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  • 1.
    Wilhelms, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The epidemiology of severe sepsis in Sweden: Methodological aspects on the use of ICD coding in national registries2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe sepsis is characterized by acute organ dysfunction caused by an infection. Despite advanced treatment with antibiotics and organ support the mortality remains high. The epidemiological research on severe sepsis has expanded over the years but has led to conflicting results. In this thesis, we present evidence that some of these conflicting results may be explained by inappropriate methods used in epidemiological studies on severe sepsis. The definition of severe sepsis relies on consensus criteria including a number of clinical signs, parameters and laboratory findings. To facilitate large nation-wide studies on the incidence of severe sepsis in already existing administrative datasets, several investigators have attempted to mirror the clinical criteria by using combinations of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for infection and organ dysfunction. In paper I of this thesis, however, we found that three different ICD code abstraction strategies applied on the same dataset (the Swedish National Patient Register) generated three almost separate cohorts of patients. Furthermore, in paper II, where we followed intensive care unit (ICU)-treated patients with severe sepsis according to clinical consensus criteria to discharge, we observed that most patients did not meet any ICD code abstraction strategies for severe sepsis when reviewing their ICD codes registered at discharge from the hospital. In conclusion, the ICD code abstraction strategies previously used in the epidemiological research on sepsis seem to be inaccurate in the Swedish setting.  

    Sepsis may also result in poor long-term outcomes, and contribute to an increased risk of late mortality. However, the actual causes of late mortality in sepsis remain unclear. In paper III, we investigated causes of death over 1 year after treatment of sepsis in the ICU. In this study, a matched control group consisting of ICU-treated patients without sepsis was included. The most common causes of late mortality in both the sepsis group and the control group were heart diseases and cancer. The sepsis group, however, had a significantly increased incidence of infectious-related deaths compared with the control group, even over 1 year after the initial ICU event.   

    List of papers
    1. Assessment of incidence of severe sepsis in Sweden using different ways of abstracting International Classification of Diseases codes: Difficulties with methods and interpretation of results
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of incidence of severe sepsis in Sweden using different ways of abstracting International Classification of Diseases codes: Difficulties with methods and interpretation of results
    2010 (English)In: CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, ISSN 0090-3493, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1442-1449Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare three International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies that have previously been reported to mirror severe sepsis by examining retrospective Swedish national data from 1987 to 2005 inclusive. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Swedish hospital discharge database. Patients: All hospital admissions during the period 1987 to 2005 were extracted and these patients were screened for severe sepsis using the three International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies, which were adapted for the Swedish version of the International Classification of Diseases. Two code abstraction strategies included both International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes, whereas one included International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes alone. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The three International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies identified 37,990, 27,655, and 12,512 patients, respectively, with severe sepsis. The incidence increased over the years, reaching 0.35 per 1000, 0.43 per 1000, and 0.13 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. During the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision period, we found 17,096 unique patients and of these, only 2789 patients (16%) met two of the code abstraction strategy lists and 14,307 (84%) met one list. The International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision period included 46,979 unique patients, of whom 8% met the criteria of all three International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies, 7% met two, and 84% met one only. Conclusions: The three different International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies generated three almost separate cohorts of patients with severe sepsis. Thus, the International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies for recording severe sepsis in use today provides an unsatisfactory way of estimating the true incidence of severe sepsis. Further studies relating International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies to the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine scores are needed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Williams and Wilkins, 2010
    Keywords
    epidemiology, sepsis, International Classification of Diseases, incidence, mortality, multiple organ failure
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57412 (URN)10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181de4406 (DOI)000278231700008 ()
    Available from: 2010-06-18 Created: 2010-06-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11
    2. Severe sepsis in the ICU is often missing in hospital discharge codes.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Severe sepsis in the ICU is often missing in hospital discharge codes.
    2017 (English)In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Different International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based code abstraction strategies have been used when studying the epidemiology of severe sepsis. The aim of this study was to compare three previously used ICD code abstraction strategies to the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) consensus criteria for severe sepsis, in a setting of intensive care patients.

    METHODS: All patients (≥ 18 years of age) with severe sepsis according to the ACCP/SCCM criteria registered in the Swedish Intensive Care Registry (2005-2009) were included in the study. Using the Swedish National Patient Register, we investigated whether these patients fulfilled an ICD code compilation for severe sepsis at hospital discharge.

    RESULTS: Overall, 9271 patients with severe sepsis were registered in the Swedish Intensive Care Registry. A majority of these patients (55.4%) were discharged from the hospital with ICD codes that did not correspond to any of the ICD code compilations. A minority of patients (10.3%) were discharged with ICD codes corresponding to all three code abstraction strategies applied. Overall, the proportion of patients discharged with ICD codes corresponding to the criteria of Angus et al. was 15.1%, to the criteria of Flaatten was 39.8%, and to the criteria of Martin et al. was 16.0%.

    CONCLUSIONS: A majority of patients with severe sepsis according to the ACCP/SCCM criteria were not discharged with ICD codes corresponding to the ICD code abstraction strategies; thus, the abstraction strategies did not identify the correct patients.

    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133993 (URN)10.1111/aas.12814 (DOI)000394910200007 ()27699759 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Region Ostergotland

    Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2018-05-03
  • 2.
    Wilhelms, Susanne B
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Granath, Goran
    Uppsala University.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Assessment of incidence of severe sepsis in Sweden using different ways of abstracting International Classification of Diseases codes: Difficulties with methods and interpretation of results2010In: CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, ISSN 0090-3493, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1442-1449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare three International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies that have previously been reported to mirror severe sepsis by examining retrospective Swedish national data from 1987 to 2005 inclusive. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Swedish hospital discharge database. Patients: All hospital admissions during the period 1987 to 2005 were extracted and these patients were screened for severe sepsis using the three International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies, which were adapted for the Swedish version of the International Classification of Diseases. Two code abstraction strategies included both International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes, whereas one included International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes alone. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The three International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies identified 37,990, 27,655, and 12,512 patients, respectively, with severe sepsis. The incidence increased over the years, reaching 0.35 per 1000, 0.43 per 1000, and 0.13 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. During the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision period, we found 17,096 unique patients and of these, only 2789 patients (16%) met two of the code abstraction strategy lists and 14,307 (84%) met one list. The International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision period included 46,979 unique patients, of whom 8% met the criteria of all three International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies, 7% met two, and 84% met one only. Conclusions: The three different International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies generated three almost separate cohorts of patients with severe sepsis. Thus, the International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies for recording severe sepsis in use today provides an unsatisfactory way of estimating the true incidence of severe sepsis. Further studies relating International Classification of Diseases code abstraction strategies to the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine scores are needed.

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