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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study2014In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 430-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO on n-type ZnO nanorods have been decorate on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy,  high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation has shown that the adopted synthesis has led to high crystalline quality nanostructures. Morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures were dominated by a near band gap emission at 380 nm and by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence originates mainly from the ZnO nanorods.

  • 2.
    Anasori, Babak
    et al.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Ju Moon, Eun
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hosler, Brian C.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Caspi, Elad N.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Nucl Research Centre Negev, Israel.
    May, Steven J.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Experimental and theoretical characterization of ordered MAX phases Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC32015In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 118, no 9, p. 094304-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we report on the phase stabilities and crystal structures of two newly discovered ordered, quaternary MAX phases-Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC3-synthesized by mixing and heating different elemental powder mixtures of mMo:(3-m) Ti:1.1Al:2C with 1.5 less than= m less than= 2.2 and 2Mo: 2Ti:1.1Al:2.7C to 1600 degrees C for 4 h under Ar flow. In general, for m greater than= 2 an ordered 312 phase, (Mo2Ti) AlC2, was the majority phase; for mless than 2, an ordered 413 phase (Mo2Ti2)AlC3, was the major product. The actual chemistries determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are Mo2TiAlC1.7 and Mo2Ti1.9Al0.9C2.5, respectively. High resolution scanning transmission microscopy, XPS and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the general ordered stacking sequence to be Mo-Ti-Mo-Al-Mo-Ti-Mo for Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo-Ti-Ti-Mo-Al-Mo-Ti-Ti-Mo for Mo2Ti2AlC3, with the carbon atoms occupying the octahedral sites between the transition metal layers. Consistent with the experimental results, the theoretical calculations clearly show that M layer ordering is mostly driven by the high penalty paid in energy by having the Mo atoms surrounded by C in a face-centered configuration, i.e., in the center of the Mn+1Xn blocks. At 331 GPa and 367 GPa, respectively, the Youngs moduli of the ordered Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC3 are predicted to be higher than those calculated for their ternary end members. Like most other MAX phases, because of the high density of states at the Fermi level, the resistivity measurement over 300 to 10K for both phases showed metallic behavior. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 3.
    Anasori, Babak
    et al.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Drexel University, USA.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Voigt, Cooper A.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Mo2TiAlC2: A new ordered layered ternary carbide2015In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 101, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we report on the synthesis of a new layered ternary carbide, Mo2TiAlC2, that was synthesized by heating an elemental mixture at 1600 degrees C for 4 h under an Ar flow. Its hexagonal, a and c lattice parameters were calculated via Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction patterns to be, respectively, 2.997 angstrom and 18.661 angstrom. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy showed that this phase is ordered, with Ti layers sandwiched between two Mo layers in a M(3)AX(2) type ternary carbide structure. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Anasori, Babak
    et al.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Xie, Yu
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Beidaghi, Majid
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hosler, Brian C.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kent, Paul R. C.
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA; Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Gogotsi, Yury
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Two-Dimensional, Ordered, Double Transition Metals Carbides (MXenes)2015In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 9507-9516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The higher the chemical diversity and structural complexity of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the higher the likelihood they possess unique and useful properties. Herein, density functional theory (DFT) is used to predict the existence of two new families of 2D ordered, carbides (MXenes), MM-2 C-2 and MM-2 C-2(3), where M and M are two different early transition metals. In these solids, M layers sandwich M" carbide layers. By synthesizing Mo2TiC2Tx, Mo2Ti2C3Tx, and Cr2TiC2Tx (where T is a surface termination), we validated the DFT predictions. Since the Mo and Cr atoms are on the outside, they control the 2D flakes chemical and electrochemical properties. The latter was proven by showing quite different electrochemical behavior of Mo2TiC2Tx and Ti3C2Tx. This work further expands the family of 2D materials, offering additional choices of structures, chemistries, and ultimately useful properties.

  • 5.
    Asif, Muhammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brännmark, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Englund, Ulrika H
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and Structure of ZnO Nanorods on a Sub-Micrometer Glass Pipette and Their Application as Intracellular Potentiometric Selective Ion Sensors2010In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 3, p. 4657-4667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the growth and structure of ZnO nanorods on a sub-micrometer glass pipette and their application as an intracellular selective ion sensor. Highly oriented, vertical and aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 μm in diameter) by the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique. The relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of ZnO nanorods makes them attractive for electrochemical sensing. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that ZnO nanorods are single crystals and grow along the crystal’s c-axis. The ZnO nanorods were functionalized with a polymeric membrane for selective intracellular measurements of Na

     

    +. The membrane-coated ZnO nanorods exhibited a Na+-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus

    an Ag/AgCl reference micro-electrode within a wide concentration range from 0.5 mM to 100 mM. The fabrication of functionalized ZnO nanorods paves the way to sense a wide range of biochemical species at the intracellular level.

  • 6.
    Bostrom, T
    et al.
    Norut No Research Institute Narvik.
    Valizadeh, S
    Uppsala University.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westin, G
    Uppsala University.
    Wackelgard, E
    Uppsala University.
    Structure and morphology of nickel-alumina/silica solar thermal selective absorbers2011In: JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, ISSN 0022-3093, Vol. 357, no 5, p. 1370-1375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel-alumina/silica thin film materials for the use in solar thermal absorbers have been investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). The TEM images revealed that all layers have a very small thickness variation and that the layers are completely homogenous. High resolution images showed 5-10 nm (poly) crystalline nickel nano-particles. ERDA showed that both the silica and alumina compositions contain more oxygen than 2:1 and 3:2 respectively. SEM showed the surface morphology and characteristics of the top silica anti-reflection layer. Hybrid-silica has showed to generate a smoother surface with less cracking compared to pure silica. The final curing temperature revealed to be of importance for the formation of cracks and the surface morphology.

  • 7.
    Broitman, Esteban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hangen, Ude D.
    Hysitron Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High-temperature nanoindentation of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films2016In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 124, p. 117-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use in-situ heated nanoindentation to investigate the high-temperature nanomechanical properties of epitaxial and textured ZrB2 films deposited by magnetron sputtering. Epitaxial films deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) show a hardness decrease from 47 GPa at room temperature to 33 GPa at 600 °C, while the reduced elastic modulus does not change significantly. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) with selected area electron diffraction of the indented area in a 0001-textured film reveals a retained continuous ZrB2 film and no sign of crystalline phase transformation, despite massive deformation of the Si substrate. HRTEM analysis supports the high elastic recovery of 96% in the films.

  • 8.
    Broitman, Esteban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yousuf Soomro, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanoscale piezoelectric response of ZnO nanowires measured using a nanoindentation technique2013In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 15, no 26, p. 11113-11118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanowires (NWs) obtained by using a nanoindenter with a conductive boron-doped diamond tip. The direct piezoelectric effect was measured by performing nanoindentations under load control, and the generated piezoelectric voltage was characterized as a function of the applied loads in the range 0.2-6 mN. The converse piezoelectric effect was measured by applying a DC voltage to the sample while there was a low applied force to allow the tip being always in physical contact with the NWs. Vertically aligned ZnO NWs were grown on inexpensive, flexible, and disposable paper substrates using a template-free low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. When using the nanoindenter to measure the direct piezoelectric effect, piezopotential values of up to 26 mV were generated. Corresponding measurement of the converse piezoelectric effect gave an effective piezoelectric coefficient d(33)(eff) of similar to 9.2 pm V-1. The ZnO NWs were also characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The new nanoindentation approach provides a straightforward method to characterize piezoelectric material deposited on flexible and disposable substrates for the next generation of nanodevices.

  • 9.
    Buchholt, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghandi, R
    Royal Institute Technology, KTH.
    Domeij, M
    Royal Institute Technology, KTH.
    Zetterling, C M
    Royal Institute Technology, KTH.
    Behan, G
    Trinity College Dublin.
    Zhang, H
    Trinity College Dublin.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ti3GeC2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001)2012In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 343, no 1, p. 133-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial Ti3GeC2 thin films were deposited on 4 degrees off-cut 4H-SiC(0001) using magnetron sputtering from high purity Ti, C, and Ge targets. Scanning electron microscopy and helium ion microscopy show that the Ti3GeC2 films grow by lateral step-flow with {11 (2) over bar0} faceting on the SiC surface. Using elastic recoil detection analysis, atomic force microscopy, and X-Ray diffraction the films were found to be substoichiometric in Ge with the presence of small Ge particles at the surface of the film.

  • 10.
    Buchholt, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Step-flow growth of nanolaminate Ti3SiC2 epitaxial layers on 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1)2011In: SCRIPTA MATERIALIA, ISSN 1359-6462, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 1141-1144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial Ti3SiC2(0 0 0 1) films were deposited on 4 degrees off-cut 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1) wafers using magnetron sputtering. A lateral step-flow growth mechanism of the Ti3SiC2 was discovered by X-ray diffraction, elastic recoil detection analysis, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. Helium ion microscopy revealed contrast variations on the Ti3SiC2 terraces, suggesting a mixed Si and Ti(C) termination. Si-rich growth conditions results in Ti3SiC2 layers with pronounced {1 1 (2) over bar 0) faceting and off-oriented TiSi2 crystallites, while stoichiometric growth yields truncated {1 (1) over bar 0 0) terrace edges.

  • 11.
    Buchholt, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghandi, R
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Domeij, M
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Zetterling, C-M
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohmic contact properties of magnetron sputtered Ti3SiC2 on n- and p-type 4H-silicon carbide2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 042108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial Ti3SiC2 (0001) thin film contacts were grown on doped 4H-SiC (0001) using magnetron sputtering in an ultra high vacuum system. The specific contact resistance was investigated using linear transmission line measurements. Rapid thermal annealing at 950 degrees C for 1 min of as-deposited films yielded ohmic contacts to n-type SiC with contact resistances in the order of 10(-4) Omega cm(2). Transmission electron microscopy shows that the interface between Ti3SiC2 and n-type SiC is atomically sharp with evidence of interfacial ordering after annealing.

  • 12.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengstrand, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nedfors, Nils
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Discovery of the Ternary Nanolaminated Compound Nb2GeC by a Systematic Theoretical-Experimental Approach2012In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 035502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the advent of theoretical materials science some 60 years ago, there has been a drive to predict and design new materials in silicio. Mathematical optimization procedures to determine phase stability can be generally applicable to complex ternary or higher-order materials systems where the phase diagrams of the binary constituents are sufficiently known. Here, we employ a simplex-optimization procedure to predict new compounds in the ternary Nb-Ge-C system. Our theoretical results show that the hypothetical Nb2GeC is stable, and excludes all reasonably conceivable competing hypothetical phases. We verify the existence of the Nb2GeC phase by thin film synthesis using magnetron sputtering. This hexagonal nanolaminated phase has a and c lattice parameters of similar to 3.24 angstrom and 12.82 angstrom.

  • 13.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frodelius, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnfält, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial growth of gamma-Al2O3 on Ti2AlC(0001) by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering2014In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 017138-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al2O3 was deposited by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering at 600 degrees C onto pre-deposited Ti2AlC(0001) thin films on alpha-Al2O3(0001) substrates. The Al2O3 was deposited to a thickness of 65 nm and formed an adherent layer of epitaxial gamma-Al2O3(111) as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The demonstration of epitaxial growth of gamma-Al2O3 on Ti2AlC (0001) open prospects for growth of crystalline alumina as protective coatings on Ti2AlC and related nanolaminated materials. The crystallographic orientation relationships are gamma-Al2O3(111)//Ti2AlC(0001) (out-of-plane) and gamma-Al2O3(2 (2) over bar0)//Ti2AlC(11 (2) over bar0) (in-plane) as determined by electron diffraction. Annealing in vacuum at 900 degrees C resulted in partial decomposition of the Ti2AlC by depletion of Al and diffusion into and through the gamma-Al2O3 layer.

  • 14.
    Engberg, David L. J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johnson, Lars J. S.
    Sandvik Coromant, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson-­‐Jöesaar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SECO Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thuvander, Mattias
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solid Solution and Segregation Effects in Arc-Deposited Ti1-xSixN Thin Films Resolved on the nanometer scale by 15N Isotopic Substitution in AtomP robe TomographyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured TiSiN is an important material in wear--‐resistant coatings for extending the lifetime of cutting tools. Yet, the understanding regarding the structure, phase composition, and bonding on the detailed nanometer scale, which determines the properties of TiSiN, is lacking. This limits our understanding of the growth phenomena and eventually a larger exploitation of the material. By substituting natN2 with 15N2 during reactive arc deposition of TiSiN thin films, atom probe tomography (APT) gives elemental sensitivity and sub-nanometer resolution, a finer scale than what can be obtained by commonly employed energy dispersive electron spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using a combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy and APT we show that arc-deposited Ti0.92Si0.0815N and Ti0.81Si0.1915N exhibit Si segregation on the nanometer scale in the alloy films. APT composition maps and proximity histograms from domains with higher than average Ti content show that the TiN domains contain at least ~2 at. % Si for Ti0.92Si0.08N and ~5 at. % Si for Ti0.81Si0.19N, thus confirming the formation of solid solutions. The formation of relatively pure SiNy domains in the Ti0.81Si0.19N films is tied to pockets between microstructured, columnar features in the film. Finer SiNy enrichments seen in APT possibly correspond to tissue layers around TiN crystallites, thus effectively hindering growth of TiN crystallites, causing TiN renucleation and thus explaining the featherlike nanostructure within the columns of these films. For the stoichiometry of the TiN phase, we establish a global under stoichiometry, in accordance with the tendency for SiNy films to have tetrahedral bonding coordination towards a nominal Si3N4 composition.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengstrand, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanocolumnar Epitaxial Ti1-xSixN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.18) Thin Films Grown by Dual Reactive Magnetron Sputtering on MgO (001), (011), and (111) Substrates2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti1-xSixNy thin films and multilayers have been grown on single-crystal TiN-templated MgO (001), (011), and (111) substrates kept at 550 °C. Elemental Ti and Si targets were used in UVH reactive dual magnetron sputtering in a mixed Ar/N2 discharge. Composition analysis by time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis show that the films are close to stoichiometric (0.95 ≤ y ≤ 1.00) with respect to TiN over the wide range of Si concentrations 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.22. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with scanning TEM and energy dispersive Xray analysis show that all films grow epitaxially for x ≤ 0.18 and that as much as every fifth Ti atom can be replaced by Si (~10 at.%) in Ti1-xSixN(001). For the (011) and (111)-oriented films, however, only 1-2 at.% Si substitutes for Ti. Instead, Si segregates to form crystalline-to-amorphous SiNz (z ≈ 1) tissue phases, which promote the formation of epitaxial TiN nanocolumns. The nanocolumns have preferred {110} interfaces and {200} top facets and grow several hundreds  of nm in length.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengstrand, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Si incorporation in Ti1-xSixN films grown on TiN(001) and (001)-faceted TiN(111) columns2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 257, p. 121-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films consisting of TiN nanocrystallites encapsulated in a fully percolated SiNy tissue phase are archetypes for hard and superhard nanocomposites. Here, we investigate metastable SiNy solid solubility in TiN and probe the effects of surface segregation during the growth of TiSiN films onto substrates that are either flat TiN(001)/MgO(001) epitaxial buffer layers or TiN(001) facets of length 1-5 nm terminating epitaxial TiN(111) nanocolumns, separated by voids, deposited on epitaxial TiN(111)/MgO(111) buffer layers. Using reactive magnetron sputter deposition, the TiSiN layers were grown at 550 degrees C and the TiN buffer layers at 900 degrees C On TiN(001), the films are NaCl-structure single-phase metastable Ti1-xSixN(001) with N/(Ti + Si) = 1 and 0 less than= x less than= 0.19. These alloys remain single-crystalline to critical thicknesses h(c) ranging from 100 +/- 30 nm with x = 0.13 to 40 +/- 10 nm with x = 0.19. At thicknesses h greater than h(c), the epitaxial growth front breaks down locally to form V-shaped polycrystalline columns with an underdense feather-like nanostructure. In contrast, the voided epitaxial TiN(111) columnar surfaces, as well as the TiN(001) facets, act as sinks for SiNy. For Ti1-xSixN layers with global average composition values less than x greater than = 0.16, the local x value in the middle of Ti1-xSixN columns increases from 0.08 for columns with radius r similar or equal to 2 nm to x = 0.14 with r similar or equal to 4 nm. The average out-of-plane lattice parameter of epitaxial nanocolumns encapsulated in SiNy decreases monotonically with increasing Si fraction less than x greater than, indicating the formation of metastable (Ti,Si)N solid solutions under growth conditions similar to those of superhard nanocomposites for which the faceted surfaces of nanograins also provide sinks for SiNy.

  • 17.
    Fager, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, J.M.
    Seco Tools AB, SE-737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermal stability and mechanical properties of amorphous arc evaporated Ti-B-Si-N and Ti-B-Si-Al-N coatings grown by cathodic arc evaporation from TiB2, Ti33Al67, and Ti85Si15 cathodes2014In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 061508-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti-B-Al-N, Ti-B-Si-N, and Ti-B-Si-Al-N coatings were grown on cemented carbide substrates in an industrial scale cathodic arc evaporation system using Ti33Al67, Ti85Si15, and TiB2 cathodes in a reactiveN2 atmosphere. The microstructure of the as-deposited coatings changes from nanocrystalline to amorphous with addition of (B+Si+Al), or high amounts of (B+Si) to TiN. In the as-deposited state, the 4 μm-thick amorphous coatings are dense and homogenous, besides slight compositional modulation with Ti-rich layers induced by rotation of the substrate holder fixture during deposition, and have unusually few macroparticles. Annealing at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 1100 °C results in that the coatings crystallize by clustering of TiN grains. The hardness of as-deposited amorphous coatings is 17-18 GPa, and increases to 21 GPa following annealing at 800 °C. At annealing temperatures of 1000 °C and above the hardness decreases due to inter-diffusion of Co from the substrate to the coating.

  • 18.
    Fager, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reactive DC magnetron sputtering of amorphous (Ti0.25B0.75)1−xSixNy thin films from TiB2 and Si targets2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti0.25B0.75)1−xSixNy, 0≤x≤0.89, 0.9≤y≤1.25, thin films were reactively grown on Si(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering from compound TiB2 and elemental Si targets. The films can be grown in a fully electron-diffraction amorphous state with x>0.46, as evidenced by XRD and HR-TEM investigations. With x=0, BN form onion-like sheets surrounding TiNnanograins. Substrate temperatures, Ts=100-600 ◦C, has a minor effect of the film structure and properties, due to limited surface diffusion.

    Ion-assisted growth with substrate bias voltages, Vb, between -50 V and -200 V, favors densification of amorphous structures over nanocrystalline formation, and improves mechanical properties. A maximum hardness value of 26.8±0.7 GPa is found for an amorphous (Ti0.25B0.75)0.39Si0.61N1.15 film grown with substrate temperature Ts=400 °C and substrate bias voltage Vb=-100 V.

  • 19.
    Fager, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and properties of amorphous Ti-B-Si-N thin films deposited by hybrid HIPIMS/DC-magnetron co-sputtering from TiB2 and Si targets2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 259, p. 442-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous nitrides are explored for their homogenous structure and potential use as wear-resistant coatings, beyond their much studied nano-and microcrystalline counterparts. (TiB2)1−xSixNy thin films were deposited on Si(001) substrates by a hybrid technique of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) combined with dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) using TiB2 and Si targets in a N2/Ar atmosphere. By varying the sputtering dc power to the Si target from 200 to 2000 W while keeping the average power to the TiB2-target, operated in HIPIMS mode, constant at 4000 W, the Si content in the films increased gradually from x=0.01 to x=0.43. The influence of the Si content on the microstructure, phase constituents, and mechanical properties were systematically investigated. The results show that the microstructure of as-deposited (TiB2)1−xSixNy films changes from nanocrystalline with 2-4 nm TiN grains for x=0.01 to fully electron diffraction amorphous for x=0.22. With increasing Si content, the hardness of the films increases from 8.5 GPa with x=0.01 to 17.2 GPa with x=0.43.

  • 20.
    Fager, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Howe, B.M.
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, USA.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mei, A. R. B.
    Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and Materials Science Department, University of Illinois, USA.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, J.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hf-Al-Si-N multilayers deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from a single Hf0.6Al0.2Si0.2 target using high-flux, low-energy modulated substrate bias: film growth and properties2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hf1−x−yAlxSiyN (0≤x≤0.14, 0≤y≤0.13) single layers and multilayer films are grown on Si(001) at a substrate temperature Ts=250 °C using ultrahigh vacuum magnetically-unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering from a single Hf0.6Al0.2Si0.2 target in a 5%-N2/Ar atmosphere at a total pressure of 20 mTorr (2.67 Pa). The composition and nanostructure of Hf1−x−yAlxSiyN is controlled during growth by varying the ion energy (Ei) of the ions incident at the film surface, keeping the ion-to-metal flux ratio (Ji/JMe) constant at 8. By sequentially switching Ei between 10 and 40 eV, Hf0.77Al0.10Si0.13N/Hf0.78Al0.14Si0.08N multilayers with bilayer periods Λ = 2-20 nm are grown, in which the Si2p bonding state changes from predominantly Si-Si bonds for films grown at Ei = 10 eV, to mainly Si-N bonds at Ei = 40 eV. Multilayer hardness values increase monotonically from 20 GPa with Λ = 20 nm to 27 GPa with Λ = 2 nm, while multilayer fracture toughness increases with increasing Λ. Multilayers with Λ = 10 nm have the optimized property combination of being bothrelatively hard, H∼24 GPa, and fracture tough.

  • 21.
    Fager, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Howe, Brandon M.
    US Air Force, OH 45433 USA.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mei, A. B.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Novel hard, tough HfAlSiN multilayers, defined by alternating Si bond structure, deposited using modulated high-flux, low-energy ion irradiation of the growing film2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 05E103-1-05E103-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hf1-x-yAlxSiyN (0 less than= x less than= 0.14, 0 less than= y less than= 0.12) single layer and multilayer films are grown on Si(001) at 250 degrees C using ultrahigh vacuum magnetically unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering from a single Hf0.6Al0.2Si0.2 target in mixed 5%-N-2/Ar atmospheres at a total pressure of 20 mTorr (2.67 Pa). The composition and nanostructure of Hf1-x-yAlxSiyN films are controlled by varying the energy Ei of the ions incident at the film growth surface while maintaining the ion-to-metal flux ratio constant at eight. Switching E-i between 10 and 40 eV allows the growth of Hf0.78Al0.10Si0.12N/Hf0.78Al0.14Si0.08N multilayers with similar layer compositions, but in which the Si bonding state changes from predominantly Si-Si/Si-Hf for films grown with E-i = 10 eV, to primarily Si-N with E-i = 40 eV. Multilayer hardness values, which vary inversely with bilayer period Lambda, range from 20 GPa with Lambda = 20 nm to 27 GPa with Lambda = 2 nm, while fracture toughness increases directly with Lambda. Multilayers with Lambda = 10nm combine relatively high hardness, H similar to 24GPa, with good fracture toughness. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.

  • 22.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smedfors, K.
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zetterling, C. -M
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Single-step synthesis process of Ti3SiC2 ohmic contacts on 4H-SiC by sputter-deposition of Ti2015In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 99, p. 53-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a single-step procedure for growth of ohmic Ti3SiC2 on 4H-SiC by sputter-deposition of Ti at 960 °C, based on the Ti–SiC solid-state reaction during deposition. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy show the growth of interfacial Ti3SiC2. The as-deposited contacts are ohmic, in contrast to multistep processes with deposition followed by rapid thermal annealing. This procedure also offers the possibility of direct synthesis of oxygen-barrier capping layers before exposure to air, potentially improving contact stability in high-temperature and high-power devices.

  • 23.
    Frodelius, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paul, Dennis
    Phys Elect USA, USA .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase stability and initial low-temperature oxidation mechanism of Ti2AlC thin films2013In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti2AlC thin films deposited onto Al2O3 by magnetron sputtering were used as model for studying the early stages (andlt; 15 min) of relatively low-temperature (500 degrees C) oxidation of Ti2AlC. The well-defined microstructure of these films forms a surface of valleys, hillocks and plateaus comprised of basal-plane-oriented grains with a fraction of nonbasal-plane-oriented grains with out-of-plane orientation of (1 0 (1) over bar 3) and (1 0 (1) over bar 6) as shown by X-ray diffraction and s electron microscopy. During oxidation, Al2O3 clusters and areas of C-containing titania (TiOxCy) are formed on the surface. A mechanism is proposed in which the locations of the Al2O3 clusters are related to the migration of Al atoms diffusing out of Ti2AlC. The Al2O3 is initially formed in valleys or on plateaus where Al atoms have been trapped while TiOxCy forms by in-diffusion of oxygen into the Al-deficient Ti2AlC. At 500 degrees C, the migration of Al atoms is faster than the oxidation kinetics; explaining this microstructure-dependent oxidation mechanism.

  • 24.
    Furlan, Andrej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnuson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structure and bonding in amorphous iron carbide thin films2015In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 045002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the amorphous structure, chemical bonding, and electrical properties ofmagnetron sputtered Fe1−xCx (0.21 < x < 0.72) thin films. X-ray, electron diffraction andtransmission electron microscopy show that the Fe1−xCx films are amorphousnanocomposites, consisting of a two-phase domain structure with Fe-rich carbidic FeCy , and acarbon-rich matrix. Pair distribution function analysis indicates a close-range order similar tothose of crystalline Fe3C carbides in all films with additional graphene-like structures at highcarbon content (71.8 at% C). From x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we findthat the amorphous carbidic phase has a composition of 15–25 at% carbon that slightlyincreases with total carbon content. X-ray absorption spectra exhibit an increasing number ofunoccupied 3d states and a decreasing number of C 2p states as a function of carbon content.These changes signify a systematic redistribution in orbital occupation due to charge-transfereffects at the domain-size-dependent carbide/matrix interfaces. The four-point proberesistivity of the Fe1−xCx films increases exponentially with carbon content from ∼200μcm(x = 0.21) to ∼1200μcm (x = 0.72), and is found to depend on the total carbon contentrather than the composition of the carbide. Our findings open new possibilities for modifyingthe resistivity of amorphous thin film coatings based on transition metal carbides through thecontrol of amorphous domain structures.

  • 25.
    Furlan, Andrej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Magnuson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crystallization characteristics and chemical bonding properties of nickel carbide thin film nanocomposites2014In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 26, no 41, p. 415501-415512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure and chemical bonding of magnetron-sputtering deposited nickel carbide Ni1−xCx (0.05≤x≤0.62) thin films have been investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. By using x-ray as well as electron diffraction, we found carbon-containing hcp-Ni (hcp-NiCy phase), instead of the expected rhombohedral-Ni3C. At low carbon content (4.9 at%), the thin film consists of hcp-NiCy nanocrystallites mixed with a smaller amount of fcc-NiCx. The average grain size is about10–20 nm. With the increase of carbon content to 16.3 at%, the film contains single-phase hcp-NiCy nanocrystallites with expanded lattice parameters. With a further increase of carbon content to 38 at%, and 62 at%, the films transform to x-ray amorphous materials with hcp-NiCy and fcc-NiCx nanodomain structures in an amorphous carbon-rich matrix. Raman spectra of carbon indicate dominant sp2 hybridization, consistent with photoelectron spectra that show a decreasing amount of C–Ni phase with increasing carbon content. The Ni 3d–C 2p hybridization in the hexagonal structure gives rise to the salient double-peak structure in Ni 2p soft x-ray absorption spectra at 16.3 at% that changes with carbon content. We also show thatthe resistivity is not only governed by the amount of carbon, but increases by more than a factor of two when the samples transform from crystalline to amorphous.

  • 26.
    Furlan, Andrej
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Control of crystallinity in sputtered Cr–Ti–C films2013In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 61, no 17, p. 6352-6361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of Ti content on crystallinity and bonding of Cr–Ti–C thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering have been studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that binary Cr–C films without Ti exhibit an amorphous structure with two non-crystalline components; amorphous CrCx and amorphous C (a-C). The addition of 10–20 at.% Ti leads to the crystallization of the amorphous CrCx and the formation of a metastable cubic (Cr1−xTix)Cy phase. The observation was explained based on the tendency of the 3d transition metals to form crystalline carbide films. The mechanical properties of the films determined by nanoindentation and microindentation were found to be strongly dependent on the film composition in terms of hardness, elasticity modulus, hardness/elasticity ratio and crack development.

  • 27.
    Gao, Xindong
    et al.
    Solid-State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala .
    Andersson, Joakim
    Solid-State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala .
    Kubart, Tomas
    Solid-State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala .
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Solid-State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala .
    Smith, Ulf
    Solid-State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala .
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kellock, Andrew J
    IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California, USA .
    Zhang, Zhen
    IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York , USA.
    Lavoie, Christian
    IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York , USA.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Solid-State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala .
    Epitaxy of Ultrathin NiSi2 Films with Predetermined Thickness2011In: ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SOLID STATE LETTERS, ISSN 1099-0062, Vol. 14, no 7, p. H268-H270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter presents a proof-of-concept process for tunable, self-limiting growth of ultrathin epitaxial NiSi2 films on Si (100). The process starts with metal sputter-deposition, followed by wet etching and then silicidation. By ionizing a fraction of the sputtered Ni atoms and biasing the Si substrate, the amount of Ni atoms incorporated in the substrate after wet etching can be controlled. As a result, the thickness of the NiSi2 films is increased from 4.7 to 7.2 nm by changing the nominal substrate bias from 0 to 600 V. The NiSi2 films are characterized by a specific resistivity around 50 mu Omega cm.

  • 28.
    Goyenola, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theoretical prediction and synthesis of CSxFy thin films2016In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, no 17, p. 9527-9534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new carbon-based compound: CSxFy was addressed by density functional theory calculations and synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering. Geometry optimizations and energy calculations were performed on graphene-like model systems containing sulfur and fluorine atoms. It is shown that [S+F] concentrations in the range of 0−10 at.%, structural ordered characteristics similar to graphene pieces containing ring defects are energetically feasible. The modeling predicts that CSxFy thin films with graphite and fullerene-like characteristics may be obtained for the mentioned concentration range. Accordingly, thin films were synthesized from a graphite solid target and sulfur hexafluoride as reactive gas. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, transmission electron microscopy characterization and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the presence of small ordered clusters with graphitic features in a sample containing 0.4 at.% of S and 3.4 at.% of F.

  • 29.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bolz, Stephan
    CemeCon AG, Wűrselen, Germany.
    Koelker, Werner
    CemeCon AG, Wűrselen, Germany.
    Schiffers, Christoph
    CemeCon AG, Wűrselen, Germany.
    Lemmer, Oliver
    CemeCon AG, Wűrselen, Germany.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, Urbana, USA .
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, Urbana, USA .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Novel strategy for low-temperature, high-rate growth of dense, hard, and stress-free refractory ceramic thin films2014In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 041515-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of fully dense refractory thin films by means of physical vapor deposition (PVD) requires elevated temperatures T-s to ensure sufficient adatom mobilities. Films grown with no external heating are underdense, as demonstrated by the open voids visible in cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images and by x-ray reflectivity results; thus, the layers exhibit low nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus values. Ion bombardment of the growing film surface is often used to enhance densification; however, the required ion energies typically extract a steep price in the form of residual rare-gas-ion-induced compressive stress. Here, the authors propose a PVD strategy for the growth of dense, hard, and stress-free refractory thin films at low temperatures; that is, with no external heating. The authors use TiN as a model ceramic materials system and employ hybrid high-power pulsed and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HIPIMS and DCMS) in Ar/N-2 mixtures to grow dilute Ti1-xTaxN alloys on Si(001) substrates. The Ta target driven by HIPIMS serves as a pulsed source of energetic Ta+/Ta2+ metal-ions, characterized by in-situ mass and energy spectroscopy, while the Ti target operates in DCMS mode (Ta-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS) providing a continuous flux of metal atoms to sustain a high deposition rate. Substrate bias V-s is applied in synchronous with the Ta-ion portion of each HIPIMS pulse in order to provide film densification by heavy-ion irradiation (m(Ta) = 180.95 amu versus m(Ti) = 47.88 amu) while minimizing Ar+ bombardment and subsequent trapping in interstitial sites. Since Ta is a film constituent, primarily residing on cation sublattice sites, film stress remains low. Dense Ti0.92Ta0.08N alloy films, 1.8 mu m thick, grown with T-s less than= 120 degrees C (due to plasma heating) and synchronized bias, V-s = 160 V, exhibit nanoindentation hardness H = 25.9 GPa and elastic modulus E = 497 GPa compared to 13.8 and 318 GPa for underdense Ti-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS TiN reference layers (T-s less than 120 degrees C) grown with the same V-s, and 7.8 and 248 GPa for DCMS TiN films grown with no applied bias (T-s less than 120 degrees C). Ti0.92Ta0.08N residual stress is low, sigma = -0.7 GPa, and essentially equal to that of Ti-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS TiN films grown with the same substrate bias.

  • 30.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bolz, S.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Koelker, W.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Schiffers, Ch.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Lemmer, O.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A review of metal-ion-flux-controlled growth of metastable TiAlN by HIPIMS/DCMS co-sputtering2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 257, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review results on the growth of metastable Ti1-xAlxN alloy films by hybrid high-power pulsed and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HIPIMS/DCMS) using the time domain to apply substrate bias either in synchronous with the entire HIPIMS pulse or just the metal-rich portion of the pulse in mixed Ar/N-2 discharges. Depending upon which elemental target, Ti or Al, is powered by HIPIMS, distinctly different film-growth kinetic pathways are observed due to charge and mass differences in the metal-ion fluxes incident at the growth surface. Al+ ion irradiation during Al-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS at 500 degrees C, with a negative substrate bias V-s = 60 V synchronized to the HIPIMS pulse (thus suppressing Ar+ ion irradiation due to DCMS), leads to single-phase NaCl-structure Ti1-xAlxN films (x less than= 0.60) with high hardness (greater than30 GPa with x greater than 0.55) and low stress (0.2-0.8 GPa compressive). Ar+ ion bombardment can be further suppressed in favor of predominantly Al+ ion irradiation by synchronizing the substrate bias to only the metal-ion-rich portion of the Al-HIPIMS pulse. In distinct contrast Ti-HIPIMS/Al-DCMSTi1-xAlxN layers grown with Ti+/Ti2+ metal ion irradiation and the same HIPIMS-synchronized V-s value, are two-phase mixtures, NaCl-structure Ti1-xAlxN plus wurtzite AlN, exhibiting low hardness (similar or equal to 18 GPa) with high compressive stresses, up to -3.5 GPa. In both cases, film properties are controlled by the average metal-ion momentum per deposited atom less thanp(d)greater than transferred to the film surface. During Ti-HIPIMS, the growing film is subjected to an intense flux of doubly-ionized Ti2+, while Al2+ irradiation is insignificant during Al-HIPIMS. This asymmetry is decisive since the critical less thanp(d)greater than limit for precipitation of w-AlN, 135 [eV-amu](1/2), is easily exceeded during Ti-HIPIMS, even with no intentional bias. The high Ti2+ ion flux is primarily due to the second ionization potential (IP2) of Ti being lower than the first IP (IP1) of Ar. New results involving the HIPIMS growth of metastable Ti1-xAlxN alloy films from segmented TiAl targets are consistent with the above conclusions.

  • 31.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bolz, S.
    CemeCon AG, Germany .
    Koelker, W.
    CemeCon AG, Germany .
    Schiffers, Ch.
    CemeCon AG, Germany .
    Lemmer, O.
    CemeCon AG, Germany .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strain-free, single-phase metastable Ti0.38Al0.62N alloys with high hardness: metal-ion energy vs. momentum effects during film growth by hybrid high-power pulsed/dc magnetron cosputtering2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 556, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid deposition process consisting of reactive high-power pulsed and dc magnetron cosputtering (HIPIMS and DCMS) from Ti and Al targets is used to grow Ti1-xAlxN alloys, with x similar to 0.6, on Si(001) at 500 degrees C. Two series of films are deposited in which the energy and momentum of metal ions incident at the growing film are individually varied. In both sets of experiments, a negative bias V-s ranging from 20 to 280 V is applied to the substrate in synchronous, as determined by in-situ mass spectrometry, with the metal-ion-rich part of the HIPIMS pulse. Ion momentum is varied by switching the HIPIMS and dc power supplies to change the mass m and average charge of the primary metal ion. Al-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS layers grown under Al+ (m(Al) = 26.98 amu) bombardment with 20 less than= V-s less than= 160 V are single-phase NaCl-structure alloys, while films deposited with V-s greater than 160 V are two-phase, cubic plus wurtzite. The corresponding critical average metal-ion momentum transfer per deposited atom for phase separation is less than p(d)*greater than greater than= 135 [eV-amu](1/2). In distinct contrast, layers deposited in the Ti-HIPIMS/Al-DCMS configuration with Ti+/Ti2+ (m(Ti) = 47.88 amu) ion irradiation are two-phase even with the lowest bias, V-s = 20 V, for which less than p(d)*greater than greater than 135 [eV-amu](1/2). Precipitation of wurtzite-structure AlN is primarily determined by the average metal-ion momentum transfer to the growing film, rather than by the deposited metal-ion energy. Ti-HIPIMS/Al-DCMS layers grown with V-s= 20 V are two-phase with compressive stress sigma= -2 GPa which increases to -6.2 GPa at V-s= 120 V; hardness H values range from 17.5 to 27 GPa and are directly correlated with sigma. However, for Al-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS, the relatively low mass and single charge of the Al+ ion permits tuning properties of metastable cubic Ti0.38Al0.62 N by adjusting V-s to vary, for example, the hardness from 12 to 31 GPa while maintaining sigma similar to 0.

  • 32.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bolz, Stephan
    CemeCon AG, Germany .
    Koelker, Werner
    CemeCon AG, Germany .
    Schiffers, Christoph
    CemeCon AG, Germany .
    Lemmer, Oliver
    CemeCon AG, Germany .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti1-xAlxN film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias2012In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metastable NaCl-structure Ti1-xAlxN is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 degrees C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti1-xAlxN) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar+ irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar+ ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al+ ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar+ to Al+ bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

  • 33.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, M
    Seco Tools AB.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selection of metal ion irradiation for controlling Ti1-xAlxN alloy growth via hybrid HIPIMS/magnetron co-sputtering2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 8, p. 1036-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the growth of metastable single-phase NaCl-structure high-AlN-content Ti1-xAlxN alloys (x andlt;= 0.64) which simultaneously possess high hardness and low residual stress. The films are grown using a hybrid approach combining high-power pulsed magnetron (HPPMS/HIPIMS) and dc magnetron sputtering of opposing metal targets. With HIPIMS applied to the Al target, Aln+ ion irradiation (dominated by Aln+) of the growing film results in alloys 0.55 andlt;= x andlt;= 0.60 which exhibit hardness H similar to 30 GPa and low stress sigma = 0.2-0.7 GPa, tensile. In sharp contrast, films with corresponding AlN concentrations grown with HIPIMS applied to the Ti target, giving rise to Tin+ ion irradiation (with a significant Ti2+ component), are two-phase - cubic (Ti,Al)N and hexagonal AlN - with low hardness, H = 18-19 GPa, and high compressive stress ranging up to 2.7 GPa. Annealing alloys grown with HIPIMS applied to the Al target results in age hardening due to spinodal decomposition; the hardness of Ti0.41Al0.59N increases from 30 to 33 GPa following a 900 degrees C anneal.

  • 34.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, M.P.
    Sweden Seco Tools AB, Sweden .
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role of Tin+ and Aln+ ion irradiation (n=1, 2) during Ti1-xAlxN alloy film growth in a hybrid HIPIMS/magnetron mode2012In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 19-20, p. 4202-4211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metastable Ti1-xAlxN (0.4 less than= x less than= 0.76) films are grown using a hybrid approach in which high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is combined with dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Elemental Al and Ti metal targets are co-sputtered with one operated in HIPIMS mode and the other target in DCMS; the positions of the targets are then switched for the next set of experiments. In both cases, the AlN concentration in the co-sputtered films, deposited at T-s = 500 degrees C with R = 1.5-5.3 angstrom/s, is controlled by adjusting the average DCMS target power. Resulting films are analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and nanoindentation. Mass spectroscopy is used to determine ion energy distribution functions at the substrate. The distinctly different flux distributions obtained from targets driven in HIPIMS vs. DCMS modes allow the effects of Aln+ and Tin+ (n = 1, 2) ion irradiation on film growth kinetics, and resulting properties, to be investigated separately. Bombardment with Aln+ ions (primarily Al+ in the Al-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS configuration) during film growth leads to NaCl-structure Ti1-xAlxN (0.53 less than= x less than= 0.60) films which exhibit high hardness (greater than30 GPa) with low stress (0.2-0.7 GPa tensile). In contrast, films with corresponding AlN concentrations grown under Tin+ metal ion irradiation (with a significant Ti2+ component) in the Ti-HIPIMS/Al-DCMS mode have much lower hardness, 18-19 GPa, and high compressive stress ranging up to 2.7 GPa. The surprisingly large variation in mechanical properties results from the fact that the kinetic AlN solubility limit x(max) in Ti1-xAlxN depends strongly on, in addition to T-s and R, the target power configuration during growth and hence the composition of the ion flux. AlN with x(max)similar to 64 mol% can be accommodated in the NaCl structure under Aln+ ion flux, compared with similar to 40 mol% for growth with Tin+ flux. The strong asymmetry in film growth reaction paths is due primarily to the fact that the doubly-ionized metal ion flux is approximately two orders of magnitude higher from the Ti target, than from Al, powered with HIPIMS. This asymmetry becomes decisive upon application of a moderate substrate bias voltage, -60 V, applied synchronously with HIPIMS pulses, during growth.

  • 35.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tengstrand, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Science and Physics Departments, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of of Illinois, Urbana, IL, United States.
    Greene, Joseph E.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Science and Physics Departments, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of of Illinois, Urbana, IL, United States.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nitrogen-doped bcc-Cr films: Combining ceramic hardness with metallic toughness and conductivity2016In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 122, p. 40-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first results on nanostructured N-doped bcc-Cr films exhibiting the unique combination of ceramic hardness with metallic toughness and electrical conductivity at unexpectedly low N concentrations, ~ 5 at.%. The Cr:N films are deposited at 200 C in N2/Ar mixtures by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering using tunable time-domain control of Cr+ and Cr2+ ion fluxes incident at the film growth surface. Subplanted N atoms impede annealing of metal-ion induced point defects and hinder bcc-Cr grain growth, resulting in a material with a nearly isotropic nanostructure and atomically smooth surface, rather than typical Cr:N solid solutions consisting of faceted microcolumns. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 36.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patscheider, J.
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control of Ti1-xSixN nanostructure via tunable metal-ion momentum transfer during HIPIMS/DCMS co-deposition2015In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 280, p. 174-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti1-xSixN (0 less than= x less than= 0.26) thin films are grown in mixed Ar/N-2 discharges using hybrid high-power pulsed and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HIPIMS/DCMS). In the first set of experiments, the Si target is powered in HIPIMS mode and the Ti target in DCMS; the positions of the targets are then switched for the second set. In both cases, the Si concentration in co-sputtered films, deposited at T-s = 500 degrees C, is controlled by adjusting the average DCMS target power. A pulsed substrate bias of -60 V is applied in synchronous with the HIPIMS pulse. Depending on the type of pulsed metal-ion irradiation incident at the growing film, Ti+/Ti2+ vs. Si+/Si2+, completely different nanostructures are obtained. Ti+/Ti2+ irradiation during Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS deposition leads to a phase-segregated nanocolumnar structure with TiN-rich grains encapsulated in a SiNz tissue phase, while Si+/Si2+ ion irradiation in the Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS mode results in the formation of Ti1-xSixN solid solutions with x less than= 024. Film properties, including hardness, modulus of elasticity, and residual stress exhibit a dramatic dependence on the choice of target powered by HIPIMS. Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS TiSiN nanocomposite films are superhard over a composition range of 0.04 less than= x less than= 0.26, which is significantly wider than previously reported. The hardness H of films with 0.13 less than= x less than= 0.26 is similar to 42 GPa; however, the compressive stress is also high, ranging from -6.7 to -8.5 GPa. Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS films are softer at H similar to 14 GPa with 0.03 less than= x less than= 0.24, and essentially stress-free (sigma similar to 0.5 GPa). Mass spectroscopy analyses at the substrate position reveal that the doubly-to-singly ionized metal-ion flux ratio during HIPIMS pulses is 0.05 for Si and 029 for Ti due to the difference between the second ionization potentials of Si and Ti vs. the first ionization potential of the sputtering gas. The average momentum transfer to the film growth surface per deposited atom per pulse less than p(d)greater than is similar to 20 x higher during Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS, which results in significantly higher adatom mean-free paths (mfps) leading, in turn, to a phase-segregated nanocolumnar structure. In contrast, relatively low less than p(d)greater than values during Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS provide near-surface mixing with lower adatom mfps to form Ti1-xSixN solid solutions over a very wide composition range with x up to 0.24. Relaxed lattice constants decrease linearly, in agreement with ab-initio calculations for random Ti1-xSixN alloys, with increasing x. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Gunnarsson Sarius, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lauridsen, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lewin, E.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öberg, Å.
    ABB Corporate Research, Forskargränd 7, SE-721 78 Västerås, Sweden.
    Ljungcrantz, H.
    Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-582 16 Linköping, Sweden.
    Leisner, P.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, SE-501 15 Borås, Sweden/School of Engineering Jönköping University, Box 1026, SE- 551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni and Ti diffusion barrier layers between Ti-Si-C-Ag nanocomposite coatings and Cu-based substrates2012In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 8-9, p. 2558-2565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sputtered Ni and Ti layers were investigated as substitutes for electroplated Ni as adiffusion barrier between Ti-Si-C and Ti-Si-C-Ag nanocomposite coatings and Cu orCuSn substrates. Samples were subjected to thermal annealing studies by exposure to400 ºC during 11 h. Dense diffusion barrier and coating hindered Cu from diffusing tothe surface. This condition was achieved for electroplated Ni in combination withmagnetron-sputtered Ti-Si-C and Ti-Si-C-Ag layers deposited at 230 ºC and 300 ºC,and sputtered Ti or Ni layers in combination with Ti-Si-C-Ag deposited at 300 ºC.

  • 38.
    Halim, Joseph
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Univ Penn, PA 19104 USA Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Lukatskaya, Maria R.
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA Drexel University, PA 19104 USA .
    Cook, Kevin M.
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA Drexel University, PA 19104 USA .
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Cole R.
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA .
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    May, Steven J.
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gogotsi, Yury
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA Drexel University, PA 19104 USA .
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barsoum, Michel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transparent Conductive Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide Epitaxial Thin Films2014In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 2374-2381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the discovery of graphene, the quest for two-dimensional (2D) materials has intensified greatly. Recently, a new family of 2D transition metal carbides and carbonitrides (MXenes) was discovered that is both conducting and hydrophilic, an uncommon combination. To date MXenes have been produced as powders, flakes, and colloidal solutions. Herein, we report on the fabrication of similar to 1 x 1 cm(2) Ti3C2 films by selective etching of Al, from sputter-deposited epitaxial Ti3AlC2 films, in aqueous HF or NH4HF2. Films that were about 19 nm thick, etched with NH4HF2, transmit similar to 90% of the light in the visible-to-infrared range and exhibit metallic conductivity down to similar to 100 K. Below 100 K, the films resistivity increases with decreasing temperature and they exhibit negative magnetoresistance-both observations consistent with a weak localization phenomenon characteristic of many 2D defective solids. This advance opens the door for the use of MXenes in electronic, photonic, and sensing applications.

  • 39.
    Halim, Joseph
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    E. J., Moon
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    M., Precner
    Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava 84104, Slovak Republic.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    M. W., Barsoum
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Nb1.33C (MXene) with Randomly Distributed Vacancies by Etching of the Quaternary Solid Solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX Phase2018In: ACS Applied Nano Materials, ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 2455-2460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing point defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can alter or enhance their properties. Here, we demonstrate how etching a laminated (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX phase (solid solution) of both the Sc and Al atoms results in a 2D Nb1.33C material (MXene) with a large number of vacancies and vacancy clusters. This method is applicable to any quaternary, or higher, MAX phase, wherein one of the transition metals is more reactive than the other and could be of vital importance in applications such as catalysis and energy storage. We also report, for the first time, on the existence of solid solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)3AlC2 and (Nb2/3Sc1/3)4AlC3 phases.

  • 40.
    Hu, C.
    et al.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halim, Joseph
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Sun, L.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, J.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Yang, J.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Anasori, B.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Wang, J.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Sakka, Y.
    National Institute Mat Science, Japan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barsoum, Michel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Mo2Ga2C: a new ternary nanolaminated carbide2015In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 51, no 30, p. 6560-6563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of a new hexagonal Mo2Ga2C phase, wherein two Ga layers - instead of one - are stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement in between Mo2C layers. It is reasonable to assume this compound is the first of a larger family.

  • 41.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, K
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlSalhi, M S.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Atif, M
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Ansari, Anees A:
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Well aligned ZnO nanorods growth on the gold coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method using seed layer of Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles2013In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 368, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and sol-gel method respectively. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by X-ray diffraction [XRD] and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The obtained results have shown the nanocrystalline phase of obtained Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe3O4 and Co3O4 nanoparticles were used as seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods on the gold coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM], as well as XRD and energy dispersive X-ray techniques were used for the structural characterisation of synthesised ZnO nanorods. This study has explored highly dense, uniform, well-aligned growth pattern along 0001 direction and good crystal quality of the prepared ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for the chemical analysis of fabricated ZnO nanorods. In addition, the structural characterisation and the chemical composition study and the optical investigation were carried out for the fabricated ZnO nanorods and the photoluminescence [PL] spectrum have shown strong ultraviolet (UV) peak at 381 nm for Fe3O4 nanoparticles seeded ZnO nanorods and the PL spectrum for ZnO nanorods grown with the seed layer of Co3O4 nanoparticles has shown a UV peak at 382 nm. The green emission and orange/red peaks were also observed for ZnO nanorods grown with both the seed layers. This study has indicated the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods using the one inorganic nanomaterial on other inorganic nanomaterial due to their similar chemistry.

  • 42.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, K
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9+/-2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 x 10(-5) to 2.0 x 10(-2) M with detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-6) M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

  • 43.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Impact Coatings AB, Linköping, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reactive sputtering of delta-ZrH2 thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering2014In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 041510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H-2 plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at.% and O contents typically below 0.2 at.% as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of similar to 0.7 eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase delta-ZrH2 (CaF2 type structure) at H content greater thansimilar to 55 at.% and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.5-7 GPa for the delta-ZrH2 films that is slightly harder than the similar to 5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.12-0.18 to compare with the range of 0.4-0.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure delta-ZrH2 films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of similar to 100-120 mu Omega cm for the delta-ZrH2 films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 70-80 mu Omega cm.

  • 44.
    Höglund, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden.
    Zeitelhack, Karl
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Kudejova, Petra
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Stability of (B4C)-B-10 thin films under neutron radiation2015In: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, ISSN 0969-806X, E-ISSN 1879-0895, Vol. 113, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of (B4C)-B-10 have shown to be very suitable as neutron-converting material in the next generation of neutron detectors, replacing the previous predominantly used He-3. In this contribution we show under realistic conditions that (B4C)-B-10 films are not damaged by the neutron irradiation and interactions, which they will be exposed to under many years in a neutron detector. 1 mu m thick (B4C)-B-10 thin films were deposited onto Al or Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. As-deposited films were exposed to a cold neutron beam with fluences of up to 1.1 x 10(14) cm(-2) and a mean wavelength of 6.9 angstrom. Both irradiated and as-deposited reference samples were characterized with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. We show that only 1.8 ppm of the B-10 atoms were consumed and that the film composition does not change by the neutron interaction within the measurement accuracy. The irradiation does not deteriorate the film adhesion and there is no indication that it results in increased residual stress values of the as-deposited films of 0.095 GPa. From what is visible with the naked eye and down to atomic level studies, no change from the irradiation could be found using the above-mentioned characterization techniques.

  • 45.
    Israr Qadir, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jamil Rana, Sadaf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cathodoluminescence characterization of ZnO nanorods synthesized by chemical solution and of its conversion to ellipsoidal morphology2014In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 29, no 20, p. 2425-2431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile and reproducible low-temperature (80 degrees C) solution route has been introduced to synthesize ZnO ellipsoids on silicon substrate without any pretreatment of the substrate or organic/inorganic additives. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy are performed to analyze the structural evolution, the single crystalline nature, and growth orientation at different stages of the synthetic process. The sequential formation mechanisms of heterogeneous nucleation in primary and secondary crystal growth behaviors have been discussed in detail. The presented results reveal that the morphology of micro/nanostructures with desired features can be optimized. The optical properties of grown structures at different stages were investigated using cathodoluminescence (CL). The monochromatic CL images were recorded to examine the UV and visible band emission contributions from the different positions of the intermediate and final structures of the individual ZnO ellipsoid. Significant enhancement in the defect level emission intensity at the central position of the structure reveals that the quality of the material improves as the reaction time is extended.

  • 46.
    Jamshidi, A
    et al.
    Nocilis Mat, Sweden .
    Noroozi, M
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Moeen, M
    Nocilis Mat, Sweden .
    Hallen, A
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Hamawandi, B
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ostling, M
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Radamson, H
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Growth of GeSnSiC layers for photonic applications2013In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 230, p. 106-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents epitaxial growth of intrinsic and doped GeSnSiC layers using Ge2H6, SnCl4, CH3SiH3, B2H6, PH3 and Si2H6 deposited at 290-380 degrees C on strain relaxed Ge buffer layer or Si substrate by using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD) technique. The GeSnSi layers were compressively strained on Ge buffer layer and strain relaxed on Si substrate. It was demonstrated that the quality of epitaxial layers is dependent on the growth parameters and that the Sn content in epi-layers could be tailored by growth temperature. The Sn segregation caused surface roughness which was decreased by introducing Si and Si-C into Ge layer. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe Sn content in GeSn was carefully determined from the mismatch, both parallel and perpendicular, to the growth direction when the Poisson ratio was calculated for a certain Ge-Sn composition. The X-ray results were excellently consistent with Rutherford Backscattered Spectroscopy (RBS). Strain relaxed GeSn layers were also used as virtual substrate to grow tensile-strained Ge layers. The Ge cap layer had low defect density and smooth surface which makes it a viable candidate material for future photonic applications.

  • 47.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Yen-Ting
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of N2 Partial Pressure on Growth, Structure, and Optical Properties of GaN Nanorods Deposited by Liquid-Target Reactive Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy2018In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 223Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GaN nanorods, essentially free from crystal defects and exhibiting very sharp band-edge luminescence, have been grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputter epitaxy onto Si (111) substrates at a low working pressure of 5 mTorr. Upon diluting the reactive N2 working gas with a small amount of Ar (0.5 mTorr), we observed an increase in the nanorod aspect ratio from 8 to ~35, a decrease in the average diameter from 74 to 35 nm, and a two-fold increase in nanorod density. With further dilution (Ar = 2.5 mTorr), the aspect ratio decreased to 14, while the diameter increased to 60 nm and the nanorod density increased to a maximum of 2.4 × 109 cm−2. Yet, lower N2 partial pressures eventually led to the growth of continuous GaN films. The observed morphological dependence on N2 partial pressure is explained by a change from N-rich to Ga-rich growth conditions, combined with reduced GaN-poisoning of the Ga-target as the N2 gas pressure is reduced. Nanorods grown at 2.5 mTorr N2 partial pressure exhibited a high intensity 4 K photoluminescence neutral donor bound exciton transitions (D0XA) peak at ~3.479 eV with a full-width-at-half-maximum of 1.7 meV. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy corroborated the excellent crystalline quality of the nanorods.

  • 48.
    Kerdsongpanya, Sit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buchholt, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengstrand, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase-stabilization and substrate effects on nucleation and growth of (Ti,V)(n+1)GeC(n) thin films2011In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 110, no 5, article id 053516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase-pure epitaxial thin films of (Ti,V)(2)GeC have been grown onto Al(2)O(3)(0001) substrates via magnetron sputtering. The c lattice parameter is determined to be 12.59 A, corresponding to a 50/50 Ti/V solid solution according to Vegards law, and the overall (Ti,V): Ge: C composition is 2:1:1 as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. The minimum temperature for the growth of (Ti,V)(2)GeC is 700 degrees C, which is the same as for Ti(2)GeC but higher than that required for V(2)GeC (450 degrees C). Reduced Ge content yields films containing (Ti,V)(3)GeC(2) and (Ti,V)(4)GeC(3). These results show that the previously unknown phases V(3)GeC(2) and V(4)GeC(3) can be stabilized through alloying with Ti. For films grown on 4H-SiC(0001), (Ti,V)(3)GeC(2) was observed as the dominant phase, showing that the nucleation and growth of (Ti,V)(n+1)GeC(n) is affected by the choice of substrate; the proposed underlying physical mechanism is that differences in the local substrate temperature enhance surface diffusion and facilitate the growth of the higher-order phase (Ti,V)(3)GeC(2) compared to (Ti,V)(2)GeC.

  • 49.
    Kerdsongpanya, Sit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Bo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, Singapore.
    Kan Koh, Yee
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, Singapore.
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Dept. of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Denmark.
    Balke, Benjamin
    Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Cr1-xScxN Solid Solutions for Thermoelectric Applications2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 120, no 21, article id 215103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the trends in mixing thermodynamics of Cr1-xScxN solid solutions in the cubic B1 structure and their electronic density of state by first-principle calculations, and thin-film synthesis of Cr1-xScxN solid solutions by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. Films with the composition Cr0.92Sc0.08N exhibit a thermoelectric power factor of about 8x10-4 Wm-1K-2at 770 K, similar to CrN. The results show that the disordered Cr1-xScxN solid solutions is thermodynamically stable in B1 solid solutions at T = 800°C rather than in the B1- L11 ordered solid solutions stable at 0 K. The calculated electronic density of state (DOS) indicates a positive bowing parameter for the electronic band gap of Cr1-xScxN solid solutions. The calculated DOS suggest possible improvement of power factor due to Sc 3d orbital delocalization on Cr 3d orbital gives decreasing electrical resistivity with retained Seebeck coefficient in Cr-rich regime, consistent with the experimentally observed high power factor for the solid solution.

  • 50.
    Kerdsongpanya, Sit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA.
    Sun, Bo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, Singapore..
    Koh, Yee Kan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, Singapore..
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Dept. of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Denmark.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergei I.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phonon Thermal Conductivity of Scandium Nitride for Thermoelectric Applications from First-Principles CalculationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of lattice thermal conductivity of materials under realistic conditions is vitally important since most technologies either require either high or low thermal conductivity. Here, we propose a theoretical model for determining lattice thermal conductivity with the effect of microstructure. This is based on ab initio description that includes the temperature dependence of the interatomic force constants, and treats anharmonic lattice vibrations. We choose ScN as a model system, comparing the computational predictions with the experimental data by Time Domain Thermoreflectance (TDTR). Our results show a trend of reduction in lattice thermal conductivity with decreasing grain size, with good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental data. There results suggest a possibility to control thermal conductivity by tailoring the microstructure of ScN. More importantly, we provide a predictive tool for the effect of the microstructure on the lattice thermal conductivity of materials based on first-principles calculations.

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