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  • 1.
    Hou, Lintao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Zhongqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Müller, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano
    Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Esfera UAB, Bellaterra, Spain.
    R Andersson, Mats
    Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lateral Phase Separation Gradients in Spin-Coated Thin Films of High-Performance Polymer: Fullerene Photovoltaic Blends2011In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 21, no 16, p. 3169-3175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, it is demonstrated that a finer nanostructure produced under a rapid rate of solvent removal significantly improves charge separation in a high-performance polymer: fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend. During spin-coating, variations in solvent evaporation rate give rise to lateral phase separation gradients with the degree of coarseness decreasing away from the center of rotation. As a result, across spin-coated thin films the photocurrent at the first interference maximum varies as much as 25%, which is much larger than any optical effect. This is investigated by combining information on the surface morphology of the active layer imaged by atomic force microscopy, the 3D nanostructure imaged by electron tomography, film formation during the spin coating process imaged by optical interference and photocurrent generation distribution in devices imaged by a scanning light pulse technique. The observation that the nanostructure of organic photovoltaic blends can strongly vary across spin-coated thin films will aid the design of solvent mixtures suitable for high molecular-weight polymers and of coating techniques amenable to large area processing.

  • 2.
    Wang, Ergang
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hou, Lintao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Angelica
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Himmelberger, Scott
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Salleo, Alberto
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Conformational Disorder Enhances Solubility and Photovoltaic Performance of a Thiophene-Quinoxaline Copolymer2013In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 806-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The side-chain architecture of alternating copolymers based on thiophene and quinoxaline (TQ) is found to strongly influence the solubility and photovoltaic performance. In particular, TQ polymers with different linear or branched alkyloxy-phenyl side chains on the quinoxaline unit are compared. Attaching the linear alkyloxy side-chain segment at the meta- instead of the para-position of the phenyl ring reduces the planarity of the backbone as well as the ability to order. However, the delocalisation across the backbone is not affected, which permits the design of high-performance TQ polymers that do not aggregate in solution. The use of branched meta-(2-ethylhexyl)oxy-phenyl side-chains results in a TQ polymer with an intermediate degree of order. The reduced tendency for aggregation of TQ polymers with linear meta-alkyloxy-phenyl persists in the solid state. As a result, it is possible to avoid the decrease in charge-transfer state energy that is observed for bulk-heterojunction blends of more ordered TQ polymers and fullerenes. The associated gain in open-circuit voltage of disordered TQ:fullerene solar cells, accompanied by a higher short-circuit current density, leads to a higher power conversion efficiency overall. Thus, in contrast to other donor polymers, for TQ polymers there is no need to compromise between solubility and photovoltaic performance.

  • 3.
    Wang, Ergang
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Hou, Lintao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Zhongqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers.
    Mammo, Wendimagegn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers.
    Small Band Gap Polymers Synthesized via a Modified Nitration of 4,7-Dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole2010In: ORGANIC LETTERS, ISSN 1523-7060, Vol. 12, no 20, p. 4470-4473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nitration of 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole was modified by using CF3SO3H and HNO3 as the nitrating agent, and the related yield was improved greatly. On the basis of this improvement, two new small band gap polymers, P1TPQ and P3TPQ, were developed. Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on P3TPO and [6,6]-phenyl-C-71-butyric acid methyl ester exhibit interesting results with a power conversion efficiency of 21% and photoresponse up to 1.1 mu m

  • 4.
    Wang, Ergang
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Hou, Lintao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Zhongqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Chalmers.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers.
    An Easily Synthesized Blue Polymer for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells2010In: ADVANCED MATERIALS, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 22, no 46, p. 5240-5244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High performance solar cells fabricated from an easily synthesized donor-acceptor polymer show maximum power point up to 6.0 mW cm(-2), with an open-circuit voltage of 0.89 V, short-circuit current density of 10.5 mA cm(-2) and fill factor of 0.64, making this polymer a particularly promising candidate for high-efficiency low-cost polymer solar cells.

  • 5.
    Wang, Ergang
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Hou, Lintao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Zhongqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers.
    Zhuang, Wenliu
    Chalmers.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers.
    Side-Chain Architectures of 2,7-Carbazole and Quinoxaline-Based Polymers for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells2011In: MACROMOLECULES, ISSN 0024-9297, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 2067-2073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three polymers bearing a common carbazole thiophene quinoxaline thiophene backbone, but different side chains, were designed and synthesized in order to investigate the effect of side chains on their photovoltaic performance. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties were investigated and compared. The polymer EWC3, with the largest amount of side chains, showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 3.7% with an open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of 0.92 V. The atomic force microscopy images of the active layers of the devices showed that the morphology was highly influenced by the choice of the solvent and processing additive. It is worth noting that polymer solar cells (PSCs) fabricated from EWC3, with branched side chains on the carbazole units, gave a much higher V-oc than the devices made from EWC1, which bears the same electron-deficient segment as EWC3 but straight side chains on carbazole units. This study offered a useful and important guideline for designing 2,7-carbazole-based polymers for high-performance PSCs.

  • 6.
    Wang, Zhongqiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hou, Lintao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mixed solvents for reproducible photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions2011In: Journal of Photonics for Energy, ISSN 1947-7988, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most efficient polymer solar cells are usually fabricated from toxic organic solvents, such as chloroform, chlorobenzene, or dichlorobenzene (ODCB). Here, we demonstrate a power conversion efficiency of 4.5% in solar cells with a new blue polymer poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt- thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1) mixed with PC71BM and processed from mixed solvents of toluene and ODCB in a ratio of 9:1. Decreasing the content of ODCB makes device processing more compatible with the environment for large scale production, with 10% reduction of photocurrent compared to devices from pure ODCB under optimized conditions. In addition, less variation of photocurrent is obtained in solar cells processed from mixed solvents than from pure ODCB due to varying nanostructure in the blends, which is also critical for production. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  • 7.
    Zhuang, Wenliu
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Zhen, Hongyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Hou, Lintao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Gedefaw, Desta
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Molecular orbital energy level modulation through incorporation of selenium and fluorine into conjugated polymers for organic photovoltaic cells2013In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 1, no 43, p. 13422-13425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrated an effective chemical approach to modulate the energy levels of conjugated polymers by synergistically combining fluorine substitution and thiophene-selenophene exchange. Such modifications from TQ1 resulted in a significantly enhanced open-circuit voltage up to 1.0 V while retaining high photovoltaic performance.

1 - 7 of 7
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