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  • 1.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh D.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the Timing Analysis of the Dynamic Segment of FlexRay2012In: International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES 2012), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 20-22, 2012., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    FlexRay, developed by a consortium of over hundred automotive companies, is a real-time communication protocol for automotive networks. A communication cycle in FlexRay consists of an event-triggered component known as the dynamic (DYN) segment, apart from a time-triggered segment. Predicting the worst-case response time of messages transmitted on the DYN segment is a difficult problem. This is because a set of complex rules, apart from the priorities of the messages, govern the DYN segment protocol. In this paper, we survey techniques for the timing analysis of the DYN segment. We discuss the challenges associated with the timing analysis of the FlexRay protocol, the proposed techniques and their limitations.

  • 2.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh D.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tahoori, Mehdi B.
    Institute of Computer Science & Engineering (ITEC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shazli, Syed Z.
    Northeastern University, USA.
    Chakraborty, Samarjit
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Reliability-Aware Instruction Set Customization for ASIPs with Hardened Logic2012In: International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2012), Seoul, Korea, August 19-22, 2012., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application-specific instruction-set processors (ASIPs) allow the designer to extend the instruction set of the base processor with selected custom instructions to tailor-fit the application.In this paper, with the help of a motivational example, we first demonstrate that different custom instructions are vulnerable to faults with varying probabilities. This shows that by ignoring the vulnerability to faults, traditional methods of instruction set customization can provide no guarantees on the reliability of the system. Apart from such inherent disparity in error vulnerability across custom instructions, each custom instruction can have multiple implementation choices corresponding to varying hardened levels. Hardening reduces the vulnerability to errors but this comes at the overhead of area costs and reduced performance gain. In this paper, we propose a framework to select custom instructions and their respective hardening levels such that reliability is optimized while the performance gain is satisfied and area costs are met as well. Our framework is based on a novel analytical method to compute the overall system reliability based on the probability of failure of individual instructions. Wide range of experiments that were conducted illustrate how our tool navigates the design space to reveal interesting tradeoffs.

  • 3.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Timing Analysis of Distributed Embedded Systems with Stochastic Workload and Realiability Constraints2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's distributed embedded systems are exposed to large variations in workload due to complex software applications and sophisticated hardware platforms. Examples of such systems are automotive and avionics applications.

    The tasks running on computational units have variable execution times. Thus, the workload that the computational units must accommodate is likely to be stochastic. Some of the tasks trigger messages that will be transmitted over communication buses. There is a direct connection between the variable execution times of the tasks and the moments of triggering of these messages. Thus, the workload imposed on the communication buses will also be stochastic. The likelihood for transient faults to occur is another dimension for stochastic workload as today's embedded systems are designed to work in extreme environmental conditions. Given the above, the need for tools that can analyze systems that experience stochastic workload is continuously increasing.

    The present thesis addresses this need. The solutions proposed in this thesis have been validated by extensive experiments that demonstrate the efficiency of the presented techniques.

  • 4.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh D.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Correlation-Aware Probabilistic Timing Analysis for the Dynamic Segment of FlexRay2016In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 54:1-54:31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an analytical framework for probabilistic timing analysis of the event-triggered Dynamic segment of the FlexRay communication protocol. Specifically, our framework computes the Deadline Miss Ratio of each message. The core problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP). Given the intractability of the problem, we also propose several techniques that help to mitigate the running times of our tool. This includes the re-engineering of the problem to run it on GPUs as well as reformulating the MILP itself.

    Most importantly, we also show how our framework can handle correlations between the queuing events of messages. This is challenging because one cannot apply the convolution operator in the same way as in the case of independent queuing events.

  • 5.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh D
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Probabilistic Response Time and Joint Analysis of Periodic Tasks2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 27TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE ON REAL-TIME SYSTEMS (ECRTS 2015), IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 235-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address the problem of computing the probability response time distribution of periodic tasks scheduled on a uniprocessor systems. Our framework assumes an arbitrary non-idling preemptive scheduling policy that may be either a fixed-priority scheduler (such as Rate Monotonic - RM) or a dynamic-priority scheduler (such as Earliest Deadline First - EDF). At the same time, our framework can handle arbitrary execution time distributions arbitrary deadlines providing numerically accurate results. We also show how the framework can be extended to compute the correlation coefficients between the response times of different jobs by performing the joint analysis.

  • 6.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh D.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reliability-Aware Frame Packing for the Static Segment of FlexRay2011In: EMSOFT '11 Proceedings of the ninth ACM international conference on Embedded software                         , Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2011, p. 175-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FlexRay is gaining wide acceptance as the next generation bus protocol for automotive networks. This has led to tremendous research interest in techniques for scheduling signals, which are generated by real-time applications, on the FlexRay bus. Signals are first packed together into frames at the application-level and the frames are then transmitted over the bus. To ensure reliability of frames in the presence of faults, frames must be retransmitted over the bus but this comes at the cost of higher bandwidth utilization. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a novel frame packing method for FlexRay bus. Our method computes the required number of retransmissions of frames that ensures the specified reliability goal. The proposed frame packing method also ensures that none of the signals violates its deadline and that the desired reliability goal for guaranteeing fault-tolerance is met at the minimum bandwidth cost. Extensive experiments on synthetic as well as a industrial case study demonstrate the benefits of our method.

  • 7.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh D.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Scheduling for Fault-Tolerant Communication on the Static Segment of FlexRay2010In: 31st IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS10), San Diego, CA, USA, November 30-December 3, 2010., IEEE Computer Society , 2010, p. 385-394Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FlexRay has been widely accepted as the next generation bus protocol for automotive networks. This has led to tremendous research interest in techniques for scheduling messages on the FlexRay bus, in order to meet the hard realtime deadlines of the automotive applications. However, these techniques do not generate reliable schedules in the sense that they do not provide any performance guarantees in the presence of faults. In this work, we will present a framework for generating fault-tolerant message schedules on the time-triggered (static) segment of the FlexRay bus. We provide formal guarantees that the generated fault-tolerant schedules achieve the reliability goal even in the presence of transient and intermittent faults. Moreover, our technique minimizes the required number of retransmissions of the messages in order to achieve such fault tolerant schedules, thereby, optimizing the bandwidth utilization. Towards this, we formulate the optimization problem in Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), which returns optimal results. However, this procedure is computationally intensive and hence, we also propose an efficient heuristic. The heuristic guarantees the reliability of the constructed schedules but might be sub-optimal with respect to bandwidth utilization. Extensive experiments run on synthetic test cases and real-life case studies illustrate that the heuristic performs extremely well. The experiments also establish that our heuristic scales significantly better than the CLP formulation.

  • 8.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru Ion
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Probabilistic Timing Analysis for the Dynamic Segment of FlexRay2013In: 25th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), IEEE , 2013, p. 135-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an analytical framework for probabilistic timing analysis of the event-triggered Dynamic segment of the FlexRay communication protocol. Specifically, our framework computes the Deadline Miss Ratios of each message. The core problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP). Given the intractability of the problem, we also propose several techniques that help to mitigate the running times of our tool. This includes the re-engineering of the problem to run it on GPUs as well as re-formulating the MILP itself.

  • 9.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kosuch, Stefanie
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru Ion
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schedulability Analysis for the Dynamic Segment of FlexRay: A Generalization to Slot Multiplexing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FlexRay, developed by a consortium of over hundred automotive companies, is a real-time communication protocol for automotive networks. In this paper, we propose a new approach for timing analysis of the event-triggered component of FlexRay, known as the dynamic segment. Our technique accounts for the fact that the FlexRay standard allows slot multiplexing, i.e., the same priority can be assigned to more than one message. Existing techniques have either ignored slot multiplexing in their analysis or made simplifying assumptions that severely limit achieving high bandwidth utilization. Moreover, we show that our technique returns less pessimistic results compared to previously known techniques even in the case where slot multiplexing is ignored.

  • 10.
    Xu, Yang
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Årzen, Karl-Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Cervin, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bini, Enrico
    Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Italy.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploiting Job Response-Time Information in the Co-Design of Real-Time Control Systems2015In: 2015 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 247-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a real-time system of multiple tasks, each task having a plant to control. The overall quadratic control cost is to be optimized. We exploit the periodicity of the task response time, which corresponds to a periodic delay pattern in the feedback control loop. Perturbed periods are used as a tool to find a finite hyper period. We present an analytical procedure to design a periodic linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller for tasks with fixed execution times as well as a numerical solution to the periodic -- stochastic LQG problem for tasks with variable execution times. The controllers are evaluated using simulations in real-time scheduling and control co-design examples.

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