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  • 1.
    Asif, Muhammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brännmark, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Englund, Ulrika H
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and Structure of ZnO Nanorods on a Sub-Micrometer Glass Pipette and Their Application as Intracellular Potentiometric Selective Ion Sensors2010In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 3, p. 4657-4667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the growth and structure of ZnO nanorods on a sub-micrometer glass pipette and their application as an intracellular selective ion sensor. Highly oriented, vertical and aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 μm in diameter) by the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique. The relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of ZnO nanorods makes them attractive for electrochemical sensing. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that ZnO nanorods are single crystals and grow along the crystal’s c-axis. The ZnO nanorods were functionalized with a polymeric membrane for selective intracellular measurements of Na

     

    +. The membrane-coated ZnO nanorods exhibited a Na+-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus

    an Ag/AgCl reference micro-electrode within a wide concentration range from 0.5 mM to 100 mM. The fabrication of functionalized ZnO nanorods paves the way to sense a wide range of biochemical species at the intracellular level.

  • 2.
    Asif, Muhammad H
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usman Ali, Syed M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brännmark, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Englund H, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Danielsson, Bengt
    Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Functionalised ZnO-nanorod-based selective electrochemical sensor for intracellular glucose2010In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 2205-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we report a functionalised ZnO-nanorod-based selective electrochemical sensor for intracellular glucose. To adjust the sensor for intracellular glucose measurements, we grew hexagonal ZnO nanorods on the tip of a silver-covered borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 mu m diameter) and coated them with the enzyme glucose oxidase. The enzyme-coated ZnO nanorods exhibited a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode. The potential difference was linear over the concentration range of interest (0.5-1000 mu M). The measured glucose concentration in human adipocytes or frog oocytes using our ZnO-nanorod sensor was consistent with values of glucose concentration reported in the literature; furthermore, the sensor was able to show that insulin increased the intracellular glucose concentration. This nanoelectrode device demonstrates a simple technique to measure intracellular glucose concentration.

  • 3.
    Asif, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usman Ali, Syed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Englund, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Functionalized ZnO nanorod-based selective magnesium ion sensor for intracellular measurements2010In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1118-1123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods were grown on a silver-coated tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 mu m in tip diameter) and used as selective potentiometric sensor of intracellular free Mg2+. To functionalize the ZnO nanorods for selectivity of Mg2+, a polymeric membrane with Mg2+-selective ionophores were coated on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. These functionalized ZnO nanorods exhibited a Mg2+-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode within the concentration range from 500 nM to 100 mM. Two types of cells, human adipocytes and frog oocytes, were used for the intracellular Mg2+ measurements. The intracellular concentration of free Mg2+ in human adipocytes and frog oocytes were 0.4-0.5 and 0.8-0.9 mM, respectively. Such type of nanoelectrode device paves the way to enable analytical measurements in single living cells and to sense other bio-chemical species at the intracellular level.

  • 4.
    Börjesson, Sara I.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Englund, Ulrika H.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Asif, Muhammad H.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Intracellular potassium (K+) concentration decrease is not obligatory for apoptosis2011In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, no 46, p. 39823-39828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    K+ efflux is observed as an early event in the apoptotic process in various cell types. Loss of intracellular K+ and subsequent reduction in ionic strength is suggested to release the inhibition of proapoptotic caspases. In this work, a new K+-specific microelectrode was used to study possible alterations in intracellular K+ in Xenopus laevis oocytes during chemically induced apoptosis. The accuracy of the microelectrode to detect changes in intracellular K+ was verified with parallel electrophysiological measurements within the same cells. In concordance with previous studies on other cell types, apoptotic stimuli reduced the intracellular K+ concentration in Xenopus oocytes and increased caspase-3 activity. The reduction in intracellular K+ was prevented by dense expression of voltage-gated K (Kv) channels. Despite this, the caspase-3 activity was increased similarly in Kv channel expressing oocytes as in oocytes not expressing Kv channels. Thus, in Xenopus oocytes caspase-3 activity is not dependent on the intracellular concentration of K+.

  • 5.
    Englund, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The role of ion channels and intracellular metal ions in apoptosis of Xenopus oocytes2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Apoptosis is one type of programmed cell death, important during tissue development and to maintain the tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis comprises a complex network of internal signaling pathways, and an important part of this signaling network is the action of voltage‐gated ion channels. The aim of this thesis was to explore the role of ion channels and the role of intracellular metal ions during apoptosis in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The reasons for using these oocytes are that they are large, robust, easy to handle, and easy to study electrophysiologically. Apoptosis was induced either chemically by incubation of the oocytes in staurosporine (STS) or mechanically by centrifugation of the oocytes. Ion currents were measured by a two‐electrode voltage clamp technique, intracellular ion concentrations were measured either directly by in‐house developed K+‐selective microelectrodes or indirectly by the electrophysiological technique, and apoptosis was measured by caspase‐3 activation. Paper I describes that the intracellular K+ concentration was reduced by about 30 % during STS‐induced apoptosis. However, this reduction was prevented by excessive expression of exogenous ion channels. Despite the magnitude of the intracellular K+ concentration, either normal or reduced level, the oocytes displayed normal signs of apoptosis, suggesting that the intracellular K+ reduction was not required for the apoptotic process. Because the intracellular K+ concentration was not critical for apoptosis we searched for other ion fluxes by exploring the electrophysiological properties of X. laevis oocytes. Paper II, describes a non‐inactivating Na+ current activated at positive membrane voltages that was upregulated by a factor of five during STS‐induced apoptosis. By preventing influx of Na+, the apoptotic signaling network involving capsase‐3 was prevented. To molecularly identify this voltage‐gated Na channel, the X. tropicalis genome and conserved regions of the human SCNA genes were used as a map. Paper III, shows that the voltage‐gated Na channel corresponds to the SCN2A gene ortholog and that supression of this SCN2A ortholog using miRNA prevented cell death. In conclusion, this thesis work demonstrated that a voltage‐gated Na channel is critical for the apoptotic process in X. laevis oocytes by increasing the intracellular Na+ concentration.

    List of papers
    1. Intracellular potassium (K+) concentration decrease is not obligatory for apoptosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intracellular potassium (K+) concentration decrease is not obligatory for apoptosis
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, no 46, p. 39823-39828Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    K+ efflux is observed as an early event in the apoptotic process in various cell types. Loss of intracellular K+ and subsequent reduction in ionic strength is suggested to release the inhibition of proapoptotic caspases. In this work, a new K+-specific microelectrode was used to study possible alterations in intracellular K+ in Xenopus laevis oocytes during chemically induced apoptosis. The accuracy of the microelectrode to detect changes in intracellular K+ was verified with parallel electrophysiological measurements within the same cells. In concordance with previous studies on other cell types, apoptotic stimuli reduced the intracellular K+ concentration in Xenopus oocytes and increased caspase-3 activity. The reduction in intracellular K+ was prevented by dense expression of voltage-gated K (Kv) channels. Despite this, the caspase-3 activity was increased similarly in Kv channel expressing oocytes as in oocytes not expressing Kv channels. Thus, in Xenopus oocytes caspase-3 activity is not dependent on the intracellular concentration of K+.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2011
    Keywords
    Caspase-3 activation, Electrophysiology, Intracellular K+ concentrations, K+-selective microelectrode, Xenopus laevis oocytes
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68853 (URN)10.1074/jbc.M111.262725 (DOI)000296925700016 ()
    Note
    Funding agencies|Swedish Research Council||Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation||Swedish Brain Foundation||County Council of Ostergotland, King Gustaf V and Queen Victorias Freemasons Foundation||Swedish Society for Medical Research||Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
    2. A Voltage Dependent Non-Inactivating Na+ Channel Activated during Apoptosis in Xenopus Oocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Voltage Dependent Non-Inactivating Na+ Channel Activated during Apoptosis in Xenopus Oocytes
    2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 0088381-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ion channels in the plasma membrane are important for the apoptotic process. Different types of voltage-gated ion channels are up-regulated early in the apoptotic process and block of these channels prevents or delays apoptosis. In the present investigation we examined whether ion channels are up-regulated in oocytes from the frog Xenopus laevis during apoptosis. The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to record endogenous ion currents in the oocytes. During staurosporine-induced apoptosis a voltage-dependent Na+ current increased three-fold. This current was activated at voltages more positive than 0 mV (midpoint of the open-probability curve was +55 mV) and showed almost no sign of inactivation during a 1-s pulse. The current was resistant to the Na+-channel blockers tetrodotoxin (1 mM) and amiloride (10 mM), while the Ca2+-channel blocker verapamil (50 mM) in the bath solution completely blocked the current. The intracellular Na+ concentration increased in staurosporine-treated oocytes, but could be prevented by replacing extracellular Na+ whith either K+ or Choline(+). Prevention of this influx of Na+ also prevented the STS-induced up-regulation of the caspase-3 activity, suggesting that the intracellular Na+ increase is required to induce apoptosis. Taken together, we have found that a voltage dependent Na+ channel is up-regulated during apoptosis and that influx of Na+ is a crucial step in the apoptotic process in Xenopus oocytes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2014
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105899 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0088381 (DOI)000332396200017 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-12 Last updated: 2018-01-25
    3. Inhibition of SCN2A ortholog upregulation in Xenopus laevis oocytes prevents cell death
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhibition of SCN2A ortholog upregulation in Xenopus laevis oocytes prevents cell death
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport of ions across the cell membrane is essential for the regulation of cell death and tissue homeostasis, and alterations in the function of voltage-gated ion channels and of the intracellular ionic compositions interfere with these processes. Opening of K, Na , or Cl channels have been linked to the apoptotic process and in many cases, opening of these channels precede caspase-3 activation and are thus early events in the apoptotic process. Consistent with the role of these channels in apoptosis, inhibition of these channels prevents or delays the apoptotic process. However, the role of ion channels during apoptosis has been difficult to explore, mainly due to unspecific/non-selective ion channe blockers. In the present investigation, the molecular identity of a  voltage-gated Na channel in oocytes from Xenopus laevis, which is crucial for the apoptotic response to mechanical stress, was identified. Specific down regulation of SCN2A Na channel expression by miRNA prevented apoptosis, suggesting that Na+ influx is essential for apoptosis in Xenopus oocytes.

    National Category
    Cell Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111044 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Englund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brask, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inhibition of SCN2A ortholog upregulation in Xenopus laevis oocytes prevents cell death2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport of ions across the cell membrane is essential for the regulation of cell death and tissue homeostasis, and alterations in the function of voltage-gated ion channels and of the intracellular ionic compositions interfere with these processes. Opening of K, Na , or Cl channels have been linked to the apoptotic process and in many cases, opening of these channels precede caspase-3 activation and are thus early events in the apoptotic process. Consistent with the role of these channels in apoptosis, inhibition of these channels prevents or delays the apoptotic process. However, the role of ion channels during apoptosis has been difficult to explore, mainly due to unspecific/non-selective ion channe blockers. In the present investigation, the molecular identity of a  voltage-gated Na channel in oocytes from Xenopus laevis, which is crucial for the apoptotic response to mechanical stress, was identified. Specific down regulation of SCN2A Na channel expression by miRNA prevented apoptosis, suggesting that Na+ influx is essential for apoptosis in Xenopus oocytes.

  • 7.
    Englund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gertow, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kågedal, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Voltage Dependent Non-Inactivating Na+ Channel Activated during Apoptosis in Xenopus Oocytes2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 0088381-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion channels in the plasma membrane are important for the apoptotic process. Different types of voltage-gated ion channels are up-regulated early in the apoptotic process and block of these channels prevents or delays apoptosis. In the present investigation we examined whether ion channels are up-regulated in oocytes from the frog Xenopus laevis during apoptosis. The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to record endogenous ion currents in the oocytes. During staurosporine-induced apoptosis a voltage-dependent Na+ current increased three-fold. This current was activated at voltages more positive than 0 mV (midpoint of the open-probability curve was +55 mV) and showed almost no sign of inactivation during a 1-s pulse. The current was resistant to the Na+-channel blockers tetrodotoxin (1 mM) and amiloride (10 mM), while the Ca2+-channel blocker verapamil (50 mM) in the bath solution completely blocked the current. The intracellular Na+ concentration increased in staurosporine-treated oocytes, but could be prevented by replacing extracellular Na+ whith either K+ or Choline(+). Prevention of this influx of Na+ also prevented the STS-induced up-regulation of the caspase-3 activity, suggesting that the intracellular Na+ increase is required to induce apoptosis. Taken together, we have found that a voltage dependent Na+ channel is up-regulated during apoptosis and that influx of Na+ is a crucial step in the apoptotic process in Xenopus oocytes.

  • 8.
    Linder, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Englund, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Narisawa, Sonoko
    Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, CA USA .
    Luis Millan, Jose
    Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, CA USA .
    Magnusson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Isozyme profile and tissue-origin of alkaline phosphatases in mouse serum2013In: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 399-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mouse serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is frequently measured and interpreted in mammalian bone research. However, little is known about the circulating ALPs in mice and their relation to human ALP isozymes and isoforms. Mouse ALP was extracted from liver, kidney, intestine, and bone from vertebra, femur and calvaria tissues. Serum from mixed strains of wild-type (WT) mice and from individual ALP knockout strains were investigated, i.e., Alpl(-/-) (a.k.a. Akp2 encoding tissue-nonspecific ALP or TNALP), Akp3(-/-) (encoding duodenum-specific intestinal ALP or dIALP), and Alpi(-/-) (a.k.a. Akp6 encoding global intestinal ALP or gIALP). The ALP isozymes and isoforms were identified by various techniques and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results from the WT and knockout mouse models revealed identical bone-specific ALP isoforms (B/I. B1, and B2) as found in human serum, but in addition mouse serum contains the B1x isoform only detected earlier in patients with chronic kidney disease and in human bone tissue. The two murine intestinal isozymes, dIALP and gIALP, were also identified in mouse serum. All four bone-specific ALP isoforms (B/I, B1x, B1, and B2) were identified in mouse bones, in good correspondence with those found in human bones. All mouse tissues, except liver and colon, contained significant ALP activities. This is a notable difference as human liver contains vast amounts of ALP. Histochemical staining, Northern and Western blot analyses confirmed undetectable ALP expression in liver tissue. ALP activity staining showed some positive staining in the bile canaliculi for BALB/c and FVB/N WT mice, but not in C57BI/6 and ICR mice. Taken together, while the main source of ALP in human serum originates from bone and liver, and a small fraction from intestine (andlt;5%), mouse serum consists mostly of bone ALP, including all four isoforms, B/I, B1x, B1, and B2, and two intestinal ALP isozymes dIALP and gIALR We suggest that the genetic nomenclature for the Alpl gene in mice (i.e., ALP liver) should be reconsidered since murine liver has undetectable amounts of ALP activity. These findings should pave the way for the development of user-friendly assays measuring circulating bone-specific ALP in mouse models used in bone and mineral research.

  • 9.
    Usman Ali, Syed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asif, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Pakistan.
    Fulati, Alimujiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brännmark, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Englund, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Danielsson, Bengt
    Lund University.
    Intracellular K(+) Determination With a Potentiometric Microelectrode Based on ZnO Nanowires2011In: IEEE transactions on nanotechnology, ISSN 1536-125X, E-ISSN 1941-0085, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 913-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fabrication and application of an intracellular K(+)-selective microelectrode is demonstrated. ZnO nanowires with a diameter of 100-180 nm and a length of approximately 1.5. m are grown on a borosilicate glass microcapillary. The ZnO nanowires were coated by a K(+)-ionophore-containing membrane. The K(+)-selective microelectrode exhibited a K(+)-dependent potentiometric response versus an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode that was linear over a large concentration range (25 . M-125 mM) with a minimum detection limit of 1 . M. The measured K(+) concentrations in human adipocytes and in frog oocytes were consistent with values of K(+) concentrations reported in the literature. The sensor has several advantages including ease of fabrication, ease of insertion into the cells, low cost, and high selectivity features that make this type of sensor suitable to characterize physiologically relevant ions within single living cells.

  • 10.
    Walfridsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Englund, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jensen, S
    n/a.
    Johansson, B
    n/a.
    Kongstad, O
    n/a.
    Schwieler, J
    n/a.
    Walfridsson, U
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Insulander, P
    n/a.
    Ablation of AVNRT. Gender differences in a large Swedish cohort of patients during 10 years. 1997-20062009Conference paper (Refereed)
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