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  • 1.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Biomarkers and mediators in systemic lupus erythematosus: IFNα versus the CRP response, and evaluation of suPAR and anti-dsDNA antibody assays2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease which may affect multiple organ systems. Interferon alpha (IFNα) and autoantibodies that form immune complexes with nuclear antigens (ANA) are hallmarks believed to drive the disease into a vicious circle of inflammation, tissue damage, autoantigen exposure and autoantibody production.

    In SLE, the disease course is characterized by episodes of exacerbations alternating with remissions. In order to best treat the patient it is important to closely monitor symptoms and signs of disease activity. Because of the disease heterogeneity, no single biomarker has yet been found to reflect SLE disease activity in general, although antidouble stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies sometimes indicate activity, primarily with renal involvement, and constitutes an item of the SLE disease activity score SLEDAI-2K. However, the method of anti-dsDNA measurement is not standardized and therefore varies between different laboratories. In many other inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and during bacterial infections, the C-reactive protein (CRP) level is a good indicator of ongoing inflammation, but in SLE and during viral infections, CRP commonly fails to reflect the degree of inflammation. Both viral infections and SLE are characterized by IFNα, and we thus aimed to elucidate whether IFNα can inhibit CRP production. Further, four assays for anti-dsDNA antibody measurements were evaluated with regard to SLE disease specificity and activity, and a new potential biomarker of inflammation, the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), was assessed in relation to disease activity and organ damage.

    An in vitro inhibitory effect of IFNα on CRP transcription and production was found in hepatocytes, and this was consolidated by in vivo studies of CRP and IFNα in sera from well-characterized SLE patients (KLURING; Kliniskt lupusregister i nordöstra Götaland). Here, CRP and disease activity were associated among patients without IFNα and without a CRP lowering gene variant (SNP rs1205). The poor disease activity compliance of CRP could therefore be explained, at least in part, by polymorphisms in the CRP gene and increased levels of IFNα. Critical differences between the methods measuring anti-dsDNA were found regarding disease specificity and ability to reflect disease activity and the results suggests the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) for diagnostic purposes and a bead-based multiplex assay (FIDIS) for monitoring of disease activity. Evaluation of suPAR in SLE revealed no association of suPAR with disease activity, but interestingly instead with accumulated organ damage. suPAR could therefore possibly be used to advert patients at high risk of organ damage.

    A detailed biological and clinical characterization of established and emerging SLE biomarkers is of importance since it may improve the clinical management as well as increase the knowledge about disease mechanisms.

    List of papers
    1. Interferon-alpha Mediates Suppression of C-Reactive Protein Explanation for Muted C-Reactive Protein Response in Lupus Flares?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interferon-alpha Mediates Suppression of C-Reactive Protein Explanation for Muted C-Reactive Protein Response in Lupus Flares?
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 60, no 12, p. 3755-3760Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. C-reactive protein (CRP) is synthesized by hepatocytes in response to interleukin-6 (IL-6) during inflammation. Despite raised IL-6 levels and extensive systemic inflammation, serum CRP levels remain low during most viral infections and disease flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because both viral infections and SLE are characterized by high levels of interferon-alpha (IFN alpha), the aim of this study was to determine whether this cytokine can inhibit the induction of CRP. Methods. The interference of all 12 IFN alpha subtypes with CRP promoter activity induced by IL-6 and IL-1 beta was studied in a CRP promoter- and luciferase reporter-transfected human hepatoma cell line, Hep-G2. CRIP secretion by primary human hepatocytes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. CRP promoter activity was inhibited by all single IFN alpha subtypes, as well as by 2 different mixtures of biologically relevant IFN alpha subtypes. The most prominent effect was seen using a leukocyte-produced mixture of IFN alpha (56% inhibition at 1,000 IU/ml). The inhibitory effect of IFN alpha was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. CRP promoter inhibition was dose dependent and mediated via the type I IFN receptor. Transferrin production and Hep-G2 proliferation/viability were not affected by IFN alpha. Conclusion. The current study demonstrates that IFN alpha is an inhibitor of CRP promoter activity and CRP secretion. This finding concords with previous observations of up-regulated IFN alpha and a muted CRP response during SLE disease flares. Given the fundamental role of both IFN alpha and CRP in the immune response, our results are of importance for understanding the pathogenesis of SLE and may also contribute to understanding the differences in the CRP response between viral and bacterial infections.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52914 (URN)10.1002/art.25042 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-01-12 Created: 2010-01-12 Last updated: 2019-02-27
    2. Association of Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels With Lupus Disease Activity in the Absence of Measurable Interferon-α and a C-Reactive Protein Gene Variant
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels With Lupus Disease Activity in the Absence of Measurable Interferon-α and a C-Reactive Protein Gene Variant
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.), ISSN 2326-5191, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 1568-1573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The type I interferon (IFN) system is important in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously demonstrated an inhibitory effect of IFNα on interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced C-reactive protein (CRP) in vitro, hypothetically explaining the poor correlation between disease activity and CRP levels in SLE. Herein we investigated disease activity, IL-6 and CRP in relation to a CRP gene polymorphism and IFN.

    Methods: Sera from 155 SLE patients and 100 controls were analyzed for CRP. Patients were genotyped for a CRP single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1205) associated with low CRP levels. Serum IFNα and IL-6 was quantified by immunoassays. Clinical disease activity was assessed by SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K).

    Results: CRP levels were increased in SLE patients compared to controls, but were not associated with SLEDAI-2K or IL-6 levels. However, exclusion of patients carrying at least one rs1205 minor allele revealed an association between disease activity and CRP levels (p=0.005). We found a strong association between disease activity and CRP levels (p<0.0005) when patients with measurable IFNα as well as the minor allele of rs1205 where excluded from the analysis. Similarly, when patients with raised IFNα and/or the rs1205 polymorphism were excluded, IL-6 associated with CRP levels.

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that serum IFNα as well as CRP genotype affects the CRP response in SLE patients. Lack of correlation between serum levels of CRP and disease activity could therefore be explained by activation of the type I IFN system and polymorphisms in the CRP gene. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hoboken, NJ, United States: John Wiley & Sons, 2014
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105501 (URN)10.1002/art.38408 (DOI)000337366200018 ()24574329 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2015-08-31Bibliographically approved
    3. Four Anti-dsDNA Antibody Assays in Relation to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Specificity and Activity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four Anti-dsDNA Antibody Assays in Relation to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Specificity and Activity
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 817-825Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Analysis of antibodies against dsDNA is an important diagnostic tool for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and changes in anti-dsDNA antibody levels are also used to assess disease activity. Herein, 4 assays were compared with regard to SLE specificity, sensitivity, and association with disease activity variables. Methods. Cross-sectional sera from 178 patients with SLE, of which 11 were followed consecutively, from a regional Swedish SLE register were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-dsDNA by bead-based multiplex assay (FIDIS; Theradig), fluoroenzyme-immunoassay (EliA; Phadia/Thermo Fisher Scientific), Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT; ImmunoConcepts), and line blot (EUROLINE; Euroimmun). All patients with SLE fulfilled the 1982 American College of Rheumatology and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC-12) classification criteria. Healthy individuals (n = 100), patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 95), and patients with primary Sjogren syndrome (n = 54) served as controls. Results. CLIFT had the highest SLE specificity (98%) whereas EliA had the highest sensitivity (35%). When cutoff levels for FIDIS, EliA, and EUROLINE were adjusted according to SLICC-12 (i.e., double the reference limit when using ELISA), the specificity and sensitivity of FIDIS was comparable to CLIFT. FIDIS and CLIFT also showed the highest concordance (84%). FIDIS performed best regarding association with disease activity in cross-sectional and consecutive samples. Fishers exact test revealed striking differences between methods regarding associations with certain disease phenotypes. Conclusion. CLIFT remains a good choice for diagnostic purposes, but FIDIS performs equally well when the cutoff is adjusted according to SLICC-12. Based on results from cross-sectional and consecutive analyses, FIDIS can also be recommended to monitor disease activity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Journal of Rheumatology, 2015
    Keywords
    SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS; DOUBLE-STRANDED DNA; IMMUNOASSAY; AUTOANTIBODIES; INFLAMMATION; RHEUMATIC DISEASE
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118866 (URN)10.3899/jrheum.140677 (DOI)000353779400013 ()25684763 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [K2012-69X-14594-10-3, K2011-68X-20611-04-3]; Swedish Society for Medicine [SLS-331171]; Swedish Society Against Rheumatism [R-313701, R-307291]; Swedish Society for Medical Research; King Gustaf V 80-year Foundation [FAI2013-0066]; Professor Nanna Svartz foundation

    Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2018-11-07
    4. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus
    2013 (English)In: Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, ISSN 1931-5244, E-ISSN 1878-1810, Vol. 162, no 5, p. 287-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Assessments of disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain challenging because of the lack of reliable biomarkers and disease heterogeneity. Ongoing inflammation can be difficult to distinguish from permanent organ damage caused by previous flare-ups or medication side effects. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has emerged as a potential marker of inflammation and disease severity, and an outcome predictor in several disparate conditions. This study was done to evaluate suPAR as a marker of disease activity and organ damage in SLE. Sera from 100 healthy donors- and 198 patients with SLE fulfilling the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the Fries criteria were analyzed for suPAR by enzyme immunoassay. Eighteen patients with varying degree of disease activity were monitored longitudinally. Disease activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index 2000 and the physicians global assessment. Organ damage was evaluated by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Compared with healthy control subjects, serum suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients with SLE. No association was recorded regarding suPAR levels and SLE disease activity in cross-sectional or consecutive samples. However, a strong association was observed between suPAR and SDI (P andlt; 0.0005). Considering distinct SDI domains, renal, neuropsychiatric, ocular, skin, and peripheral vascular damage had.a significant effect on suPAR levels. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between serum suPAR and irreversible organ damage in SLE. Further studies are warranted to evaluate suPAR and other biomarkers as predictors of evolving organ damage.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-101384 (URN)10.1016/j.trsl.2013.07.003 (DOI)000326255600003 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|K2012-69X-14594-10-3|County Council of Ostergotland||Swedish Society of Medicine||Swedish Society for Medical Research||Swedish Rheumatism Association||King Gustaf V 80-Year, Clas Groschinsky, Ingrid Svensson, Bror Karlsson, Gunnar Trosell, Magn. Bergvall, Sigurd Elsa Golje||Nanna Svartz research foundations||

    Available from: 2013-11-22 Created: 2013-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06
  • 2.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interferon-alpha Mediates Suppression of C-Reactive Protein Explanation for Muted C-Reactive Protein Response in Lupus Flares?2009In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 60, no 12, p. 3755-3760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. C-reactive protein (CRP) is synthesized by hepatocytes in response to interleukin-6 (IL-6) during inflammation. Despite raised IL-6 levels and extensive systemic inflammation, serum CRP levels remain low during most viral infections and disease flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because both viral infections and SLE are characterized by high levels of interferon-alpha (IFN alpha), the aim of this study was to determine whether this cytokine can inhibit the induction of CRP. Methods. The interference of all 12 IFN alpha subtypes with CRP promoter activity induced by IL-6 and IL-1 beta was studied in a CRP promoter- and luciferase reporter-transfected human hepatoma cell line, Hep-G2. CRIP secretion by primary human hepatocytes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. CRP promoter activity was inhibited by all single IFN alpha subtypes, as well as by 2 different mixtures of biologically relevant IFN alpha subtypes. The most prominent effect was seen using a leukocyte-produced mixture of IFN alpha (56% inhibition at 1,000 IU/ml). The inhibitory effect of IFN alpha was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. CRP promoter inhibition was dose dependent and mediated via the type I IFN receptor. Transferrin production and Hep-G2 proliferation/viability were not affected by IFN alpha. Conclusion. The current study demonstrates that IFN alpha is an inhibitor of CRP promoter activity and CRP secretion. This finding concords with previous observations of up-regulated IFN alpha and a muted CRP response during SLE disease flares. Given the fundamental role of both IFN alpha and CRP in the immune response, our results are of importance for understanding the pathogenesis of SLE and may also contribute to understanding the differences in the CRP response between viral and bacterial infections.

  • 3.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor: A valuable biomarker in systemic lupus erythematosus?2015In: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 444, p. 234-241Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially severe autoimmune condition with an unpredictable disease course, often with fluctuations in disease activity over time. Long term inflammation and drug-related side-effects may subsequently lead to permanent organ damage, a consequence which is intimately connected to decreased quality of life and mortality. New lupus biomarkers that convey information regarding inflammation and/or organ damage are thus warranted. Today, there is no clinical biomarker that indicates the risk of damage accrual. Herein we highlight the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and especially its soluble form (suPAR) that besides having biological functions in e.g. proteolysis, cell migration and tissue homeostasis, recently has emerged as a promising biomarker of inflammation and prognosis of several disorders. A strong association between suPAR and organ damage in SLE was recently demonstrated, and preliminary data (presented in this review) suggests the possibility of a predictive value of suPAR blood levels. The involvement of suPAR in the pathogenesis of SLE remains obscure, but its effects in leukocyte recruitment, phagocytic uptake of dying cells (efferocytosis) and complement regulation suggests that the central parts of the SLE pathogenesis could be regulated by suPAR, and vice versa.

  • 4.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wirestam, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ronnelid, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Four Anti-dsDNA Antibody Assays in Relation to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Specificity and Activity2015In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 817-825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Analysis of antibodies against dsDNA is an important diagnostic tool for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and changes in anti-dsDNA antibody levels are also used to assess disease activity. Herein, 4 assays were compared with regard to SLE specificity, sensitivity, and association with disease activity variables. Methods. Cross-sectional sera from 178 patients with SLE, of which 11 were followed consecutively, from a regional Swedish SLE register were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-dsDNA by bead-based multiplex assay (FIDIS; Theradig), fluoroenzyme-immunoassay (EliA; Phadia/Thermo Fisher Scientific), Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT; ImmunoConcepts), and line blot (EUROLINE; Euroimmun). All patients with SLE fulfilled the 1982 American College of Rheumatology and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC-12) classification criteria. Healthy individuals (n = 100), patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 95), and patients with primary Sjogren syndrome (n = 54) served as controls. Results. CLIFT had the highest SLE specificity (98%) whereas EliA had the highest sensitivity (35%). When cutoff levels for FIDIS, EliA, and EUROLINE were adjusted according to SLICC-12 (i.e., double the reference limit when using ELISA), the specificity and sensitivity of FIDIS was comparable to CLIFT. FIDIS and CLIFT also showed the highest concordance (84%). FIDIS performed best regarding association with disease activity in cross-sectional and consecutive samples. Fishers exact test revealed striking differences between methods regarding associations with certain disease phenotypes. Conclusion. CLIFT remains a good choice for diagnostic purposes, but FIDIS performs equally well when the cutoff is adjusted according to SLICC-12. Based on results from cross-sectional and consecutive analyses, FIDIS can also be recommended to monitor disease activity.

  • 5.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Association of Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels With Lupus Disease Activity in the Absence of Measurable Interferon-α and a C-Reactive Protein Gene Variant2014In: Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.), ISSN 2326-5191, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 1568-1573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The type I interferon (IFN) system is important in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously demonstrated an inhibitory effect of IFNα on interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced C-reactive protein (CRP) in vitro, hypothetically explaining the poor correlation between disease activity and CRP levels in SLE. Herein we investigated disease activity, IL-6 and CRP in relation to a CRP gene polymorphism and IFN.

    Methods: Sera from 155 SLE patients and 100 controls were analyzed for CRP. Patients were genotyped for a CRP single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1205) associated with low CRP levels. Serum IFNα and IL-6 was quantified by immunoassays. Clinical disease activity was assessed by SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K).

    Results: CRP levels were increased in SLE patients compared to controls, but were not associated with SLEDAI-2K or IL-6 levels. However, exclusion of patients carrying at least one rs1205 minor allele revealed an association between disease activity and CRP levels (p=0.005). We found a strong association between disease activity and CRP levels (p<0.0005) when patients with measurable IFNα as well as the minor allele of rs1205 where excluded from the analysis. Similarly, when patients with raised IFNα and/or the rs1205 polymorphism were excluded, IL-6 associated with CRP levels.

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that serum IFNα as well as CRP genotype affects the CRP response in SLE patients. Lack of correlation between serum levels of CRP and disease activity could therefore be explained by activation of the type I IFN system and polymorphisms in the CRP gene. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.

  • 6.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Limited Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor As a Disease Activity Marker in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, vol 63, issue 10, pp S556-S5572011In: ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, Wiley-Blackwell , 2011, Vol. 63, no 10, p. S556-S557Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 7.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus2013In: Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, ISSN 1931-5244, E-ISSN 1878-1810, Vol. 162, no 5, p. 287-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessments of disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain challenging because of the lack of reliable biomarkers and disease heterogeneity. Ongoing inflammation can be difficult to distinguish from permanent organ damage caused by previous flare-ups or medication side effects. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has emerged as a potential marker of inflammation and disease severity, and an outcome predictor in several disparate conditions. This study was done to evaluate suPAR as a marker of disease activity and organ damage in SLE. Sera from 100 healthy donors- and 198 patients with SLE fulfilling the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the Fries criteria were analyzed for suPAR by enzyme immunoassay. Eighteen patients with varying degree of disease activity were monitored longitudinally. Disease activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index 2000 and the physicians global assessment. Organ damage was evaluated by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Compared with healthy control subjects, serum suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients with SLE. No association was recorded regarding suPAR levels and SLE disease activity in cross-sectional or consecutive samples. However, a strong association was observed between suPAR and SDI (P andlt; 0.0005). Considering distinct SDI domains, renal, neuropsychiatric, ocular, skin, and peripheral vascular damage had.a significant effect on suPAR levels. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between serum suPAR and irreversible organ damage in SLE. Further studies are warranted to evaluate suPAR and other biomarkers as predictors of evolving organ damage.

  • 8.
    Kanmert, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Designed Surface with Tunable IgG Density as an in Vitro Model for Immune Complex Mediated Stimulation of Leukocytes2010In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 3493-3497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the design of an in vitro for immune-complex-mediated stimulation of leukocytes and its functional characteristics with respect to monocyte adhesion. The model was based on orientation-controlled immobilization of a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) via its interaction with a biotinylated peptide epitope derived from the CD20 marker. The peptide was linked to neutravidin covalently attached to it mixed self-assembled monolayer of carboxyl- and methoxy-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) alkane thiolates on gold. The surface adhesion propensity of human monocytes (cell line U917) was highly dependent on the lateral IgG density and indicated that there exists a distance between IgG-Fc on the surface where interactions with Fc gamma receptors are optimal. This well-defined platform allows for a careful control of the size and orientation of artificial IgG immune complexes, it is easily made compatible with, for example, cellular imaging, and it will become useful for in vitro studies on the importance of Fc gamma receptor interactions in chronic immune-mediated diseases.

  • 9.
    Mahmood, Zeid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bäck, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Chung, Rosanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Salivary and plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and myeloperoxidase at rest and after acute physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0207166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Low-grade systemic inflammation is a predictor of recurrent cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma proteins such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been shown to reflect basal as well as stress-induced inflammation in CAD. Measurements of MMP-9 and MPO in saliva might pose several advantages. Therefore, we investigated whether salivary levels of MMP-9 and MPO corresponded to plasma levels in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), both at rest and after acute physical exercise. Methods A bicycle ergometer test was used as a model for stress-induced inflammation. Twenty-three CAD patients performed the test on two occasions 3-6 months apart. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected before, directly after and 30 min after exercise while plasma was collected before and after 30 min. MMP-9 and MPO in saliva and plasma were determined by Luminex. Results MMP-9 and MPO levels were 2- to 4-fold higher in saliva than in plasma. Amongst the saliva samples, and also to a great extent amongst the plasma samples, the levels of both types of protein showed strong intercorrelations between the levels at rest and after exercise during the two visits. However, there were no (or weak) correlations between salivary and plasma MMP-9 and none between salivary and plasma MPO. Conclusion We conclude that salivary diagnostics cannot be used to assess systemic levels of MMP-9 and MPO in CAD patients, neither at rest nor after acute physical exercise.

  • 10.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Cardell, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Bokarewa, Maria I
    University of Gothenburg.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Lindvall, Liselott
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frydén, Aril
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Almer, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    High prevalence of autoantibodies to C-reactive protein in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: association with liver fibrosis and portal inflammation2012In: Human Immunology, ISSN 0198-8859, E-ISSN 1879-1166, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 382-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of autoantibodies against C-reactive protein (anti-CRP) has been reported in association with autoimmunity and histopathology in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Resistin could play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis, although results on HCV infection are ambiguous. Here we retrospectively analyzed anti-CRP and resistin levels in the sera of 38 untreated and well-characterized HCV patients at the time of their first liver biopsy. HCV activity and general health were assessed by a physician at least yearly until follow-up ended. Anti-CRP and resistin were also measured in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Anti-CRP antibodies were registered in all HCV patients, whereas only a few AIH (11%) and NAFLD (12%) sera were positive. Anti-CRP levels were related to histopathological severity and were highest in patients with cirrhosis at baseline. Resistin levels were similar in HCV, AIH, and NAFLD patients, but high levels of resistin were associated with early mortality in HCV patients. Neither anti-CRP nor resistin predicted a response to interferon-based therapy or cirrhosis development or was associated with liver-related mortality. We conclude that anti-CRP antibodies are frequently observed in chronic HCV infection and could be a useful marker of advanced fibrosis and portal inflammation.

  • 11.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Eloranta, M. L.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rönnblom, L.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Interferon-α coincides with suppressed levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in systemic lupus erythematosus and regulates leucocyte PTX3 in vitro2017In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 189, no 1, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysfunctional elimination of cell debris, and the role of opsonins such as pentraxins, is of interest regarding systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. Interferon (IFN)- is typically elevated during SLE flares, and inhibits hepatocyte production of the pentraxin C-reactive protein (CRP), partly explaining the poor correlation between CRP levels and SLE disease activity. The extrahepatically produced pentraxin 3 (PTX3) shares waste disposal functions with CRP, but has not been studied extensively in SLE. We analysed serum PTX3 in SLE, and assessed its interference with IFN- in vitro. Serum samples from 243 patients with SLE and 100 blood donors were analysed regarding PTX3. Patient sera were analysed for IFN-, and genotyped for three PTX3 single nucleotide polymorphisms reported previously to associate with PTX3 levels. Stimulated PTX3 release was assessed in the presence or absence of IFN- in blood donor neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Serum PTX3 was 44% lower in patients with SLE compared to blood donors (Pamp;lt;00001) and correlated with leucocyte variables. Patients with undetectable IFN- had 29% higher median PTX3 level than patients with detectable IFN- (P=001). PTX3 production by PBMC was inhibited by IFN-, whereas neutrophil degranulation of PTX3 was increased. No differences in PTX3 levels were observed between the SNPs. In conclusion, median serum PTX3 is lower in SLE (especially when IFN- is detectable) compared to blood donors. In addition to its potential consumption during waste disposal, it is plausible that IFN- also attenuates PTX3 by inhibiting synthesis by PBMC and/or exhausting PTX3 storage in neutrophil granules.

  • 12.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Padyukov, Leonid
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Jonsen, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Urowitz, Murray B.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Gladman, Dafna D.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Romero-Diaz, Juanita
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med and Ntur, IL USA.
    Bae, Sang-Cheol
    Hanyang Univ Hosp Rheumat Dis, South Korea.
    Fortin, Paul R.
    Univ Laval, Canada.
    Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge
    Univ Toronto, Canada; Toronto Western Hosp, Canada.
    Clarke, Ann E.
    Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Bernatsky, Sasha
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Gordon, Caroline
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Hanly, John G.
    Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Canada; Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Canada; Dalhousie Univ, Canada.
    Wallace, Daniel
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Isenberg, David A.
    UCL, England.
    Rahman, Anisur
    UCL, England.
    Merrill, Joan
    Oklahoma Med Res Fdn, OK 73104 USA.
    Ginzler, Ellen
    SUNY New York, NY USA.
    Alarcon, Graciela S.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
    Chatham, W. Winn
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
    Petri, Michelle
    Johns Hopkins Univ, MD USA.
    Khamashta, Munther
    St Thomas Hosp, England.
    Aranow, Cynthia
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY USA.
    Mackay, Meggan
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY USA.
    Dooley, Mary Anne
    Univ N Carolina, NC 27515 USA.
    Manzi, Susan
    Autoimmun Inst, PA USA.
    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind
    Northwestern Univ, IL USA; Feinberg Sch Med, IL USA.
    Nived, Ola
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Steinsson, Kristjan
    Fossvogur Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Zoma, Asad
    Hairmyres Hosp, Scotland.
    Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo
    Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Lim, Sam
    Emory Univ, GA 30322 USA.
    Kalunian, Ken
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Inanc, Murat
    Istanbul Univ, Turkey.
    van Vollenhoven, Ronald
    Karolinska Univ, Sweden.
    Ramos-Casals, Manuel
    IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Kamen, Diane L.
    Med Univ South Carolina, SC 29425 USA.
    Jacobsen, Soren
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Peschken, Christine
    Univ Manitoba, Canada.
    Askanase, Anca
    Columbia Univ, NY USA.
    Stoll, Thomas
    Kantousspital, Switzerland.
    Bruce, Ian N.
    Univ Manchester, England; Manchester Univ Fdn Trust, England.
    Wettero, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Osteopontin and Disease Activity in Patients with Recent-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Results from the SLICC Inception Cohort2019In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 492-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. Methods. We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age-and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. Results. Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p amp;lt; 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI amp;gt;= 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p amp;lt; 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K amp;gt;= 5) had raised serum OPN (p amp;lt; 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p amp;lt; 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). Conclusion. The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.

  • 13.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Frodlund, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Osteopontin is associated with disease severity and antiphospholipid syndrome in well characterised Swedish cases of SLE2017In: Lupus Science and Medicine, ISSN 2053-8790, E-ISSN 1625-9823, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 7article id 000225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The variety of disease phenotypes among patients with SLE challenges the identification of new biomarkers reflecting disease activity and/or organ damage. Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein with immunomodulating properties. Although raised levels have been reported, the pathogenic implications and clinical utility of OPN as a biomarker in SLE are far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise OPN in SLE.

    Methods Sera from 240 well-characterised adult SLE cases classified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and/or the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria, and 240 population-based controls were immunoassayed for OPN. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) was used to evaluate disease activity and the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI) to detect damage accrual.

    Results Serum OPN levels were in average raised fourfold in SLE cases compared with the controls (p<0.0001). OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K, especially in patients with a disease duration of <12 months (r=0.666, p=0.028). OPN was highly associated with SDI (p<0.0001), especially in the renal (p<0.0001), cardiovascular (p<0.0001) and malignancy (p=0.012) domains. Finally, OPN associated with coherent antiphospholipid syndrome (APS; p=0.009), and both clinical and laboratory criteria of APS had significant positive impact on OPN levels.

    Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, circulating OPN correlates with disease activity in recent-onset SLE, reflects global organ damage and associates with APS. Longitudinal studies to dissect whether serum OPN also precedes and predicts future organ damage are most warranted.

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