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  • 1.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail and Road Infrastructure: Reviewing Applicability in Sweden2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to explore and propose a more effective management of rail and road infrastructure and the possibility of a more resource-efficient road and rail infrastructure by applying business models based on performance and a life-cycle perspective.

    There is a lack of efficiency in the Swedish rail and road infrastructure industries - at the same time as the availability of the rail tracks and roads is essential. Rail and road infrastructure have long lifetimes, around 40-60 years, and during these decades regular maintenance and reconstruction are needed to ensure proper function. Large amounts of resources are required to construct the infrastructure, and the overall environmental pressure depends substantially on this.

    This research is largely based on interviews conducted with the buyer, contractors and design consultants for rail and road infrastructure in Sweden. Literature reviews have been conducted to develop the framework needed to analyze the empirical findings. This research contributes by building on theory in areas such as Integrated Product Service Offerings (IPSOs) and eco-design, and this abstract presents a brief summary of the overall conclusions.

    Several challenges for rail and road infrastructure in Sweden have been identified, such as the lack of information and knowledge transfer between different projects and actors. This is due to e.g. the use of traditional short-term contracts and conservative cooperate cultures, creating sub-optimizations in management. Increased collaboration, through e.g. partnering, seems to be a promising way to increase the information and knowledge transfer between actors by increasing trust and interaction. In this way, management would be more effective, and by involving contractors in the design phase, more efficient technical solutions could be developed and used. Additionally, increased involvement by the design consultants and an iterative information loop between design, construction and maintenance could also be beneficial. The research indicates that increased cooperation increases trust. In this way, there is a possibility to remove the detailed requirements that prevent new ways of working.

    Rail and road infrastructure have characteristics, such as the resources used and the importance of availability, that are well-suited for IPSOs. This performance-based business model with a life-cycle perspective provides incentives to optimize the use of resources and provide a holistic view for management that is lacking today for rail and road infrastructure. However, a long-term contract such as an IPSO creates uncertainties. The actors are risk-averse, which is an obstacle in the development of new business models and contract forms. Most of the risks and uncertainties identified are due to lack of experience. This implies that an implementation of IPSOs will have a steep learning curve. Additionally, risk allocation between the actors is important for effective management: too much risk for the suppliers will make them reluctant in developing new solutions, and they will use a risk premium to cover up for the risk.

    Delarbeten
    1. PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Functional Thinking for Value Creation. Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th-6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselback & Christoph Herrmann, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 291-296Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity development for rail and road infrastructure has been weak a long time; and explanation can be found in the traditional contracts used, with little room for incentives for innovation. This literature study investigates the use of the few realized PSS contracts within the rail and road infrastructure. The descriptions and the scientific reports are on a synoptic level and a majority of the reports are funded by the involved actors, showing that there is an interest for PSS contracts in the industry and indicating significant potential for further research in the area.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
    Nyckelord
    Rail infrastructure; Road Infrastructure; Literature review
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70261 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-19689-8_51 (DOI)978-3-642-19688-1 (ISBN)978-3-642-19689-8 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    The 3rd CIRP International Conference on IPS2 2011, May 5th-6th, Braunschweig, Germany
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-08-29 Skapad: 2011-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-09-03Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Integrated Product Service Offerings for rail infrastructure: benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change in a Swedish case
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Integrated Product Service Offerings for rail infrastructure: benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change in a Swedish case
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 166-174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate potential benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change from the provider and buyer perspectives when using IPSOs for Swedish rail infrastructure. Considering material use and the importance of availability of the tracks makes rail infrastructure an interesting candidate for a business model based on a life-cycle approach, which can result in a reduction in cost and environmental impact.

    The concept of the Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) has in several business areas proven to be a means with potential to reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. The business model, which is based on a life-cycle approach, focuses on the function instead of the initial price of the product.

    Among the main findings are the lack of information and knowledge transfer that act as a barrier for innovation, and that the buyer's conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts. Since IPSO contracts require improved information transfer, they could potentially stimulate innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. By involving the contractors in the design phase their knowledge could be used in a better way, creating a feedback loop from practice to design.

    The empirical part, focusing on the rail infrastructure industry in Sweden, has been collected using individual interviews and a group interview approach.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Rail infrastructure, Long-term contracts, Supplier–buyer relationships, Knowledge transfer
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljövetenskap Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109976 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.039 (DOI)000356194300017 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-08-29 Skapad: 2014-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Scenarios for Resource Efficient Rail Infrastructure: Applying Integrated Product Service Offerings
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Scenarios for Resource Efficient Rail Infrastructure: Applying Integrated Product Service Offerings
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: PRODUCT SERVICES SYSTEMS AND VALUE CREATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 16, s. 13-139Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rail infrastructure in Sweden, with its long lifetime, large amounts of materials used and traditional procurement, has escalating maintenance costs. What would occur if the infrastructure is instead procured as an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO)? This paper discusses scenarios for increased resource efficiency and more value for the money spent by applying an IPSO perspective to rail infrastructure. The best option depends on the conditions at the construction site as well as how much the availability of the tracks is valued.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2014
    Serie
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 16
    Nyckelord
    Rail infrastructure, maintenance, availability, product service systems
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109977 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.06.001 (DOI)000345448900023 ()
    Konferens
    6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPSS)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-08-29 Skapad: 2014-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-01-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Partnering – a Way to Reach Resource-Efficient and Effective Road Infrastructure Projects through Increased Information and Knowledge Transfer?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Partnering – a Way to Reach Resource-Efficient and Effective Road Infrastructure Projects through Increased Information and Knowledge Transfer?
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is behind other industries when it comes to efficiency, and partnering has been discussed as a way to increase the cooperation in and technical performance of projects. For partnering to be successful several different aspects have to be in place, among them information sharing and trust. The objective is therefore to investigate implications of partnering as a way to reach more resource-efficient and effective road infrastructure projects through increased information and knowledge transfer.

    The article investigates a road project realized using less time than estimated as well as achieving a lower total cost than budgeted. Partnering resulted in a close collaboration and increased trust among the actors, and the co-location of the actors led to the exchange of information and especially informal communication. Information was easily accessed and transferred between the actors, and the cooperation facilitated knowledge transfer between the different functions. This cut the lead times on information transfer and decision making, especially in the integrated construction and design phase, making the project more efficient. Also, solutions adapted for the site were chosen thanks to the active design approach. Instead of spending time on remaking poorly-adapted designs, time could be spent on other things, making the process more effective as well. The success of the project suggests that partnering could be a way forward in the road infrastructure industry. However, even more resource-efficient solutions could have been chosen if the project had a life-cycle perspective.

    Nyckelord
    Buyer-supplier collaboration, partnering, resource efficiency, road infrastructure, knowledge transfer, information transfer
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109979 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-08-29 Skapad: 2014-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-01-07Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Through-life Engineering Services / [ed] Louis, Rajkumar Roy, Springer, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Among construction companies in Sweden, incentives for development, increased efficiency and raised competence are low. In Sweden, construction contracts are currently used to a large extent, and have shortcomings concerning weak incentives for development of procedures. The over-detailed specifications cause major obstacles for the rail infrastructure industry in terms of technical development. There is clearly a need for change, and it is now in the strategy of the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to get as much railway as possible for the money it spends. This includes increased productivity, level of innovation and competition, as well as a will to think more from a life-cycle perspective and increase cost efficiency. Changes in the business model is one of the strategies mentioned to reach these goals.

    Performance contracting could increase the drivers for change within the industry and thereby increase cost efficiency and quality from a life cycle perspective. This type of contracting is also known as an Integrated Product Service Offering, or IPSO, and implies that one actor has the responsibility to deliver a result and therefore has incentives to optimize the use of energy and material. An IPSO has a lifecycle perspective, and the combination of products and services can be combined into an optimized solution for the customer, as well as give the manufacturing company the possibility to have control over the product throughout its whole life-cycle. PSS provides the supplier with the opportunity to increase the value of the solution for the customer by integrating components in new ways, as well as incentives for the supplier to realize a more economical and environmental development when considering the whole lifecycle. More money spent on the construction, and thereby improved quality, could result in reduced cost for maintenance work. On the other hand, too high a cost for construction can never be motivated by future savings for the maintenance cost.

    New business models such as IPSO contracts create challenges such as uncertainty concerning forecasting costs at the bidding phase of the contract. With a business model focusing on delivering a result, a lot of the risk previously carried by the user is now assumed by the provider, and it can be difficult rededicating and controlling the risks and uncertainties. In this case the term “risk” is defined as the threat of loss from an unwanted event, to include financial, performance or timescale loss. Risk assessments, including forecasting and economic development, are very important for these long-term contracts and both the supplier side and the buyer side have to be considered. For longterm performance contracts risks caused by uncertainties arise in the bidding stage. Key uncertainties for a IPSO contract are performance, operation, training, engineering, affordability and commercial uncertainties.

    In cooperation with the STA, the DORIS (Development of integrated product service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure Systems) project investigates the potential use of IPSO contracts for rail infrastructure. So far, only one such contract has been realized; this was partly funded by private capital, and no such initiatives are currently planned. This limited experience in the industry calls for more thorough research. In line with this, the aim of this paper is to identify potential risk components when using IPSO for rail infrastructure for both the provider and buyer perspectives. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate how these risks can be potentially reduced or avoided.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2014
    Serie
    Decision Engineering, ISSN 1619-5736 ; 2014
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73900 (URN)978-3-319-12110-9 (ISBN)
    Anmärkning

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tillgänglig från: 2012-01-16 Skapad: 2012-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-01-07Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 2.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure: Potential Benefits and Challenges2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of different materials are used when building and maintaining railway infrastructure, and the environmental impacts from the upstream production stages are significant. Industry’s motivation to innovate is low, new products or methods are rarely used, and the lowest price is the main driver for selecting a tender.

    Integrated Product Service Offerings, or IPSO, has been put forward in the research literature as a potential concept to, from a life-cycle perspective, reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. Therefore, this thesis attempts to answer to the aim: “Can the concept of Integrated Product Service Offerings improve the management of rail infrastructure and if so, what would such an implementation induce in terms of risk factors?” The Swedish rail infrastructure is used as a case to discuss the considerations and feasibility of such an implementation. Theories such as product development, information asymmetry and innovation are used to complement the literature focusing on IPSO. The empirical part of the thesis has been collected using individual interviews, group interviews and a survey approach.

    The contracts currently used in the railway industry have several advantages, such as being a familiar business model that is straightforward to calculate for the contractors. However, they are not optimal for innovation due to e.g. detailed specifications, standards and technological and market lock-in effects. Technological and market lock-in, in combination with a lack of information transfer between different contracts and actors, are major disadvantages with the current practice. Furthermore, the buyer’s conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts since it is difficult to break old habits. Even though the providers are part of the same mature market, the organizational changes needed for them to fulfill IPSO contracts are not seen as a barrier.

    A benefit with IPSO is the holistic life-cycle perspective that provides incentives for dematerialization, resulting in a more resource-efficient and durable infrastructure. IPSO requires improved information transfer, something which stimulates innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. Further benefits are potential incentives to get contractors involved in the design phase, where the major decisions about the life-cycle are made, in order to reduce the infrastructure's environmental impact and total life-cycle cost. The contractors hope that IPSO contracts will make the buyer focus less on e.g. the initial purchasing price and more on the total life-cycle cost in relation to quality in order to get the best solution.

    The actors see themselves as parties with opposing interests. At the same time, IPSO will most likely imply more long-term cooperation, something that calls for common interests, shared risks and flexibility. The innovation possibilities with IPSO could benefit from loosening up the material handling monopoly that the buyer currently holds. Since the buyer is a dominant actor within the industry, this organization has major possibilities to introduce changes that the other actors would have to conform to.

    Several challenges with IPSO are discussed, and most of them are derived from the risk and uncertainty aspects that come with long-term contracts and inexperience with a new business model. On one hand, the contractors request more flexibility; on the other hand, they are reluctant to take on more responsibility that could lead to increased risk. However, risk does not have to be seen as something completely negative, as it depends on how the contractors choose to deal with it. They can either develop the necessary skills and competence needed to identify and handle the risk in a strategic manner, foster a competitive advantage, or take the problems as they come in a more ad hoc way. A way to reduce risk and uncertainty seems to be to focus on transparency and information sharing between the actors and the contracts. This would also open up IPSO contracts for reinvestments, where the current lack of information concerning the condition of the facilities results in reluctance for IPSO contracts.

    This research has focused on IPSO for rail infrastructure management, using the Swedish rail infrastructure as a case to discuss the considerations and feasibility of such an implementation. The conclusions, therefore, are valid for rail infrastructure in other geographical locations as well.

    Delarbeten
    1. PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Functional Thinking for Value Creation. Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th-6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselback & Christoph Herrmann, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 291-296Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity development for rail and road infrastructure has been weak a long time; and explanation can be found in the traditional contracts used, with little room for incentives for innovation. This literature study investigates the use of the few realized PSS contracts within the rail and road infrastructure. The descriptions and the scientific reports are on a synoptic level and a majority of the reports are funded by the involved actors, showing that there is an interest for PSS contracts in the industry and indicating significant potential for further research in the area.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
    Nyckelord
    Rail infrastructure; Road Infrastructure; Literature review
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70261 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-19689-8_51 (DOI)978-3-642-19688-1 (ISBN)978-3-642-19689-8 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    The 3rd CIRP International Conference on IPS2 2011, May 5th-6th, Braunschweig, Germany
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-08-29 Skapad: 2011-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-09-03Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. PSS Contracts for Rail Infrastructure
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>PSS Contracts for Rail Infrastructure
    2011 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased costs and little incentives for technical development within the rail infrastructure industry has resulted in an increased interest for new contracting types such as PSS. This paper examines the current situation, investigates benefits and challenges when using PSS contracts and attempts to develop a model for traditional contracts and PSS contracts. The results show that advantages such as incentives for development and potentially lower costs are challenged by a conservative buyer in combination with reservations due to inexperience and insecurity working with this business model making the actors questioning the feasibility. The models developed clearly show the different phases of the contracts and states what actor that is responsible for the each phase. This is useful when comparing different contracts and also when to determine responsibility and issues related to the interface between different phases and actors.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70260 (URN)
    Konferens
    The R&D Management Conference 2011, June 28-30, Norrköping, Sweden
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-08-29 Skapad: 2011-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-01-16Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Theoretical Environmental Comparison of Integrated Product Service Offerings vs. Traditional Sales
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Theoretical Environmental Comparison of Integrated Product Service Offerings vs. Traditional Sales
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Systems Engineering / [ed] Boris Cogan, IN-TECH, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The book "Systems Engineering: Practice and Theory" is a collection of articles written by developers and researches from all around the globe. Mostly they present methodologies for separate Systems Engineering processes; others consider issues of adjacent knowledge areas and sub-areas that significantly contribute to systems development, operation, and maintenance. Case studies include aircraft, spacecrafts, and space systems development, post-analysis of data collected during operation of large systems etc. Important issues related to "bottlenecks" of Systems Engineering, such as complexity, reliability, and safety of different kinds of systems, creation, operation and maintenance of services, system-human communication, and management tasks done during system projects are addressed in the collection. This book is for people who are interested in the modern state of the Systems Engineering knowledge area and for systems engineers involved in different activities of the area. Some articles may be a valuable source for university lecturers and students; most of case studies can be directly used in Systems Engineering courses as illustrative materials.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IN-TECH, 2011
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73895 (URN)10.5772/2121 (DOI)979-953-307-410-7 (ISBN)
    Anmärkning

    Hittar inte linken???

    Tillgänglig från: 2012-01-16 Skapad: 2012-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-06-02Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Through-life Engineering Services / [ed] Louis, Rajkumar Roy, Springer, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Among construction companies in Sweden, incentives for development, increased efficiency and raised competence are low. In Sweden, construction contracts are currently used to a large extent, and have shortcomings concerning weak incentives for development of procedures. The over-detailed specifications cause major obstacles for the rail infrastructure industry in terms of technical development. There is clearly a need for change, and it is now in the strategy of the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to get as much railway as possible for the money it spends. This includes increased productivity, level of innovation and competition, as well as a will to think more from a life-cycle perspective and increase cost efficiency. Changes in the business model is one of the strategies mentioned to reach these goals.

    Performance contracting could increase the drivers for change within the industry and thereby increase cost efficiency and quality from a life cycle perspective. This type of contracting is also known as an Integrated Product Service Offering, or IPSO, and implies that one actor has the responsibility to deliver a result and therefore has incentives to optimize the use of energy and material. An IPSO has a lifecycle perspective, and the combination of products and services can be combined into an optimized solution for the customer, as well as give the manufacturing company the possibility to have control over the product throughout its whole life-cycle. PSS provides the supplier with the opportunity to increase the value of the solution for the customer by integrating components in new ways, as well as incentives for the supplier to realize a more economical and environmental development when considering the whole lifecycle. More money spent on the construction, and thereby improved quality, could result in reduced cost for maintenance work. On the other hand, too high a cost for construction can never be motivated by future savings for the maintenance cost.

    New business models such as IPSO contracts create challenges such as uncertainty concerning forecasting costs at the bidding phase of the contract. With a business model focusing on delivering a result, a lot of the risk previously carried by the user is now assumed by the provider, and it can be difficult rededicating and controlling the risks and uncertainties. In this case the term “risk” is defined as the threat of loss from an unwanted event, to include financial, performance or timescale loss. Risk assessments, including forecasting and economic development, are very important for these long-term contracts and both the supplier side and the buyer side have to be considered. For longterm performance contracts risks caused by uncertainties arise in the bidding stage. Key uncertainties for a IPSO contract are performance, operation, training, engineering, affordability and commercial uncertainties.

    In cooperation with the STA, the DORIS (Development of integrated product service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure Systems) project investigates the potential use of IPSO contracts for rail infrastructure. So far, only one such contract has been realized; this was partly funded by private capital, and no such initiatives are currently planned. This limited experience in the industry calls for more thorough research. In line with this, the aim of this paper is to identify potential risk components when using IPSO for rail infrastructure for both the provider and buyer perspectives. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate how these risks can be potentially reduced or avoided.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2014
    Serie
    Decision Engineering, ISSN 1619-5736 ; 2014
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73900 (URN)978-3-319-12110-9 (ISBN)
    Anmärkning

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tillgänglig från: 2012-01-16 Skapad: 2012-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-01-07Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 3.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Partnering – a Way to Reach Resource-Efficient and Effective Road Infrastructure Projects through Increased Information and Knowledge Transfer?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is behind other industries when it comes to efficiency, and partnering has been discussed as a way to increase the cooperation in and technical performance of projects. For partnering to be successful several different aspects have to be in place, among them information sharing and trust. The objective is therefore to investigate implications of partnering as a way to reach more resource-efficient and effective road infrastructure projects through increased information and knowledge transfer.

    The article investigates a road project realized using less time than estimated as well as achieving a lower total cost than budgeted. Partnering resulted in a close collaboration and increased trust among the actors, and the co-location of the actors led to the exchange of information and especially informal communication. Information was easily accessed and transferred between the actors, and the cooperation facilitated knowledge transfer between the different functions. This cut the lead times on information transfer and decision making, especially in the integrated construction and design phase, making the project more efficient. Also, solutions adapted for the site were chosen thanks to the active design approach. Instead of spending time on remaking poorly-adapted designs, time could be spent on other things, making the process more effective as well. The success of the project suggests that partnering could be a way forward in the road infrastructure industry. However, even more resource-efficient solutions could have been chosen if the project had a life-cycle perspective.

  • 4.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    PSS Contracts for Rail Infrastructure2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased costs and little incentives for technical development within the rail infrastructure industry has resulted in an increased interest for new contracting types such as PSS. This paper examines the current situation, investigates benefits and challenges when using PSS contracts and attempts to develop a model for traditional contracts and PSS contracts. The results show that advantages such as incentives for development and potentially lower costs are challenged by a conservative buyer in combination with reservations due to inexperience and insecurity working with this business model making the actors questioning the feasibility. The models developed clearly show the different phases of the contracts and states what actor that is responsible for the each phase. This is useful when comparing different contracts and also when to determine responsibility and issues related to the interface between different phases and actors.

  • 5.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    PSS for rail and road infrastructure: a literature study2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity development for rail and road infrastructure has been weak for a longer period of time and some explanation can be found in the traditional contracts used with little room for incentives for innovation and development for the contractor. In cooperation with the Swedish Transport Administration a project was launched to investigate the possibility for Product Service System, PSS contracts within the rail infrastructure in Sweden to develop the current praxis. The first step in this study is to investigate benefits and challenges with PSS contracts using a literature study.

    The ongoing PSS projects show positive outcomes so far, even though it is too early to evaluate the whole process. The most significant benefits with PSS contracts for rail infrastructure are development of technologies, increased efficiency and cost reductions, potentially new innovations, a life cycle perspective providing incentives for environmental consideration and closer relationships between procurer and contractor. It is not straight forward to change to this new way of contracting and to obtain the benefits several challenges have to be overcome such as changes in the work processes, risk allocation and to find a suitable the price mechanism.

  • 6.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure2014Ingår i: Through-life Engineering Services / [ed] Louis, Rajkumar Roy, Springer, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Among construction companies in Sweden, incentives for development, increased efficiency and raised competence are low. In Sweden, construction contracts are currently used to a large extent, and have shortcomings concerning weak incentives for development of procedures. The over-detailed specifications cause major obstacles for the rail infrastructure industry in terms of technical development. There is clearly a need for change, and it is now in the strategy of the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to get as much railway as possible for the money it spends. This includes increased productivity, level of innovation and competition, as well as a will to think more from a life-cycle perspective and increase cost efficiency. Changes in the business model is one of the strategies mentioned to reach these goals.

    Performance contracting could increase the drivers for change within the industry and thereby increase cost efficiency and quality from a life cycle perspective. This type of contracting is also known as an Integrated Product Service Offering, or IPSO, and implies that one actor has the responsibility to deliver a result and therefore has incentives to optimize the use of energy and material. An IPSO has a lifecycle perspective, and the combination of products and services can be combined into an optimized solution for the customer, as well as give the manufacturing company the possibility to have control over the product throughout its whole life-cycle. PSS provides the supplier with the opportunity to increase the value of the solution for the customer by integrating components in new ways, as well as incentives for the supplier to realize a more economical and environmental development when considering the whole lifecycle. More money spent on the construction, and thereby improved quality, could result in reduced cost for maintenance work. On the other hand, too high a cost for construction can never be motivated by future savings for the maintenance cost.

    New business models such as IPSO contracts create challenges such as uncertainty concerning forecasting costs at the bidding phase of the contract. With a business model focusing on delivering a result, a lot of the risk previously carried by the user is now assumed by the provider, and it can be difficult rededicating and controlling the risks and uncertainties. In this case the term “risk” is defined as the threat of loss from an unwanted event, to include financial, performance or timescale loss. Risk assessments, including forecasting and economic development, are very important for these long-term contracts and both the supplier side and the buyer side have to be considered. For longterm performance contracts risks caused by uncertainties arise in the bidding stage. Key uncertainties for a IPSO contract are performance, operation, training, engineering, affordability and commercial uncertainties.

    In cooperation with the STA, the DORIS (Development of integrated product service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure Systems) project investigates the potential use of IPSO contracts for rail infrastructure. So far, only one such contract has been realized; this was partly funded by private capital, and no such initiatives are currently planned. This limited experience in the industry calls for more thorough research. In line with this, the aim of this paper is to identify potential risk components when using IPSO for rail infrastructure for both the provider and buyer perspectives. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate how these risks can be potentially reduced or avoided.

  • 7.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure - Benefits and challenges regarding resource efficiency and knowledge transfer2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of material are used for rail infrastructure causing significant environmental impact. At the same time the industry’s motivation to innovate is low and the lowest price is the main driver for selecting a tender. The concept of Integrated Product Service Offerings (IPSO), have in several business areas proven to be a mean with potential to reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. The business model is based on a life cycle approach and focuses on the function and not the product of an offering.  

    The objective of this paper is therefore to investigate the potential benefits and challenges regarding resource efficiency and knowledge transfer from the provider and buyer perspectives when using IPSO for rail infrastructure. In order to this, theories such as resource efficiency, product development, knowledge transfer, networks and literatures focusing on IPSO are used to discuss the empirical findings. The empirical part has been collected using individual interviews and a focus group approach.

    Among the main findings is that fact that the lack of information transfer and knowledge integration is a barrier for innovation and the buyer’s conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts. Since IPSO contracts require improved information transfer they could potentially stimulate innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. IPSO contracts provides a holistic life-cycle perspective and incentives for dematerialization, resulting in a more resource-efficient and durable infrastructure. By involving the contractors already in the design phase their knowledge could be used in a better way, creating a feedback loop from practice to design. The contractors hope that by introducing IPSO contracts the buyer would focus less on the initial purchasing price and more on the total life-cycle cost in relation to quality in order to get the best solution.

    Several challenges with IPSO are discussed, and most of them are derived from the risk and uncertainty aspects that come with long-term contracts and inexperience with a new business model. New competences in risk management and other types of calculation methods are needed but most of all a change in mindset. Some of these uncertainties also are connected to the inadequate documentation hindering IPSO contract working for anything but new investments.

  • 8.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated Product Service Offerings for rail infrastructure: benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change in a Swedish case2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 166-174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate potential benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change from the provider and buyer perspectives when using IPSOs for Swedish rail infrastructure. Considering material use and the importance of availability of the tracks makes rail infrastructure an interesting candidate for a business model based on a life-cycle approach, which can result in a reduction in cost and environmental impact.

    The concept of the Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) has in several business areas proven to be a means with potential to reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. The business model, which is based on a life-cycle approach, focuses on the function instead of the initial price of the product.

    Among the main findings are the lack of information and knowledge transfer that act as a barrier for innovation, and that the buyer's conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts. Since IPSO contracts require improved information transfer, they could potentially stimulate innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. By involving the contractors in the design phase their knowledge could be used in a better way, creating a feedback loop from practice to design.

    The empirical part, focusing on the rail infrastructure industry in Sweden, has been collected using individual interviews and a group interview approach.

  • 9.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Pontarius AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Partnering as a Stepping Stone in the Transition to PSS for the Construction Industry2015Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, s. 347-352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to explain and analyze how the construction industry can benefit from PSS, and how collaborative approaches such as partnering can be a stepping stone in this transition. The potential sub-optimization between construction and maintenance, as well as the necessity of availability in roads for example, make Product Service Systems a suitable approach for improvement. Adapted solutions though the iterative design approach, co-located actors, an active buyer and functioning information flows resulted in a successful project. Interviews conducted with the buyer, the contractor and the design consultant, as well as project documentation, were used to collect data.

  • 10.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Organizational changes in connection with IPSO2010Ingår i: Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²): Proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Tobias Larsson, Mattias Lindahl, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, s. 461-466Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated product service offerings (IPSO) have the potential of obtaining better margins, profitability andless environmental impact. Becoming a service provider implies significant changes in the way companiesdo business, considerable changes within the organization and changes with the relationships to externalactors. This paper aims to contribute to the research concerning these changes when companies start toprovide IPSOs.Changes within the organizations have been necessary for all the companies studied and especially thesales staff since trust, transparency and long-term relationships with the customer is crucial. Support fromthe top management is also of importance as well as working in cross-functional teams. Changes are alsoneeded in the service organization and amongst the retailers. Apart from the change in the providercustomerrelationships little has been done in including other external actors, but the companies seepotential in doing so in the future to expand and develop their IPSOs.

  • 11.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Funktionsupphandling av järnvägsinfrastruktur2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid byggnation och underhåll av infrastruktur för järnväg används stora mängder av olika material, vilket medför stor miljöpåverkan från de tidiga produktionsstegen, till exempel råvaruutvinning. Hittills har Trafikverket inte haft något uttalad livscykeltänkande i sitt arbete med upphandlingar. Trafikverket behöver arbeta med miljöledning av nya produkter och välja de mest resurssnåla produkterna i ett livscykelperspektiv. En bättre planerad och förebyggande verksamhet för drift och underhåll skulle möjliggöra förlängd livslängd för järnvägsprodukter.

    Integrerade produkt‐ och tjänsteerbjudanden (till exempel funktions‐ eller resultatorienterade kontrakt) är en affärsmodell som används av allt fler företag. Affärsmodelltypen benämns ofta även som funktionsförsäljning och kan beskrivas som ett livscykelkontrakt med funktionsåtagande. Tidigare forskning har visat att denna typ av affärsmodell, ofta ökar drivkrafterna för förändring och därmed ökad kosteffektivitet och kvalitet ur ett livscykelperspektiv.

    Det övergripande syftet med det här projektet är att;

    ta fram metoder, som stödjer Trafikverket, att utveckla sina sätt att utformaupphandlingsspecifikationer.

    Mer specifikt så har det undersöks om integrerade produkt‐ och tjänsteerbjudande kan förbättra förvaltningen av järnvägsinfrastruktur, och vad skulle i sådant fall en implementering innebära för riskfaktorer samt hur kan kontrakten utvärderas ekonomiskt‐ och miljömässigt?

  • 12.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    PSS Contracts for Rail and Road Infrastructure2011Ingår i: Functional Thinking for Value Creation. Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th-6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselback & Christoph Herrmann, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 291-296Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity development for rail and road infrastructure has been weak a long time; and explanation can be found in the traditional contracts used, with little room for incentives for innovation. This literature study investigates the use of the few realized PSS contracts within the rail and road infrastructure. The descriptions and the scientific reports are on a synoptic level and a majority of the reports are funded by the involved actors, showing that there is an interest for PSS contracts in the industry and indicating significant potential for further research in the area.

  • 13.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Pontarius AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Syberg, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Pontarius AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Life-cycle Cost Strategies for Harbors – A Case Study2015Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, s. 317-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses maintenance strategies for large technical systems with long life-cycles and critical availability needs. The use of sea freight is rapidly increasing, and thereby the use of container harbors as well. The case of Gothenburg harbor in Sweden is used to discuss appropriate construction and maintenance strategies focusing on availability. Investment costs, operational costs and societal costs are discussed along with environmental impact considerations. Different aspects and considerations affecting costs are also discussed, such as pay-back time and external uncertainties. The paper is based on an extensive literature review as well as interviews with harbor personnel.

  • 14.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated Product Service Engineering - Factors Influencing Environmental Performance2012Ingår i: Systems Engineering: Practice and Theory / [ed] Boris Cogan, InTech , 2012, s. 147-164Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter endeavours to lead the scientific discussion regarding which IPSE factors are expected to, in theory, lower the environmental impact of a life cycle compared to a traditional product sales business. To do so, the IPSE concept is introduced, first with an emphasis on engineering processes rather than an object such as PSS. In the following sections, four aspects from theory will be discussed: product development, information asymmetry, economies of scale, and risk. These sections discuss how environmental impacts are influenced from a product life cycle perspective, and highlight crucial factors theoretically. They are followed by an overall discussion and an examination of some promising future work. The chapter provides the research community with a first theoretical cornerstone regarding environmental performance by IPSE. To practitioners, it will be an eye opener for how they engineer.

  • 15.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrated product service engineering: factors influencing environmental performance2011Ingår i: Design for Innovative Value Towards a Sustainable Society: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2011: 7th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing / [ed] M. Matsumoto, Y. Umeda, K. Masui, and S. Fukushige, Springer Netherlands, 2011, s. 386-391Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to lead theoretical discussion regarding which IPSE (Integrated Product Service System) factors are expected to increase environmental performance of a life cycle compared to a traditional product sales business. Existing theories such as theory of product development, transaction cost theory and theory for risk management are used and the paper theoretically analyzes and identifies the following crucial characteristics; complexity of the product, uncertainty of offering, control of product operation, asymmetric information and scale of economy.

  • 16.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Theoretical Environmental Comparison of Integrated Product Service Offerings vs. Traditional Sales2011Ingår i: Systems Engineering / [ed] Boris Cogan, IN-TECH, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The book "Systems Engineering: Practice and Theory" is a collection of articles written by developers and researches from all around the globe. Mostly they present methodologies for separate Systems Engineering processes; others consider issues of adjacent knowledge areas and sub-areas that significantly contribute to systems development, operation, and maintenance. Case studies include aircraft, spacecrafts, and space systems development, post-analysis of data collected during operation of large systems etc. Important issues related to "bottlenecks" of Systems Engineering, such as complexity, reliability, and safety of different kinds of systems, creation, operation and maintenance of services, system-human communication, and management tasks done during system projects are addressed in the collection. This book is for people who are interested in the modern state of the Systems Engineering knowledge area and for systems engineers involved in different activities of the area. Some articles may be a valuable source for university lecturers and students; most of case studies can be directly used in Systems Engineering courses as illustrative materials.

  • 17.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Scenarios for Resource Efficient Rail Infrastructure: Applying Integrated Product Service Offerings2014Ingår i: PRODUCT SERVICES SYSTEMS AND VALUE CREATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 16, s. 13-139Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rail infrastructure in Sweden, with its long lifetime, large amounts of materials used and traditional procurement, has escalating maintenance costs. What would occur if the infrastructure is instead procured as an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO)? This paper discusses scenarios for increased resource efficiency and more value for the money spent by applying an IPSO perspective to rail infrastructure. The best option depends on the conditions at the construction site as well as how much the availability of the tracks is valued.

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