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  • 1.
    Bajpai, O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differential six-port modulator in 2011 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, WCSP 2011, vol , issue , pp2011In: 2011 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, WCSP 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A differential six-port modulator for the 7-8 GHz band is reported for the first time. It is composed of a differential six-port correlator with cold-mode field effect transistors used as impedance terminations, controlled via baseband signal on the gate to source terminal. It is fabricated using double-sided parallel-strip lines. The differential modulator has the advantage of low power consumption, compactness and high signal to noise ratio. A prototype has been fabricated and data transmission with 256-quadrature amplitude modulation at 50 Msymbol/s is demonstrated. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 2.
    Gong, Shaofang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design2010In: IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methodology for truly differential RF and microwave front-ends has been presented in this paper. Baluns are avoided using this design methodology, while achieving differential signaling for high noise immunity. A case study on an ultra-wide band RF front-end in the frequency band 6-9 GHz has been performed using the new design methodology, indicating that both wide bandwidth and high performance can be achieved using this design methodology. A direct comparison between single-ended and differential designs of the RF filter has also been presented in order to verify the correctness of the design methodology.

  • 3.
    Gong, Shaofang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haartsen, Jaap
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Radio Architecture for Parallel Processing of Extremely High Speed Data2009In: IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, ICUWB, Vancouver, Canada, 9-11 Sept., IEEE , 2009, p. 433-437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using our own-developed frequency multiplexing network, a radio architecture for parallel radio signal processing has been proposed for achieving extremely high data rate above 10 Gbit/s. To meet the high requirement on phase linearity, amplitude balance and low noise figure in a very large bandwidth, our own-developed ultra-wideband six-port correlator has been utilized for the modulator and demodulator in the radio architecture.

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Jobs, Magnus
    Uppsala University.
    Gruden, Mathias
    Uppsala University.
    Dipole Antenna With Integrated Balun For Ultra-wideband Radio 6-9 GHz2011In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 180-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fully integrated dipole antenna with a balun fot ulna wideband (UWB) radio in the band 6-9 GHz utilizing a flexible and rigid printed count board is presented in this at tide The balun utilizes broadside coupled microstrips and is integrated in the rigid part of the printed coma boat d whereas the radiator is placed in the flexible pat! The antenna with the balun covets the frequency band 6 0-8 5 GHz at voltage standing mate ratio (VSWR) andlt;2 0 and 55-110 GHz at VSWR andlt; 2 5 Moreover simulated and measured radiation patterns and antenna efficiency above 860% are observed

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frequency Triplexer for Ultra-Wideband Systems (6–9 GHz)2013In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part 1: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, E-ISSN 1558-0806, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 540-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A triplexer for ultra-wideband radio implemented entirely with distributed microstrips is presented. The triplexer is composed of a triplex junction network and three bandpass filters. The circuit is integrated in a flex-rigid printed circuit board. Three flat 1 GHz sub-bands in the frequency band 6-9 GHz have been achieved. The group delay variation within each 1 GHz sub-band was measured to be less than 0.4 ns. A good agreement between simulation and measurement was obtained, e.g., less than 0.3 dB difference in the forward transmission in the majority of the frequency band.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Circular Dipole Antennas for Lower and Upper UWB Bands with Integrated Balun2009In: 2009 IEEEInternational Conference on Ultra-Wideband: Proceedings, 9th to 11th September 2009, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Vancover: IEEE , 2009, p. 658-663Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Two fully integrated dipole antennas with balun for ultra-wideband (UWB) radio utilizing a flexible and rigid printed circuit board are presented in this paper. The concept in this paper is to take advantage of the respective possibilities of the rigid and the flexible part. The balun utilizes broadside-coupled microstrips and is integrated in the rigid part of the printed circuit board, while the radiator is placed in the flexible part. The lower UWB band antenna with the balun covers the frequency-band 3.1-4.8 GHz (with margin) at VSWR<2.0. The upper UWB band antenna with the balun covers the frequency-band 6.0-8.5 GHz (with margin) at VSWR<2.0, and 5.5-11.0 GHz at VSWR<2.5.

  • 7.
    Owais, Owais
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differential Six-Port Demodulator2011In: Proceedings on International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A differential six-port demodulator for the 7-8 GHz band is reported for the first time. It is composed of a differential six-port correlator on the two sides of the substrate and zero-bias antiparallel Schottky diodes acting as power detectors. It is theoretically analyzed and also simulated. A prototype has been fabricated and data transmission at 0.8 Gbit/s (but not the maximum) with the 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is experimentally demonstrated.

  • 8.
    Owais, Owais
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differential Six-Port Demodulator2011In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 2192-2197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A differential six-port demodulator for the 7-8 GHz band is reported for the first time. It is composed of a differential six-port correlator on the two sides of the substrate and zero-bias antiparallel Schottky diodes acting as power detectors. It is theoretically analyzed and also simulated. A prototype has been fabricated and data transmission at 0.8 Gbit/s (but not the maximum) with the 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is experimentally demonstrated.

  • 9.
    Owais, Owais
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differential Six-Port TransceiverManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A differential six-port transceiver for the 7-8 GHz band is presented for the rst time. It is fabricated using double-sided parallel-strip lines. The transmitter is composed of a differential six-port correlator with a quarter wavelength arrangement for carrier suppression. Cold-mode field effect transistors are used as impedance terminations, controlled via baseband signals on the gate to source terminal. The receiver is comprised of a differential six-port correlator and diode detectors. The diodes on the front-side and the back-side are connected in antiparallel, resulting in a differential input and differential output six-port receiver. The main features of the transceiver are low complexity, low power consumption, and high data rate. Data transmission and reception with the transceiver is demonstrated with quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) with 100 and 200 M symbol / s , respectively.

  • 10.
    Serban, Adriana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, .
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differential Circuit Technique for Six-Port Modulator and Demodulator2012In: Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), 2012 IEEE MTT-S International, IEEE , 2012, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Targeting the differential RF/microwave circuit design methodology for improved broadband wireless data transmission, a novel differential 7.5 GHz six-port modulator and demodulator pair was designed and manufactured. Measurements show a good 256-QAM modulated signal at 50 Msymbol/s and an accurately 16-QAM demodulated signal at 200 Msymbol/s.

  • 11.
    Serban, Adriana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haartsen, Jaap
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Six-Port Direct Carrier Modulator at 7.5 GHz2010In: Proceedings of GigaHertz 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Serban, Adriana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haartsen, Jaap
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Six-Port Direct Carrier Modulator at 7.5 GHz for Ultra-Wideband  AppliationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A 7.5 GHz direct-carrier modulator for multi-level quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) using a wideband 7-8 GHz six-port correlator and four controllable impedance terminations implemented with field-effect transistors (FET) is presented in this paper. The proposed encoding schemes of the reflection-type modulator is based on equal impedance values at I and Q ports, such that Γ3 = Γ4 and Γ5 = Γ6 for every symbol in the constellation diagram. The field-effect transistors are operated at zero drain-source voltage (cold-FET). The FET-impedance termination topology includes a source resistor (RS) and a gate resistor (RG) for symmetrical spreading of the reflection coefficients around the origin. In order to validate the 7.5 GHz six-port modulator with cold-FET impedance terminations, the six-port modulator prototype has been realized on a ROGERS4350B substrate of 0.254-mm thickness and tested with a six-port demodulator (receiver). The six-port modulator was measure to have symbol rates of 10 Msymbol/s with QPSK (= 20 Mbit/s) and 250 Msymbol/s with 16-QAM (= 1 Gbit/s).

  • 13.
    Serban, Adriana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haartsen, Jaap
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Six-port transceiver for 6-9 GHz ultrawideband systems2010In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 740-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultrawideband 6-9 GHz six-port correlator is designed and manufactured.Based on this six-port correlator, behavioral models, and true component circuit designs of a transceiver are developed to study the performance of the proposed direct conversion ultrawideband transceiver topology. A new six-port modulator with controllable impedance terminations implemented with a field effect transistor in the linear operation region is presented

  • 14.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Six-Port Modulators and Demodulators for High-Speed Data Communications2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for high-speed wireless data communications to support consumers’ need for, among other things, real time streaming of high definition video and fast file transfers. One radio architecture that has a potential to meet the increasing demand for high-speed data communications is a radio technique based on the six-port architecture. In addition to high-speed, the six-port radio also allows low power consumption and low cost. In this thesis, a comprehensive study of the six-port radio technique for high data rate (> 1 Gbit/s) and low complexity are presented.

    Firstly, a technique to suppress the carrier leakage was proposed, analyzed and verified by measurements. The proposed technique uses only a phase shifting network between the six-port correlator and its variable impedance loads, hence it is easy to implement. When the proposed carrier leakage suppression technique is used together with differential control signals, it also has the benefit of both improving the linearity and increasing the output power of the modulator. The same carrier leakage suppression technique can also be used in a six-port demodulator (receiver) to improve its performance.

    Secondly, Schottky diodes were proposed to be used as high-speed variable impedance loads. A six-port modulator operating at 7.5 GHz, using the carrier leakage suppression technique together with Schottky diodes as variable impedance loads, was manufactured. Measurements on a 16 quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signal with a symbol rate of 300 Msymbol/s, i.e., a data rate of 1.2 Gbit/s, have proved high-speed operation, good modulation properties as well as carrier leakage suppression.

    Thirdly, a six-port demodulator was built for high data rate applications and measurements were conducted to characterize its performance. Demodulation of a 16-QAM signal at a data rate of 1.67 Gbit/s results in an acceptable bit error rate and error vector magnitude (EVM) performance.

    Last but not least, new diode configurations were proposed, analyzed and verified for use in six-port demodulators. Using the proposed diode configurations, the use of differential amplifiers, as commonly used in a six-port demodulator, can be avoided. Avoiding the use of differential amplifiers allows high-speed processing and at the same time reduces the power consumption and implementation complexity. In the context of the new diode configurations, it was shown that a six-port receiver has better EVM vs frequency performance and lower implementation complexity, compared to a five-port or four-port receiver.

    List of papers
    1. Direct Carrier Six-Port Modulator Using a Technique to Suppress Carrier Leakage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct Carrier Six-Port Modulator Using a Technique to Suppress Carrier Leakage
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 741-747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a direct carrier six-port modulator. To allow arbitrary load impedances to be used and for suppression of carrier leakage, a new circuit architecture with a technique to suppress carrier leakage is proposed and implemented. A theoretical model of the proposed modulator is derived. A prototype modulator utilizing diodes for impedance generation is designed and fabricated for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz for verification of the proposed technique. Measurements show good modulation properties when a 16 quadrature amplitude modulation signal at 100 Msymbol/s is generated, as well as good carrier leakage suppression.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics, 2011
    Keywords
    Carrier leakage suppression, direct carrier modulator, six-port correlator
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67308 (URN)10.1109/TMTT.2011.2104972 (DOI)000288460500026 ()
    Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-08 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Carrier Leakage Suppression and EVM Dependence on Phase Shifting Network in Six-Port Modulator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrier Leakage Suppression and EVM Dependence on Phase Shifting Network in Six-Port Modulator
    2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In six-port modulators a phase shifting network on specific ports can be used to suppress the carrier leakage that may be present if this network is not present. A model is derived to predict the carrier leakage suppression and error vector magnitude (EVM) as a function of the phase shifting network Sparameters. Both carrier leakage suppression and EVM can be expressed by the same error function. The error function can be used to find the allowed amplitude and phase mismatch in the phase shifting network, or to optimize the performance of a phase shifting network over a given frequency range. A broadband phase shifting network, based on a loaded transmission line, is designed and optimized to operate at a relative bandwidth of 60% for an EVM < 10%. This should be compared to a phase shifting network based on a single transmission line with a corresponding bandwidth of only 12%. The broadband phase shifting network is useful for six-port modulators with carrier leakage suppression, targeting UWB applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2012
    Keywords
    Six-Port Modulator, Carrier Leakage, EVM, Broadband
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77194 (URN)10.1109/ICMMT.2012.6230247 (DOI)978-1-4673-2184-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology ICMMT, May 5-8, Shenzhen, China
    Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Schottky diode as high-speed variable impedance load in six-port modulators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Schottky diode as high-speed variable impedance load in six-port modulators
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: ICUWB 2011: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2011, p. 68-71Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Schottky diodes as high-speed variable impedance loads in six-port modulators are proposed and analyzed in this paper. The impedance dependency of diode parameters and local oscillator power are investigated by theoretical analysis and simulations. A prototype for a direct carrier six-port modulator using Schottky diodes for impedance generation is designed and fabricated for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz. Measurements show good modulation properties when a 16 quadrature amplitude modulation signal at 300 Msymbol/s is generated, i.e., at a data rate of 1.2 Gbit/s, validating the use of Schottky diodes as high-speed variable impedance loads in six-port modulators.

    Series
    IEEE International Conference on Ultra- Wideband (ICUWB), ISSN 2162-6588 ; 2011
    Keywords
    Schottky diodes, electric impedance measurement, modulators, oscillators, quadrature amplitude modulation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77196 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2011.6058924 (DOI)978-1-4577-1762-8 (ISBN)978-1-4577-1763-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB),14-16 September, 2011, Bologna, Spain
    Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Six-Port Gigabit Demodulator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Six-Port Gigabit Demodulator
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents measurement results for a six-port-based demodulator designed for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz and with a bandwidth of 1 GHz for operation in the ultra-wideband band. The demodulator includes the six-port correlator, diodes, and amplifiers needed to recover the baseband data. Measurement results show that the prototype supports data rates at 1.7 Gbit/s with bit-error rate 5 . 10(-5) if a two-tap linear equalizer is used and bit-error rate 4 . 10(-3) if only threshold detection is used. The measured performance of the used six-port correlator including the amplifiers is presented and their influence on the overall system performance is discussed. Limitations in the present system and possible improvements are also considered.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics, 2011
    Keywords
    Demodulator, six-port correlator
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66297 (URN)10.1109/TMTT.2010.2091198 (DOI)000286109400015 ()
    Available from: 2011-03-11 Created: 2011-03-11 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Diode Configurations in Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diode Configurations in Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE International Conferenceon Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB2010): Proceedings – Volume 1, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents two new diode configurations for use with six-port based demodulators. The first proposed diode configuration allows a simplified diode to filter/amplifier interface. The second configuration allows for full-wave rectification and suppression of odd-order harmonics. A demodulator prototype utilizing the new diode concept is designed for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz and with a bandwidth of 1 GHz for verification. The demodulator includes the six-port correlator, diodes and amplifiers needed to recover the baseband data.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE, 2010
    Keywords
    amplifiers, demodulators, diodes, radio receivers
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77198 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2010.5615597 (DOI)978-1-4244-5306-1 (ISBN)978-1-4244-5305-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB),20-23 September, 2010, Nanjing, China
    Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Performance Evaluation of Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation of Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter
    Show others...
    2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In six-port modulators a phase shifting network on specific ports can be used to suppress the carrier leakage that may be present if this network is not present. A model is derived to predict the carrier leakage suppression and error vector magnitude (EVM) as a function of the phase shifting network Sparameters. Both carrier leakage suppression and EVM can be expressed by the same error function. The error function can be used to find the allowed amplitude and phase mismatch in the phase shifting network, or to optimize the performance of a phase shifting network over a given frequency range. A broadband phase shifting network, based on a loaded transmission line, is designed and optimized to operate at a relative bandwidth of 60% for an EVM < 10%. This should be compared to a phase shifting network based on a single transmission line with a corresponding bandwidth of only 12%. The broadband phase shifting network is useful for six-port modulators with carrier leakage suppression, targeting UWB applications.

    Keywords
    Six-Port Modulator, Carrier Leakage, EVM, Broadband
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77200 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2011.6058824 (DOI)978-1-4577-1762-8 (ISBN)978-1-4577-1763-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 14-16 September 2011, Bologna, Spain
    Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    7. Data and Carrier Interleaving in Six-Port Receivers for Increased Data Rate
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data and Carrier Interleaving in Six-Port Receivers for Increased Data Rate
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE International Conferenceon Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB2010: Proceedings - Volume 1, 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes how antenna polarization can be utilized to increase the maximum data rate in a multiple six-port receiver system. By utilizing data and carrier interleaving, the total information bandwidth increases and therefore the maximum data rate. Prototype antennas were manufactured and the measured results were later used in a simulation model with three channels for verification of the concept.

    Keywords
    Antennas, electromagnetic wave polarisation, radio receivers
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77201 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2010.5614449 (DOI)978-1-4244-5306-1 (ISBN)978-1-4244-5305-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 20-23 September, Nanjing, China
    Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    8. Baseband complexity comparison of six-, five-, and four-port receivers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Baseband complexity comparison of six-, five-, and four-port receivers
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1502-1506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The use of six-port correlators to implement six-port receivers has been intensively studied. The six-port receiver can also be modified to a five-port or a four-port receiver. However, the six-, five-, or four-port receiver solution requires different baseband processing to recover the baseband In-phase (I) and Quadrature-phase (Q) data. A unified mathematical model for the six-, five- and four-port receivers is presented in this article. Possible solutions to recover the baseband data are discussed and compared. The investigation shows that the six-port receiver has advantages over the five- and four-port receivers in terms of complexity when analog baseband processing is used. Simulations are conducted to verify the model and to estimate the error vector magnitude versus frequency; the simulation also shows that the six-port receiver operates over a wider bandwidth than the five- or four-port receiver.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
    Keywords
    six-port receiver, five-port receiver, four-port receiver, baseband complexity
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76606 (URN)10.1002/mop.26833 (DOI)000301715800045 ()
    Available from: 2012-04-13 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2019-06-17
    9. LO Leakage in Six-Port Modulators and Demodulators and its Suppression Techniques
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>LO Leakage in Six-Port Modulators and Demodulators and its Suppression Techniques
    2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a six-port demodulator utilizing diodes for power detection, impedance mismatch at the interface between the six-port correlator and diodes generates unwanted local oscillator (LO) leakage to the radio frequency (RF) port. A six-port modulator that uses variable reflection coefficients at specific ports to generate a modulated RF may also suffer from LO leakage if there is a static part in the reflection coefficient. It is known that LO leakage to the RF port not only generates unwanted emission of the LO signal, but also degrades the receiver system performance due to a dynamic dc offset and second-order non-linearity at the detected baseband signal. How this LO leakage appears to the RF port in six-port demodulators and modulators are analyzed. Two different approaches to suppress the LO leakage is then discussed: a) diode impedance matching and b) introduction of a λ/4 line on specific ports. The performance when λ/4 lines are used on specific ports is verified by measurement for both a demodulator and a modulator. The measurement shows high suppression of the LO leakage.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2012
    Keywords
    Six-Port Correlator, Six-Port Receiver, LO Leakage, LO Suppression
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77207 (URN)10.1109/MWSYM.2012.6258402 (DOI)978-1-4673-1086-4 (ISBN)978-1-4673-1085-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    International Microwave Symposium, June 17-22, Montréal, Canada
    Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baseband complexity comparison of six-, five-, and four-port receivers2012In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1502-1506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of six-port correlators to implement six-port receivers has been intensively studied. The six-port receiver can also be modified to a five-port or a four-port receiver. However, the six-, five-, or four-port receiver solution requires different baseband processing to recover the baseband In-phase (I) and Quadrature-phase (Q) data. A unified mathematical model for the six-, five- and four-port receivers is presented in this article. Possible solutions to recover the baseband data are discussed and compared. The investigation shows that the six-port receiver has advantages over the five- and four-port receivers in terms of complexity when analog baseband processing is used. Simulations are conducted to verify the model and to estimate the error vector magnitude versus frequency; the simulation also shows that the six-port receiver operates over a wider bandwidth than the five- or four-port receiver.

  • 16.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparative Study of Single-Ended vs. Differential Six-Port Modulators for Wireless Communications2015In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part 1: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, E-ISSN 1558-0806, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 564-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If present, nonlinear effects in a six-port modulator cause distortion and degradation of the quality of the modulated output waveform. How nonlinear effects occur and their impact on system performance were derived in a mathematical model. The model shows that non-ideal performance of the passive six-port correlator is the main contributor to nonlinear distortion. Simulations and measurements on two manufactured six-port modulators were used to validate the theory and to give deeper insight on system performance. It is shown that by using a differentially signaled six-port modulator instead of a single-ended six-port modulator, better performance is achieved over a wide bandwidth. For an error vector magnitude of less than 10%, the relative bandwidth was measured to 12% for the single-ended but 30% for the differentially signaled modulator

  • 17.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carrier Leakage Suppression and EVM Dependence on Phase Shifting Network in Six-Port Modulator2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In six-port modulators a phase shifting network on specific ports can be used to suppress the carrier leakage that may be present if this network is not present. A model is derived to predict the carrier leakage suppression and error vector magnitude (EVM) as a function of the phase shifting network Sparameters. Both carrier leakage suppression and EVM can be expressed by the same error function. The error function can be used to find the allowed amplitude and phase mismatch in the phase shifting network, or to optimize the performance of a phase shifting network over a given frequency range. A broadband phase shifting network, based on a loaded transmission line, is designed and optimized to operate at a relative bandwidth of 60% for an EVM < 10%. This should be compared to a phase shifting network based on a single transmission line with a corresponding bandwidth of only 12%. The broadband phase shifting network is useful for six-port modulators with carrier leakage suppression, targeting UWB applications.

  • 18.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    M-QAM Six-Port Modulator Using Only Binary Baseband Data, Electrical or Optical2013In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 2506-2513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new circuit architecture for a direct-carrier six-port modulator is proposed. The proposed architecture uses parallel binary-valued baseband signals to control binary-valued impedance loads for generation of rectangular M-QAM modulation. A theoretical model of the proposed modulator is also derived. A prototype modulator for 64 quadrature amplitude modulation is designed and fabricated for a center frequency of 2.5 GHz for verification of the proposed architecture. The measurements verify the theory and show that good performance can be obtained with the proposed architecture. The proposed modulator does not require any digital-to-analog converter and can operate with both electrical and optical control signals.

  • 19.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In six-port modulators a phase shifting network on specific ports can be used to suppress the carrier leakage that may be present if this network is not present. A model is derived to predict the carrier leakage suppression and error vector magnitude (EVM) as a function of the phase shifting network Sparameters. Both carrier leakage suppression and EVM can be expressed by the same error function. The error function can be used to find the allowed amplitude and phase mismatch in the phase shifting network, or to optimize the performance of a phase shifting network over a given frequency range. A broadband phase shifting network, based on a loaded transmission line, is designed and optimized to operate at a relative bandwidth of 60% for an EVM < 10%. This should be compared to a phase shifting network based on a single transmission line with a corresponding bandwidth of only 12%. The broadband phase shifting network is useful for six-port modulators with carrier leakage suppression, targeting UWB applications.

  • 20.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schottky diode as high-speed variable impedance load in six-port modulators2011In: ICUWB 2011: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2011, p. 68-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Schottky diodes as high-speed variable impedance loads in six-port modulators are proposed and analyzed in this paper. The impedance dependency of diode parameters and local oscillator power are investigated by theoretical analysis and simulations. A prototype for a direct carrier six-port modulator using Schottky diodes for impedance generation is designed and fabricated for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz. Measurements show good modulation properties when a 16 quadrature amplitude modulation signal at 300 Msymbol/s is generated, i.e., at a data rate of 1.2 Gbit/s, validating the use of Schottky diodes as high-speed variable impedance loads in six-port modulators.

  • 21.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communication AB.
    Direct Carrier Six-Port Modulator Using a Technique to Suppress Carrier Leakage2011In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 741-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a direct carrier six-port modulator. To allow arbitrary load impedances to be used and for suppression of carrier leakage, a new circuit architecture with a technique to suppress carrier leakage is proposed and implemented. A theoretical model of the proposed modulator is derived. A prototype modulator utilizing diodes for impedance generation is designed and fabricated for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz for verification of the proposed technique. Measurements show good modulation properties when a 16 quadrature amplitude modulation signal at 100 Msymbol/s is generated, as well as good carrier leakage suppression.

  • 22.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    LO Leakage in Six-Port Modulators and Demodulators and its Suppression Techniques2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a six-port demodulator utilizing diodes for power detection, impedance mismatch at the interface between the six-port correlator and diodes generates unwanted local oscillator (LO) leakage to the radio frequency (RF) port. A six-port modulator that uses variable reflection coefficients at specific ports to generate a modulated RF may also suffer from LO leakage if there is a static part in the reflection coefficient. It is known that LO leakage to the RF port not only generates unwanted emission of the LO signal, but also degrades the receiver system performance due to a dynamic dc offset and second-order non-linearity at the detected baseband signal. How this LO leakage appears to the RF port in six-port demodulators and modulators are analyzed. Two different approaches to suppress the LO leakage is then discussed: a) diode impedance matching and b) introduction of a λ/4 line on specific ports. The performance when λ/4 lines are used on specific ports is verified by measurement for both a demodulator and a modulator. The measurement shows high suppression of the LO leakage.

  • 23.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Data and Carrier Interleaving in Six-Port Receivers for Increased Data Rate2010In: 2010 IEEE International Conferenceon Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB2010: Proceedings - Volume 1, 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes how antenna polarization can be utilized to increase the maximum data rate in a multiple six-port receiver system. By utilizing data and carrier interleaving, the total information bandwidth increases and therefore the maximum data rate. Prototype antennas were manufactured and the measured results were later used in a simulation model with three channels for verification of the concept.

  • 24.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haartsen, Jaap
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Diode Configurations in Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter2010In: 2010 IEEE International Conferenceon Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB2010): Proceedings – Volume 1, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents two new diode configurations for use with six-port based demodulators. The first proposed diode configuration allows a simplified diode to filter/amplifier interface. The second configuration allows for full-wave rectification and suppression of odd-order harmonics. A demodulator prototype utilizing the new diode concept is designed for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz and with a bandwidth of 1 GHz for verification. The demodulator includes the six-port correlator, diodes and amplifiers needed to recover the baseband data.

  • 25.
    Östh, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haartsen, Jaap
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Commun AB.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Commun AB.
    Six-Port Gigabit Demodulator2011In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents measurement results for a six-port-based demodulator designed for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz and with a bandwidth of 1 GHz for operation in the ultra-wideband band. The demodulator includes the six-port correlator, diodes, and amplifiers needed to recover the baseband data. Measurement results show that the prototype supports data rates at 1.7 Gbit/s with bit-error rate 5 . 10(-5) if a two-tap linear equalizer is used and bit-error rate 4 . 10(-3) if only threshold detection is used. The measured performance of the used six-port correlator including the amplifiers is presented and their influence on the overall system performance is discussed. Limitations in the present system and possible improvements are also considered.

1 - 25 of 25
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