming to the region to learn of the biogas system in place. Moreover, Linköpingis a world leader in the production, distribution and research on biogas. Since the 1990s,Linköping, Sweden has been developing a biogas system which is benchmarked worldwide.This system has grown rapidly, and has the potential to expand even further in Sweden andabroad. Many of the leading biogas development industrial actors originate and call Linköpingtheir home. Technologies from this region have thus begun to spread worldwide, as many ofthe benchmarking practices have concluded that the system could provide parallel benefits tocommunities abroad.The biogas system thus provides many examples of a budding large technical system.However, just as other large technical systems, there are obstacles to overcome and the biogassystem, which is relatively recent, has a long way to go before it is able to dominate themarket. Moreover, large technical systems as such owe a great deal to both the technical aswell as the social systems enabling their success. Nonetheless, the biogas system is thusanalyzed an up-and-coming large technical system with force to prevail and expand nationallyand globally.

  • 8.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using LCA to quantify the environmental performance of an industrial symbiosis network: Application in the Biofuels IndustryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally assumed that industrial symbiosis creates economic and environmental benefits for all firms involved, though few quantifications have been produced. The environmental performance of an industrial symbiosis network will be quantified using an approach from previous literature. Additionally, the benefits provided by exchanges have partitioned to firms taking part in the industrial symbiosis network, which may have implications for tax incentives, marketing, expansion and environmental awareness. The current industrial symbiosis network has been found to have benefits compared to reference scenarios produced. However, methodological choices, such as the choice of reference scenario and allocation methods may significantly influence the results of the environmental performance.

  • 9.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transport many critics have argued about the poor energy efficiency and environmental performance of the production industries. Optimism is thus set on the production of second generation biofuels, while first generation biofuels continue to dominate worldwide. Therefore it is interesting to consider how the environmental performance of first generation biofuel industries can be bettered. The field of industrial symbiosis offers many possibilities for potential improvements in the biofuel industry. It is shown in this research that integration between the respective biofuel industries is possible. This comes in the form of by-product synergies and utility synergies which can improve material and energy handling and environmental performance of the processes. Furthermore, the processes and products can gain increased environmental performance improvements by the adaption of a renewable energy system which will act as a utility provider for many industries in a symbiotic network. By-products may thereafter be upcycled through biogas production processes to generate both energy and a bio-fertilizer. A case study of an actual biofuel industrial symbiosis is also reviewed to provide support for these theories.

  • 10.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1747-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transport many critics have argued about the poor energyefficiency and environmental performance of the production industries. Optimism is thusset on the production of second generation biofuels, while first generation biofuelscontinue to dominate worldwide. Therefore it is interesting to consider how the environmentalperformance of first generation biofuel industries can be improved. The field ofindustrial symbiosis offers many possibilities for potential improvements in the biofuelindustry and theories from this research field are used in this paper to highlight howenvironmental performance improvements can be accomplished. This comes in the formof by-product synergies and utility synergies which can improve material and energyhandling. Furthermore, the processes and products can gain increased environmentalperformance improvements by the adaption of a renewable energy system which will actas a utility provider for many industries in a symbiotic network. By-products may thereafterbe upcycled through biogas production processes to generate both energy and a biofertilizer. A case study of an actual biofuel industrial symbiosis is also reviewed to providesupport for these theories.

  • 11.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Biofuel Synergies2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Often biofuels are criticized in the media for their low production energy efficiency, environmental impacts and by using food for fuel production. An answer most critics rely on is stating how 2nd generation biofuels will solve all the problems the first generation biofuels possess. However, 1st generation biofuels must “pave the way” for 2nd generation biofuels. They can do this by providing the infrastructure, technology and knowledge provided by the fuels.

    In order to increase the efficiency of 1st generation biofuels, the theories of industrial symbiosis can be applied. Industrial symbiosis theories are designed to integrate production systems and other industries to improve energy efficiency and environmental performance. By integrating biofuel production systems, the by-products of biofuels can be used in subsequent processes. By making use of by-products, excess heat, etc. the energy efficiency can be improved and allow for more benefits including economic and environmental performance.

    Industrial symbiosis literature includes many examples of how industries can benefit from one another but does not include much literature on the integration of biofuels. Synergies do however exist as there are many by-products which are highly prized in other industries, e.g. glycerol and DDGS. The biofuels themselves can even be used in subsequent processes.

    The aim of producing this literature study is to find relevant biofuel synergies1 within various fields from scientific literature. By searching for keywords and combining these with keywords related to biofuel synergies we can review the extent and knowledge of synergies between external industries with biofuels, between biofuel industries and the use of their byproducts throughout various research fields.

    The main research questions to be answered are:

    • What do other research fields use biofuel by-products for?
    • What are the current trends for the use of biofuels and their by-products?
    • What substrates/by-products/wastes from other industries can be used for biofuel production?
    • Which synergies exist in the literature beyond those presented in other phases of the research project?
    • What are some potential uses for biofuels, their by-products and industrial wastes and utilities to integrate in symbiosis?
  • 12.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    University of Arizona, USA.
    An Inventory and Analysis of Synergies in the Biofuel Industry2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As biofuels are becoming a part of national renewable energy goals, a great deal optimism is placed on second generation biofuels to overcome the criticism of first generation biofuels. However, optimization of first generation biofuels through process integration and the exchange of by-products and energy can give many environmental and economic benefits. Synergies have therefore been identified which can incorporate biofuel industries and offer integration with external industries. An inventory of synergies between biofuel and external industries has been provided by the synthesis of two methods, a synergies development workshop and literature review. The compilation includes 148 synergies, with each synergy categorized based on its interaction with biofuel and external industries and additionally the specific industry each synergy is destined. A large number of synergies consist of integrated biofuel synergies, though many synergies exist with external industries including  the food industry, energy and fuel industry, municipalities, algae production and agricultural industry. Synergies developed for this article are primarily by-product related synergies for handling major by-products and wastes from the biofuel and external industries for subsequent processing and further biofuel production.

  • 13.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biofuel Synergy Development: Classification and Identification of Synergies Using Industrial Symbiosis2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many critics argue that biofuel production worldwide account for huge losses in energy and materials. Moreover, a large portion of studies around biofuel production are concentrated on stand-alone plants, particularly ethanol production. However, by including by-products and making use of excess energy and material streams, industrial symbiosis methods can be applied to biofuel industries to improve both environmental and economical performance. The following report outlines an approach to apply industrial symbiosis to several biofuel industry actors through synergy development. Synergies were produced during a brainstorming session in order to bring forward innovative and technically feasible ideas toward partnership. From those synergies developed, the report outlines a method to classify synergies and cooperation between biofuel and external industries in order to ease implementation and understanding of possible symbiosis options for industry and academia.

  • 14.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies:: Application in the Biofuels Industry2009In: Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-Industrial Parks, Aalborg: GIN 2009 , 2009, p. 2394-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transportation, i.e. biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, a vast range of unique resource flows, surpluses and by-products exist in each respective process. The current research project aims to find synergies, demands and surplus material and energy flows which will thereafter be applied to the biofuel industry and external industries in a collaborative effort to increase energy efficiencies and environmental performance through the use of synergies and industrial symbiosis. This is being conducted in order to determine conditions for implementation, why some processes and synergies exist, how the processes can be made better and to identify new material flows between industries.

    During an investigation of synergies apparent in the regional biofuel industries, many synergies were discussed during a brainstorming session with industrial actors and researchers. These synergies were recorded and classified in terms of their interaction with other biofuel and external industries. Using the theories of industrial symbiosis, a classification method was developed based upon these interactions as well as the origin and destination of their resources. Previous terms from the theories of synergies research were used as background material. Thereafter symbols and classifications were based on the interactions of the synergy, i.e. between biofuel industries and external synergies. Furthermore the origins/destinations were also classified as either a product/process or as a utility but with expanded and refined boundaries.

    Example: 2UP (A synergy of Class 2, i.e. biofuel to external industry synergy, which originates as a utility and is destined as a product/process for the external industry.)

    Thus far the project has produced a classification scheme for biofuel synergy projects and research. Using the classification method, synergies produced at future brainstorming sessions and discussions with industry will alleviate the reproduction, recording and organization of synergies for upcoming interaction with biofuel industries worldwide.

  • 15.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mwakaje, Agnes G
    University Dar Es Salaam.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biofuel development initiatives in Tanzania: development activities, scales of production and conditions for implementation and utilization2009In: JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 17, no Sp. Iss. SI Suppl. 1, p. S69-S76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years biofuel activities have increased dramatically in Africa. Simultaneously biofuels have become popular for fuel alternatives and criticism in the media. Nonetheless biofuel initiatives are taking place on different scales. A depiction of several of these activities has been produced through descriptions and categorization based on scale, distribution and implementation. These initiatives exist due to a complex interaction of social and technical factors which have influenced their success for being introduced, and continues to influence the scale on which they exist and what will happen to them in the future. Conditions for implementation are furthermore explored regarding legislation, use of biofuels, environmental sustainability and the production of a new energy system in Tanzania.

  • 16.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parsapour, Amin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Upcycling wastes with biogas production:: An exergy and economic analysis2012In: Venice 2012: International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The massive consumption of finite resources creates high economical and environmental costs due to material dispersion and waste generation. In order to overcome this, by-products and wastes may be used, to avoid the use of virgin materials and benefit from the useful inherent energy of the material. By adding value to the material, economic and environmental performance can be improve, which is called upcycling. In this paper, an exergy and economic analysis of a biogas process is examined. In order to investigate if biogas production from wastes can upcycle materials, biogas production from a by-product from the brewing process is examined. From the analysis, the process is found to upcycle the by-product with an increase in exergy and economic benefit due to the generation of biomethane and biofertilizer. This analysis thus shows that by using by-products as such, the sustainability of the system may improve.

  • 17.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who gets the benefits? An approach for assessing the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis networks are generally assumed to provide economic and environmental benefits for all firms involved, though few quantifications have been produced in the literature, and the methods for these quantifications have varied. This paper provides an approach to quantify the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis networks using guidance from the literature of life cycle assessment. Additionally, an approach to distribute credits due to exchanges for firms in the industrial symbiosis network is outlined. From the approach, influential methodological considerations used for the quantifications are discussed, including e.g. the production of reference systems, allocation methods, system boundaries and functional unit. The implications of such an approach may be beneficial for the industrial symbiosis community and provide information crucial for taxes, subsidies, business relations, expansion possibilities for the network, marketing and other issues related to the environmental performance of firms in the industrial symbiosis network.

  • 18.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production:: Quantifying Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about many issues, including the energy output versus input and the competition with food, has been raised andthe sustainability of biofuels in recent years has been constantly debated. However, the current biofuel systems may be optimized to increase the energy efficiency and environmentalperformance. By using concepts from industrial symbiosis, the material and energy exchangesmay be optimized to result in these performance improvements. This paper offers aquantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuelindustry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach.Results show that although increasing integration between the biogas and ethanol plants isassumed to produce environmental benefits, not all impact categories have achieved this andthe results depend upon the allocation methods chosen. Thus the increasing integration alsobrings about increased complexity for the system.

  • 20.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantifying the environmental performance of integrated bioethanol and biogas production2014In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 6, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels have the possibility to be optimized in order to improve the environmental performance. This could be accomplished through the use of concepts from industrial symbiosis. This paper provides a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods, energy system and assumptions chosen.

  • 21.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who gets the benefits?: An approach for assessing the environmentalperformance of industrial symbiosis2012In: Greening of Industry Network: Support your future today! Turning environmental challenges into business opportunities, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally assumed that industrial symbiosis creates economic and environmental benefits for all firmsinvolved, though only a few quantifications have been produced in the literature. An approach to quantifyenvironmental performance of industrial symbiosis using life cycle assessment has been provided,outlining the choice of functional unit, system boundaries, impact assessment and allocation as well as thedistribution of benefits among firms in the symbiotic activity. The implications of such an approach maybe beneficial for the industrial symbiosis and life cycle assessment communities and provide informationcrucial for taxes, subsidies, business relations, marketing and other issues related to the environmentalperformance of firms in the industrial symbiosis network.

1 - 21 of 21
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