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  • 1.
    Axin, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dell'Amico, Alessandro
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Next Generation Simulation Software using Transmission Line Elements2010In: Fluid Power and Motion Control / [ed] Dr D N Johnston and Professor A R Plummer, Centre for Power Transmission and Motion Control , 2010, p. 265-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A suitable method for simulating large complex dynamic systems is represented by distributed modelling using transmission line elements. The method is applicable to all physical systems, such as mechanical, electrical and pneumatics, but is particularly well suited to simulate systems where wave propagation is an important issue, for instance hydraulic systems. By using this method, components can be numerically isolated from each other, which provide highly robust numerical properties. It also enables the use of multi-core architecture since a system model can be composed by distributed simulations of subsystems on different processor cores.

    Technologies based on transmission lines has successfully been implemented in the HOPSAN simulation package, develop at Linköping University. Currently, the next generation of HOPSAN is developed using an object-oriented approach. The work is focused on compatibility, execution speed and real-time simulation in order to facilitate hardware-in-the-loop applications. This paper presents the work progress and some possible features in the new version of the HOPSAN simulation package.

  • 2.
    Hugo, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heybroek, Kim
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modelling and Control of a Complementary Energy Recuperation System for Mobile Working Machines2013In: / [ed] Petter Krus, Magnus Sethson, Liselott Ericson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 21-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of hybrid technologies for mobile working machines has gained increased attention in recent years. This paper deals with a parallel hybrid system for energy recuperation based on a two-machine hydraulic transformer. The system can be connected hydraulically to an existing hydraulic circuit as a complementary add-on system. The linear analysis of the system visualises the control difficulties coming from a low inertia, slow control dynamics of the machines and the non-linear stick-slip friction during low speeds. A control strategy based on linear control methods is proposed and evaluated in a hardware test bench. It is shown that an acceptable performance can be achieved even with fairly simple models. Additionally, a start-up procedure is proposed to start the transformer from zero speed

  • 3.
    Larsson, L. Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ericson, Liselott
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uebel (Pettersson), Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Low-Level Control of Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions for Heavy Mobile Working Machines2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 1683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel efficiency has become an increasingly important property of heavy mobile working machines. As a result, Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions (HMTs) are often considered for the propulsion of these vehicles. The introduction of hybrid HMTs does, however, come with a number of control-related challenges. To date, a great focus in the literature has been on high-level control aspects, concerning optimal utilization of the energy storage medium. In contrast, the main topic of this article is low-level control, with the focus on dynamic response and the ability to realize requested power flows accurately. A static decoupled Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control strategy, based on a linear model of a general hybrid HMT, is proposed. The strategy is compared to a baseline approach in Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulations of a reference wheel loader for two drive cycles. It was found that an important benefit of the decoupled control approach is that the static error caused by the system’s cross-couplings is minimized without introducing integrating elements. This feature, combined with the strategy’s general nature, motivates its use for multiple-mode transmissions in which the transmission configuration changes between the modes. 

  • 4.
    Larsson, L. Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions2015In: ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, ASME Press, 2015, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for low cost sustainable solutions have increased the use of and interest in complex hydromechanical transmissions for heavy off-road vehicles. In transmissions with multiplemodes, an important condition is to maintain the tractive force during the mode shifting event. For hybrid hydromechanical transmissions, with a direct connection to a hydraulic accumulator, the impressed system pressure caused by the hydraulic accumulator has not yet been observed to interfere with this condition. In this paper, a black box model approach is used to modify the hydraulic system after obtaining knowledge regarding how it is affected by a mode shift. A comparative study is carried out where a full vehicle model of a mobile working machine is simulated with two different hydraulic systems. The results show that different system solutions imply different demands on the included components, and that the mode shifting event is not a negligible factor in heavy hydraulic hybrid vehicles.

  • 5.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design Automation of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis proposes an automated methodology for the design of complex multiple-mode hydromechanical transmissions. High fuel prices and strict emission regulations are today drivers of the development of new fuel-efficient drive transmissions for construction machinery. Hydromechanical transmissions have high energy efficiency and a wide torque/speed conversion range. They are today strong candidates to replace the fuel-thirsty torque converters conventionally used in heavy construction machines. The trend towards more complex transmission architectures increases the need for more sophisticated product development methods. Complex multiple-mode transmissions are difficult to design and prototype and can be realised in a great number of different architectures. This increases the need for reliable concept evaluation in early design stages. The design of the transmission is also strongly coupled to its energy consumption and for a fair comparison  between transmission concepts optimal designs are necessary.

    Design automation and optimisation with detailed simulation models can support the industrial engineer in the design task and increase the available knowledge early in the design process. The proposed methodology uses simulation-based optimisation to design the transmission for a specific vehicle application. Various aspects of the transmission’s characteristics may be targeted, although energy efficiency is in great focus in this work. To evaluate the energy efficiency, the transmission designs are simulated using backward-facing simulations with detailed power loss models. The methodology is applicable for designing the drive transmissions of construction machines and other mobile working vehicles such as agricultural machines, forest machines and mobile mining equipment.

    List of papers
    1. Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
    2013 (English)In: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, E-ISSN 1528-9001, Vol. 135, no 9, p. 091005-1-091005-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for higher fuel efficiency for off-highway applications motivate manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Increased intelligence and more advanced architectures are, however, more difficult to design and prototype. This leads to longer product development processes and a greater need for early product evaluation. The great variety of existing concepts also requires a methodology to support the choice of architecture. This paper proposes a design methodology for complex hydromechanical transmissions based on optimization. The main objective is to maximize energy efficiency and adapt the design to suit the typical operating behavior of the application. The methodology is also implemented on a multiple mode transmission concept sui for a heavy wheel loader application. It is shown that the design of the gearbox heavily influences the energy consumption and the necessity to use optimization when designing the gearbox.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME Press, 2013
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99379 (URN)10.1115/1.4024732 (DOI)000326172400006 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Optimisation and Concept Sensitivity of Continuously Variable Hydromechanical Transmissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimisation and Concept Sensitivity of Continuously Variable Hydromechanical Transmissions
    2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for better fuel efficiency for mobile working machines motivate the manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Hydromechanical power-split transmissions can offer high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and allows a decoupling of the speed of the combustion engine and the vehicle speed. This paper deals with the design of complex hydromechanical power-split transmissions and suggests an optimisation-based design methodology to minimise the energy consumption and manufacturing cost of the gearbox. The methodology is applied to a multiple mode power-split transmission which is designed to suit the requirements and typical operating behaviour of a heavy wheel loader. It is shown how important the design of the transmission is to its characteristics and how manufacturing costs can be weighed against energy efficiency.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99380 (URN)
    Conference
    8th International Conference on Fluid Power Trans- mission and Control, April 9-11, Hangzhou, China
    Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
    3. Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power,(SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 113-119Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates an optimisation-based method to design modular gearboxes scalable for a range of applications. The design is adapted to the typical operating behaviours of the reference vehicles and considers the manufacturing costs of the gearboxes. Hydromechanical continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are today strong candidates to replace drive line transmissions based on fuel-thirsty torque converters in many mobile working machines. The advantages include wide range of torque/speed ratios, high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and decoupling of the engine speed and the vehicle speed. Advanced multiple mode CVTs, however, are difficult to evaluate early in the product development process due to the complex architectures and the great variety of possible concepts. There is consequently an increased need for methods to design, compare and evaluate the transmission concepts. To decrease the development and manufacturing costs, there is also a need for scalable transmission concepts that can be used in several applications of different classes. The results show the proficiency of the methodology compared to a manual design process and that the energy efficiency of the transmissions are heavy coupled to the designs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
    Series
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 92
    Keywords
    Hydromechanical transmissions, Power-split, Design optimisation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99381 (URN)10.3384/ecp1392a12 (DOI)978-91-7519-572-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, (SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimering av komplexa hydraulmekaniskatransmissioner för hjullastare2012In: Hydraulikdagarna 2012, Linköping, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har utvecklingen av nya energieffektivare transmissioner för tunga fordon tagit fart. Krav på mindreutsläpp och lägre bränsleförbrukning driver utvecklingen av nya komplexa drivlinor samt olika typer av hybridisering. Enlovande lösning för hjullastare är den så kallade power-split tekniken, där en hydrostatisk transmission används parallelltmed en mekanisk drivning. En väldesignad power-split transmission kan utnyttja det bästa från båda världar samt ge utökademöjligheter till en mer effektiv styrning av förbränningsmotorn. Genom att utnyttja flera moder (växlingssteg) kan växellådananpassas för tyngre fordon, samt minska energiförbrukningen eftersom högre andel effekt kan överföras mekaniskt. Flermoder öppnar upp fler frihetsgrader för hur transmissionen designas. Med hjälp av optimering kan denna process automatiserasför att på bästa sätt anpassas till lastfallet för hjullastaren. Artikeln presenterar en metod för optimal design av ettkomplext hydraulmekaniskt power-split koncept med energieffektivitet som utgångspunkt.

  • 7.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Secondary control in construction machinery: Design and evaluation of an excavator swing drive2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase energy efficiency in construction machinery, energy recuperation systems are of great interest. For this purpose, the potential of using a secondary controlled excavator swing drive has been evaluated. Concepts for emergency brake operation and circuit architecture have been designed and compared in simulation. A wheel excavator has been considered as reference vehicle and dimensioning of the secondary controlled drive has been made to match the performance during a typical duty cycle. It has been shown that considerable energy savingscan be achieved in both open and closed circuit. The potential of the secondary controlled swing in comparison with a hybrid solution lies however in minimising the parasitic losses ofthe hydraulic circuit. A possible decreased energy consumption of up to 60 % for the swing drive can then be achieved by the recuperated energy.

  • 8.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Driveline Systems, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sverige.
    Heybroek, Kim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Emerging Technologies, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sverige.
    Hydrauliskt hybridsystem för anläggningsmaskiner: Delat energilager är dubbelt energilager2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln presenterar ett nytt innovativt hydrauliskt hybridkoncept med power-split transmission och delad hydraulisk krets med arbetsfunktionerna. Systemet är sekundärreglerat med direkt koppling till ett hydrauliskt energilager. Detta ger full frihet att överföra energi mellan drivlina, arbetsfunktioner och energilager i samtliga riktningar. En anläggningsmaskin medbåde framdrivning och arbetsfunktioner är ett komplext kopplat rörelsesystem och ett effektivt hybridkoncept måste därmed ta hänsyn till båda delsystemen. I sekundärreglerade system sker transformeringen av effekt i huvudsak vid lastsidan, detvill säga från hydraulisk effekt till mekanisk effekt. Sekundärreglering passar därför för hybridisering av maskiner med flera hydrauliska delsystem eftersom den hydrauliska kretsen kan användas gemensamt av systemen utan att använda strypventiler.Därmed blir även energilagret tillgängligt för delsystemen utan ytterligare effekttransformering.

  • 9.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heybroek, Kim
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB.
    Klintemyr, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis and control of a complementary energy recuperation system2012In: 8th International Fluid Power Conference Dresden: "Fluid Power Drives!", Dresden, 2012, p. 529-540Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, hybrid technologies have been in focus in both industry and academia.This paper deals with a hydraulically connected energy storage system based on a twomachinehydraulic transformer. Connecting the energy storage system hydraulically enableseasy disconnection and possibly fewer power domain transformations than with theconventional mechanically connected parallel hybrid structure. The control feasibility anddifferent control aspects are investigated and a control strategy is proposed. The controlstrategy is based on linear control techniques and it is shown that even with simple modelsof the system, sufficient control performance can be achieved.

  • 10.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Driveline Systems, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Heybroek, Kim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Emerging Technologies, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Per
    Driveline Systems, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines2017In: International Journal of Fluid Power, ISSN 1439-9776, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a novel type of hybrid motion system for construction machines based on a common pressure rail shared between a hydromechanical power-split transmission and secondary controlled work hydraulics. A construction machine with driveline and work functions is a complex coupled motion system and the design of an effective hybrid system needs to take both subsystems into account. Studies on energy efficient hybrid systems for construction machines have hitherto principally focused on one subsystem at a time - work hydraulics or driveline. The paper demonstrates a use case with a specific transmission concept proposal for a medium-sized wheel loader. The system is modelled and simulated using an optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming. The results show the benefits of a throttle-free bidirectional link between the machine's subsystems and the energy storage, while taking advantage of the complex power flows of the power-split transmission.

  • 11.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions2013In: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, E-ISSN 1528-9001, Vol. 135, no 9, p. 091005-1-091005-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for higher fuel efficiency for off-highway applications motivate manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Increased intelligence and more advanced architectures are, however, more difficult to design and prototype. This leads to longer product development processes and a greater need for early product evaluation. The great variety of existing concepts also requires a methodology to support the choice of architecture. This paper proposes a design methodology for complex hydromechanical transmissions based on optimization. The main objective is to maximize energy efficiency and adapt the design to suit the typical operating behavior of the application. The methodology is also implemented on a multiple mode transmission concept sui for a heavy wheel loader application. It is shown that the design of the gearbox heavily influences the energy consumption and the necessity to use optimization when designing the gearbox.

  • 12.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines2013In: Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power,(SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 113-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates an optimisation-based method to design modular gearboxes scalable for a range of applications. The design is adapted to the typical operating behaviours of the reference vehicles and considers the manufacturing costs of the gearboxes. Hydromechanical continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are today strong candidates to replace drive line transmissions based on fuel-thirsty torque converters in many mobile working machines. The advantages include wide range of torque/speed ratios, high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and decoupling of the engine speed and the vehicle speed. Advanced multiple mode CVTs, however, are difficult to evaluate early in the product development process due to the complex architectures and the great variety of possible concepts. There is consequently an increased need for methods to design, compare and evaluate the transmission concepts. To decrease the development and manufacturing costs, there is also a need for scalable transmission concepts that can be used in several applications of different classes. The results show the proficiency of the methodology compared to a manual design process and that the energy efficiency of the transmissions are heavy coupled to the designs.

  • 13.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimisation and Concept Sensitivity of Continuously Variable Hydromechanical Transmissions2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for better fuel efficiency for mobile working machines motivate the manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Hydromechanical power-split transmissions can offer high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and allows a decoupling of the speed of the combustion engine and the vehicle speed. This paper deals with the design of complex hydromechanical power-split transmissions and suggests an optimisation-based design methodology to minimise the energy consumption and manufacturing cost of the gearbox. The methodology is applied to a multiple mode power-split transmission which is designed to suit the requirements and typical operating behaviour of a heavy wheel loader. It is shown how important the design of the transmission is to its characteristics and how manufacturing costs can be weighed against energy efficiency.

  • 14.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Larsson, L. Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, K. Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simulation Aided Design and Testing of Hydromechanical Transmissions2014In: The 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Matsue, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the use of high-speed simulation in transmission conceptual design and presents a transmission test bed for hardware-in-the-loop simulations of hydromechanical transmission concepts. Complex transmissions, such as multiple-mode hydromechanical transmissions and hydraulic hybrid transmissions, present new difficulties and costs in the development process. There is today a greater demand for more efficient product development and more work has shifted towards simulation. The Hopsan simulation package allows robust, high-speed simulations suitable for both offline and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. New simulation models for hydromechanical transmissions are developed and used to simulate a known two-mode transmission concept. The same concept is also tested in hardware-in-the-loop simulations in the proposed transmission test bed. Results show good agreement with the hardware tests and highlight the proficiency of the simulation tools.

  • 15.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydberg, Karl-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparative Study of Multiple Mode Power Split Transmissions for Wheel Loaders2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase energy efficiency and lower emissions in construction machines, the use ofhydromechanical power split drive trains shows high potential. The possibility of usingmultiple gear speeds without losing traction force makes the power split architecture especiallysuitable for heavier wheel loaders. This paper analyses two known concepts ofmulti-mode power split transmissions suitable for the wheel loader application and comparesthe solutions based on energy efficiency. The concepts are scalable in the sense thatadditional modes can be used without necessarily adding complexity to the transmission.Simulations are made with respect to steady-state transmission losses and the relationbetween number of modes and transmission efficiency is shown for each of the proposedconcepts. The operational characteristics of the hydraulic displacement machines stronglyaffects the transmission efficiency and the design choice of number of transmissionmodes.

  • 16.
    Uebel, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conceptual Design of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the conceptual design process of complex hydromechanical transmissions for mobile working machines. Efficient methods for design optimisation and controller development are presented to support the final concept selection.

    In the endeavour to develop new fuel-efficient driveline solutions for construction machines and off-road equipment new complex hydromechanical transmission concepts are being investigated. This pursuit is driven by stricter emission legislation, high fuel prices and a desire for a greener image both for customers and manufacturers. The trend towards more complex transmission architectures increases the need for more sophisticated product development methods. Complex multiple-mode transmissions are difficult to design and prototype and can be realised in a great number of architectures. By introducing a secondary energy storage in the machine the design space expands further for both hardware and software. There is accordingly a need for more reliable concept assessment in early design stages and the possibility to support concurrent engineering throughout the development process.

    Previous research on the design and development of hydromechanical transmissions has been limited to analysis of fixed concept designs or design optimization using very simple performance indicators. Existing methodologies for electrified on-road vehicles are not suitable for off-road working machines with hydromechanical transmissions and hydraulic energy storage.

    The proposed conceptual design process uses detailed quasi-static simulation models and targets to optimise the fuel efficiency of the specific machine specifications and operations. It is also shown how high-speed dynamic simulations can be used for controller development and hardware-in-the-loop simulations to support an efficient product design process. The methods are demonstrated for typical use cases targeting new transmission development for construction machines. Software control development is also treated using control optimisation and real-time simulation. Finally a novel hybrid hydromechanical motion system is presented for which an efficient design process is crucial to its end performance.

    List of papers
    1. Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
    2013 (English)In: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, E-ISSN 1528-9001, Vol. 135, no 9, p. 091005-1-091005-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for higher fuel efficiency for off-highway applications motivate manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Increased intelligence and more advanced architectures are, however, more difficult to design and prototype. This leads to longer product development processes and a greater need for early product evaluation. The great variety of existing concepts also requires a methodology to support the choice of architecture. This paper proposes a design methodology for complex hydromechanical transmissions based on optimization. The main objective is to maximize energy efficiency and adapt the design to suit the typical operating behavior of the application. The methodology is also implemented on a multiple mode transmission concept sui for a heavy wheel loader application. It is shown that the design of the gearbox heavily influences the energy consumption and the necessity to use optimization when designing the gearbox.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME Press, 2013
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99379 (URN)10.1115/1.4024732 (DOI)000326172400006 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Optimisation and Concept Sensitivity of Continuously Variable Hydromechanical Transmissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimisation and Concept Sensitivity of Continuously Variable Hydromechanical Transmissions
    2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for better fuel efficiency for mobile working machines motivate the manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Hydromechanical power-split transmissions can offer high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and allows a decoupling of the speed of the combustion engine and the vehicle speed. This paper deals with the design of complex hydromechanical power-split transmissions and suggests an optimisation-based design methodology to minimise the energy consumption and manufacturing cost of the gearbox. The methodology is applied to a multiple mode power-split transmission which is designed to suit the requirements and typical operating behaviour of a heavy wheel loader. It is shown how important the design of the transmission is to its characteristics and how manufacturing costs can be weighed against energy efficiency.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99380 (URN)
    Conference
    8th International Conference on Fluid Power Trans- mission and Control, April 9-11, Hangzhou, China
    Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
    3. Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power,(SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 113-119Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates an optimisation-based method to design modular gearboxes scalable for a range of applications. The design is adapted to the typical operating behaviours of the reference vehicles and considers the manufacturing costs of the gearboxes. Hydromechanical continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are today strong candidates to replace drive line transmissions based on fuel-thirsty torque converters in many mobile working machines. The advantages include wide range of torque/speed ratios, high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and decoupling of the engine speed and the vehicle speed. Advanced multiple mode CVTs, however, are difficult to evaluate early in the product development process due to the complex architectures and the great variety of possible concepts. There is consequently an increased need for methods to design, compare and evaluate the transmission concepts. To decrease the development and manufacturing costs, there is also a need for scalable transmission concepts that can be used in several applications of different classes. The results show the proficiency of the methodology compared to a manual design process and that the energy efficiency of the transmissions are heavy coupled to the designs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
    Series
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 92
    Keywords
    Hydromechanical transmissions, Power-split, Design optimisation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99381 (URN)10.3384/ecp1392a12 (DOI)978-91-7519-572-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, (SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
    4. Simulation Aided Design and Testing of Hydromechanical Transmissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation Aided Design and Testing of Hydromechanical Transmissions
    2014 (English)In: The 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Matsue, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the use of high-speed simulation in transmission conceptual design and presents a transmission test bed for hardware-in-the-loop simulations of hydromechanical transmission concepts. Complex transmissions, such as multiple-mode hydromechanical transmissions and hydraulic hybrid transmissions, present new difficulties and costs in the development process. There is today a greater demand for more efficient product development and more work has shifted towards simulation. The Hopsan simulation package allows robust, high-speed simulations suitable for both offline and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. New simulation models for hydromechanical transmissions are developed and used to simulate a known two-mode transmission concept. The same concept is also tested in hardware-in-the-loop simulations in the proposed transmission test bed. Results show good agreement with the hardware tests and highlight the proficiency of the simulation tools.

    Keywords
    Hydromechanical Transmission, Hardware-in-the-loop, Hopsan
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126561 (URN)4-931070-10-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    the 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power in Matsue, Shimane Japan, on October 28-31, 2014
    Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2018-03-21
    5. Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
    2015 (English)In: ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, ASME Press, 2015, p. 13-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for low cost sustainable solutions have increased the use of and interest in complex hydromechanical transmissions for heavy off-road vehicles. In transmissions with multiplemodes, an important condition is to maintain the tractive force during the mode shifting event. For hybrid hydromechanical transmissions, with a direct connection to a hydraulic accumulator, the impressed system pressure caused by the hydraulic accumulator has not yet been observed to interfere with this condition. In this paper, a black box model approach is used to modify the hydraulic system after obtaining knowledge regarding how it is affected by a mode shift. A comparative study is carried out where a full vehicle model of a mobile working machine is simulated with two different hydraulic systems. The results show that different system solutions imply different demands on the included components, and that the mode shifting event is not a negligible factor in heavy hydraulic hybrid vehicles.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME Press, 2015
    Keywords
    Mode shifting, hydromechanical transmissions, fluid power, heavy construction machinery
    National Category
    Other Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126556 (URN)10.1115/FPMC2015-9583 (DOI)000373970500045 ()978-0-7918-5723-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, Chicago, Illinois, USA, October 12–14, 2015
    Projects
    Research on Hydromechanical Transmissions and Hybrid Motion systems, RHYTHM
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P39367-1
    Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    6. A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines
    2017 (English)In: International Journal of Fluid Power, ISSN 1439-9776, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a novel type of hybrid motion system for construction machines based on a common pressure rail shared between a hydromechanical power-split transmission and secondary controlled work hydraulics. A construction machine with driveline and work functions is a complex coupled motion system and the design of an effective hybrid system needs to take both subsystems into account. Studies on energy efficient hybrid systems for construction machines have hitherto principally focused on one subsystem at a time - work hydraulics or driveline. The paper demonstrates a use case with a specific transmission concept proposal for a medium-sized wheel loader. The system is modelled and simulated using an optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming. The results show the benefits of a throttle-free bidirectional link between the machine's subsystems and the energy storage, while taking advantage of the complex power flows of the power-split transmission.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis, 2017
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142329 (URN)10.1080/14399776.2016.1210423 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2017-10-26 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
1 - 16 of 16
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