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  • 1.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    With district heating toward a sustainable future: System studies of district heating and cooling that interact with power, transport and industrial sectors2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to identify measures which should be taken in DH systems (DHSs) in order to contribute to the development of the DHSs and other energy systems (especially transport, industrial and power sectors) toward sustainability.

    Four business strategies were analysed: delivering excess heat from biofuel production industry to DHSs, conversion of industrial processes to DH, integration of biofuel production in DHSs and integration of DHdriven absorption cooling technology in DHSs. Delivering excess heat from biofuel production industry to DHSs was analysed with a focus on the biofuel production costs for four biofuel production technologies. Integration of biofuel production and integration of DH-driven absorption cooling technology in DHSs were analysed with a focus on Stockholm’s DHS, using an optimisation model framework called MODEST. When the conversion of industrial processes to DH was analysed, DHSs and industrial companies in Västra Götaland, Östergötland and Jönköping counties were used as case studies; a method for heat load analysis called MeHLA was used to analyse the effects on the local DHSs.

    The results showed that when considering biomass an unlimited resource, by applying the abovementioned business strategies DH has a potential to reduce global fossil fuel consumption and global GHG emissions associated with power, industrial and transport sectors.

    DH producers may contribute to the sustainable development of the  transport sector by buying excess heat from the biofuel production industry. This business strategy results in lower biofuel production costs, which promotes development of biofuel production technologies that are not yet commercial. Moreover, introduction of large-scale biofuel production into local DHSs enables development of local biofuel supply chains; this may facilitate the introduction of biofuel in the local transport sectors and subsequently decrease gasoline and fossil diesel use. Conversion of industrial processes from fossil fuels and electricity to DH is a business strategy which would make the industry less dependent on fossil fuels and fossil fuelbased electricity. DH may also contribute to the sustainable development of the industry by buying waste heat from industrial processes, since this strategy increases the total energy efficiency of the industrial processes and reduces production costs. Furthermore, DH has a possibility to reduce fossil fuel consumption and subsequently GHG emissions in the power sector by producing electricity in biomass- or waste-fuelled CHP plants.

    When the marginal electricity is associated with high GHG emissions (e.g. when it is produced in coal-fired condensing power (CCP)) plants, the reduction of the marginal electricity production (due to the conversion of industrial processes from electricity to DH and due to the conversion of compression cooling to DHdriven absorption cooling) results in higher environmental benefits. On the other hand, the introduction of biofuel production into DHSs becomes less attractive from an environmental viewpoint, because the investments in biofuel production instead of in CHP production lead to lower electricity production in the DHSs. The increased DH use in industry and introduction of the biofuel production and DH-driven absorption cooling production into the DHSs lead to increased biomass use in the DHSs. Because of this, if biomass is considered a limited resource, the environmental benefits of applying these business strategies are lower or non-existent.

    Delarbeid
    1. District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 91, nr 1, s. 214-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol can be produced with little impact on the environment through the use of polygeneration technology. This paper evaluates the potential of integrating a lignocellulosic ethanol plant into a district heating system by case study; the plant has an ethanol capacity of 95 MW with biogas. electricity and heat as by-products. Stockholms district heating system is used as the case study, but the results may be relevant also for other urban areas. The system has been studied using MODEST - an optimisation model framework. The results show that introducing the plant would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of heat production. The income from the biofuels and electricity produced would be about (sic)76 million and (sic)130 million annually, respectively, which is an increase of 70% compared to the income from the electricity produced in the system today. Assuming that the electricity produced will replace marginal electricity on the European electricity market and that the biofuel produced will replace gasoline in the transport sector, the introduction of the polygeneration plant in the district heating system would lead to a reduction of global CO(2) emissions of about 0.7 million tonnes annually.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2012
    Emneord
    District heating, Polygeneration, Biofuel, Case study
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74144 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.09.030 (DOI)000298338200026 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency||

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-20 Laget: 2012-01-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-08
    2. Introducing of absorption cooling process in CHP systems: an opportunity for reduction of global CO2 emissions
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Introducing of absorption cooling process in CHP systems: an opportunity for reduction of global CO2 emissions
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of ECOS 2011 - 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 2011, s. 3105-3116Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research study is to examine the potential for reduction of global CO2 emissions (GECO2) by converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in Stockholm’s district cooling (DC) system and in Stockholm’s industrial sector. The analysis of the cooling production is made through optimizations in MODEST, a model framework developed for analysis of dynamic energy systems. The results show that more than 95% of the cooling demand that is currently met by compression chillers during the months from April to October should be produced by district heat (DH)-driven absorption cooling chillers in order to lower GECO2. As a consequence of this conversion, the utilization time of the combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Stockholm’s district heating (DH) system would be prolonged and at the same time the electricity used for compression cooling production would be reduced. Assuming coal condensing production as the marginal electricity production in the common electricity market and considering both the increase in electricity production and the reduction in electricity used, the potential for the reduction of GECO2 would be about 0.15 million tonnes annually. Rising cooling demand would make the introduction of absorption technology in the system even more interesting. If the comfort cooling demand in the region increases by 30%, electricity production in the system during the summer would be about 70% higher, which would lead to a reduction of GECO2 by 0.2 million tonnes annually compared with GECO2 today.

    Emneord
    Absorption cooling, Carbon dioxide, CHP
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106892 (URN)
    Konferanse
    ECOS 2011 - 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 4-7 July, Novi Sad, Serbia
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-05-23 Laget: 2014-05-23 Sist oppdatert: 2014-05-23bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, s. 552-561Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    Emneord
    District heating; Biofuel; Energy cooperation; Transport sector; Greenhouse gas emissions
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103643 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.08.029 (DOI)000329595700051 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-01-21 Laget: 2014-01-21 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, s. 176-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well.

    In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced.

    Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

    The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    Emneord
    Biofuel production, Polygeneration, Energy cooperation, District heating
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106895 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.035 (DOI)000335102900020 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency||

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-05-23 Laget: 2014-05-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, s. 188-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied.

    Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer–Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    Emneord
    District heating; Biofuel; Energy cooperation; Transport sector
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106897 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.042 (DOI)000335102900021 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-05-23 Laget: 2014-05-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 87, s. 305-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse the possibilities of converting production and support processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 manufacturing companies in three different Swedish counties. A tool for heat load analysis called Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) is used to explore how the conversions would affect the heat load duration curves in local district heating systems. Economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases are studied from a system perspective. The study has been conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030.

    The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. When comparing all three counties, the greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase by nine times (from 5 GWh to 45 GWh annually). The industrial district heating use could increase by two times (from 84 GWh to 168 GWh annually) in Östergötland and by four times (from 14 GWh to 58 GWh annually) in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to a district heating demand curve which is less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the combined heat and power plants would be prolonged, which would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production.

    In all analysed counties, the energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. The potential for the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass and on the type of the marginal electricity producers. When the marginal effects from biomass use are not considered, the greenhouse gas emissions reduction is between 10 thousand tonnes of CO2eq and 58 thousand tonnes of CO2eq per year, depending on the county and the type of marginal electricity production plants. The highest reduction is achieved in Östergötland. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating systems may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. If this assumption is included in the calculations, the conversion of the industrial processes to district heating still signify a  potential for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but this potential is considerable lower.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    Emneord
    District heating; Energy cooperation; Industry sector
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106898 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.07.025 (DOI)000343337200032 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-05-23 Laget: 2014-05-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 2.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm2012Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 91, nr 1, s. 214-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol can be produced with little impact on the environment through the use of polygeneration technology. This paper evaluates the potential of integrating a lignocellulosic ethanol plant into a district heating system by case study; the plant has an ethanol capacity of 95 MW with biogas. electricity and heat as by-products. Stockholms district heating system is used as the case study, but the results may be relevant also for other urban areas. The system has been studied using MODEST - an optimisation model framework. The results show that introducing the plant would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of heat production. The income from the biofuels and electricity produced would be about (sic)76 million and (sic)130 million annually, respectively, which is an increase of 70% compared to the income from the electricity produced in the system today. Assuming that the electricity produced will replace marginal electricity on the European electricity market and that the biofuel produced will replace gasoline in the transport sector, the introduction of the polygeneration plant in the district heating system would lead to a reduction of global CO(2) emissions of about 0.7 million tonnes annually.

  • 3.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, s. 176-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well.

    In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced.

    Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

    The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%.

  • 4.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, s. 188-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied.

    Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer–Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

  • 5.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, s. 552-561Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass.

  • 6.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stockholms fjärrvärmenät idag och imorgon: en tvärvetenskaplig studie av ett regionalt energisystem2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fjärrvärme spelar en viktig roll i strävan mot ett hållbart samhälle. Därför har vi i denna studie studerat Stockholms fjärrvärmenät och de aktörer som påverkar dess utformning. Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka drivkrafter och hinder för att utveckla fjärrvärmenäten i Stockholm. Vidare har syftet varit att studera hur aktörerna samverkar på kommunal och regional nivå för att bibehålla och/ eller vidareutveckla energisamarbeten.

    Fjärrvärmenätet har modellerats utifrån sex olika scenarier i optimeringsprogrammet MODEST. Genom scenarierna har vi kunnat testa dagens nät med bättre sammankopplingar, byggande av kraftvärmeverk samt naturgas som bränsle i kraftvärmeverken. Vidare har kvalitativa intervjuer med kommuner, energibolag, intresse- och branschorganisationer samt regionala aktörer genomförts.

    Studien visar att Stockholms fjärrvärmenät redan idag är väl sammankopplat vilket innebär att de ekonomiska vinsterna med ytterligare sammankopplingar inte är särskilt stora. Modelleringarna pekar dock på att byggande av kraftvärme, både med biobränsle och med naturgas, har en viss ekonomisk potential. En positiv effekt är också minskningen av de globala utsläppen av växthusgaser. Vinster med samarbeten och sammankopplingar från energibolagens sida är framförallt ökad driftsäkerhet och driftsoptimering samt möjligheten att samordna revisioner. För att samarbeten ska fungera är dock ekonomisk vinst för samtliga parter samt jämlika förhållanden dem emellan en förutsättning. Det är inte tekniska problem som hindrar utökade sammankopplingar, snarare är det ökat behov av planering och administration som försvårar utökat samarbete mellan bolag.

    Genom resultatet från intervjuerna kan slutsatsen dras att ett glapp finns i synen på samverkan mellan bolag och kommuner. Detta oavsett om bolagen är kommunalt eller privat ägda. Att energibolagen ska drivas på bolagsmässiga grunder kan vara en förklaring till detta. Energiplanering från kommunernas perspektiv har kommit att handla om klimatfrågan i hög utsträckning och ses ofta som synonymt med miljöarbete. Energiplaneringen har därmed fått högre status och flyttats närmre kommunledning. Samtidigt sker energiplanering på många olika nivåer, inom och mellan kommunerna samt på regional nivå, vilket gör det svårt att få ett samlat grepp om frågan. Också bolagen har olika syn på det regionala perspektivet vilket pekar på att det saknas ett fungerande regionalt organ där bolag och kommuner kan samverka.

    Även om både energibolagen och kommunerna är positivt inställda till fjärrvärme som teknik ser framtiden för fjärrvärmebranschen något osäker ut. Minskade värmelaster på grund av energieffektiviseringar och klimatförändringar bidrar till osäkerheten. Samtidigt väntar en utredning om tredjepartstillträde som potentiellt kan innebära stora förändringar för branschen. Genom att alla bygger kraftvärme kan det vara ett sätt att ändra marknadsinriktning från värme till el för att ge ökad lönsamhet. Det går inte heller att bortse från att Stockholmsregionen har goda förutsättningar för att införa ett tredjepartstillträde där kunderna själva kan välja fjärrvärmeleverantör.

  • 7.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating2014Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 87, s. 305-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse the possibilities of converting production and support processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 manufacturing companies in three different Swedish counties. A tool for heat load analysis called Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) is used to explore how the conversions would affect the heat load duration curves in local district heating systems. Economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases are studied from a system perspective. The study has been conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030.

    The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. When comparing all three counties, the greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase by nine times (from 5 GWh to 45 GWh annually). The industrial district heating use could increase by two times (from 84 GWh to 168 GWh annually) in Östergötland and by four times (from 14 GWh to 58 GWh annually) in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to a district heating demand curve which is less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the combined heat and power plants would be prolonged, which would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production.

    In all analysed counties, the energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. The potential for the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass and on the type of the marginal electricity producers. When the marginal effects from biomass use are not considered, the greenhouse gas emissions reduction is between 10 thousand tonnes of CO2eq and 58 thousand tonnes of CO2eq per year, depending on the county and the type of marginal electricity production plants. The highest reduction is achieved in Östergötland. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating systems may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. If this assumption is included in the calculations, the conversion of the industrial processes to district heating still signify a  potential for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but this potential is considerable lower.

  • 8.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Introducing of absorption cooling process in CHP systems: an opportunity for reduction of global CO2 emissions2011Inngår i: Proceedings of ECOS 2011 - 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 2011, s. 3105-3116Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research study is to examine the potential for reduction of global CO2 emissions (GECO2) by converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in Stockholm’s district cooling (DC) system and in Stockholm’s industrial sector. The analysis of the cooling production is made through optimizations in MODEST, a model framework developed for analysis of dynamic energy systems. The results show that more than 95% of the cooling demand that is currently met by compression chillers during the months from April to October should be produced by district heat (DH)-driven absorption cooling chillers in order to lower GECO2. As a consequence of this conversion, the utilization time of the combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Stockholm’s district heating (DH) system would be prolonged and at the same time the electricity used for compression cooling production would be reduced. Assuming coal condensing production as the marginal electricity production in the common electricity market and considering both the increase in electricity production and the reduction in electricity used, the potential for the reduction of GECO2 would be about 0.15 million tonnes annually. Rising cooling demand would make the introduction of absorption technology in the system even more interesting. If the comfort cooling demand in the region increases by 30%, electricity production in the system during the summer would be about 70% higher, which would lead to a reduction of GECO2 by 0.2 million tonnes annually compared with GECO2 today.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Review of sustainable development of the road transport sector: Are there geographical differences?2018Inngår i: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy 4 (2018) 67-87, WEENTECH Ltd. , 2018, Vol. 4, s. 67-87Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the share of renewable energy in the transport sector has increased during the last decade, the sector is still highly dependent on fossil fuels. Consequences are for example emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. This is of great concern for the environment, climate change, and human health. This study reviews scientific publications about sustainable development of the road transport sector, published 2005-2018. The aim of the study is to investigate if there are differences in the measures and strategies presented in the publications depending on the geographical areas studied, and to analyse if there are differences depending on year of publication. The authors analysed to what extent local conditions influence the choice of proposed measures and strategies. A system perspective was applied in order to include measures related to the whole life cycle of the road transport, as well as other sectors, which influence or are influenced by the transport sector. A literature review was performed using the search-engine Web of Science. Results show that important local conditions that may influence the research focus within the area of sustainable development of the road transport sector are for example: energy supply security (e.g. availability of biomass and renewable electricity, as well as access to domestic fossil fuel resources), possibilities for developing infrastructure for biofuel supply and charging of electric vehicles, political priorities and approaches, and traditions.

  • 10.
    Magnusson, Dick
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Modelling District Heating Cooperations in Stockholm: An Interdisciplinary Study of a Regional Energy System2010Inngår i: 12th International Symposium on District Heatingand Cooling, 2010, s. 288-296Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a combination of methods from social science (interviews) and technical science (modelling) have been used to analyse the potential for cooperation in the present and future district heating system in Stockholm. The aim of the paper is to explore barriers and driving forces for energy cooperation in the Stockholm district heating system and to analyse the potential for combined heat and power generation in the system. In the study it was found that with better connectivity in existing systems, the annual system cost would decrease by approximately 10 million €, and with new CHP plants a similar potential exists. There is also a large potential for decreasing the local and global emissions of CO2 with CHP plants. The results from the interviews showed that the existing cooperation has a long history and is working well today. The advantages are higher supply security and economic benefits, while disadvantages are a need for more administration and control because of a more complex system. That the barriers to cooperation are seldom technical is another conclusion. With the combination of methods, we have gained a better understanding of the actual potential for the development of the system.

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